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CELTIC    REMAINS. 

LEWIS  lOEEIS. 


9rinMi  for  tilt  Cattdtian  9t^tul(i0ical  9mociat(on. 


LONDON : 
J.   PARKEE,  377,   STRAND. 

KDrrcutlTIII. 


C\>vJ    tf'^.^l.'f 


--M'd-^ 


NOV  12 1884 


/ 


y 


LOVBOV : 
t.   SICHABDl,  37,  GBXAX  ({UKKN  8TBXZT,  W.C. 


PREFACE. 


After  the  lapse  of  upwards  of  a  century  after  his 
death,  the  principal  literary  labour  which  occupied  the 
greater  part  of  the  lifetime  of  Lewis  Morris  is  now  for 
the  first  time  made  public.  With  the  exception  of  a 
few  pages,  by  way  of  specimen,  appended  to  a  short 
account  of  the  work  and  its  author,  which  appeared  in 
ike  ArchcBologia  Cambrensis  for  1872,  no  portion  of  the 
Celtic  Remains  is  known  to  have  been  printed,  though 
not  unfrequently  referred  to,  and  often  eulogised,  by 
some  of  our  antiquarian  writers  of  a  past  generation. 

The  MS.  from  which  the  edition  is  taken  (which  may 
be  called  the  Penmaen  MS.)  is  not  an  autograph,  but  a 
copy,  which  is  stated  to  have  been  "transcribed  from 
the  original  MSS.  by  me  Richard  Morris,  son  of  the 
author's  Brother,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1778'',  and 
which  bears  the  following  lengt,hy  title  : 

"Celtic  Remains  ;  or  the  Ancient  Celtic  Empire  de- 
scribed in  the  English  Tongue.  Being  a  Biographical, 
Critical,  Historical,  Etymological,  Chronological,  and 
Geographical  Collection  of  Celtic  Materials  towards  a 
British  History  of  Ancient  Times.    In  two  Parts.    The 


4  PREFACE. 

First  containing  the  Antient  British  and  Gaulish  Names 
of  Men,  Places,  Actions,  &c.,  in  an  Alphabetical  Order ; 
wherein  not  only  the  true  and  real  Celtic  Names  are  dis- 
cussed in  the  ancient  and  modem  Orthography,  but  also 
the  Mistakes  and  Errors,  whether  Wilfull  or  Accidental, 
of  the  several  Writers  who  have  treated  of  the  Ancient 
Affairs  of  Britain  in  any  language,  are  explained  and 
rectified.  The  Second  Part  containing  the  Latinized 
Celtic  Names  of  Men  and  Places  used  by  Latin  Writers 
who  have  modelled  and  twisted  them  to  their  own  lan- 
guage ;  with  an  Attempt  to  shew  what  they  were  in 
the  Original  Celtic  by  comparing  them  with  Ancient 
History  and  the  Languages  of  the  several  Branches  of 
that  people,  vizt.,  the  British  or  Welsh,  the  Irish,  the 
Armoric,  the  Cornish,  and  Manx.  1757.  By  Lewis 
MoKRis,  a  Cambro-Briton.     The  Labor  of  40  Years.'' 

Lewis  Morris  (according  to  his   own  account,  s.v. 
Bardd)  was  bom  in  1701,  O.S.  ;^  and  his  death,  aa  is 

According  to  the  entry  in  the  Register  of  his  native  parish, 
Llanfihangel  Tre'r  Beirdd,  Anglesey,  *'  Lewis,  the  son  of  Morris  ap 
Bichard,  Cooper,  and  Margaret  his  wife",  was  baptised  March  2, 1700, 
while  most  of  onr  biographical  dictionaries  give  1702  as  the  date  of 
his  birth.  According  to  the  same  Register,  the  baptism  of  Richard 
Morris,  generally,  but  erroneously,  regarded  as  an  elder  brother  of 
Lewis,  occurred  on  Oct.  7,  1702 ;  while  William,  the  youngest  of 
the  three,  is  therein  stated  to  have  been  baptised  on  the  6th  of  May, 
]  705.  In  the  latter  entries  the  father's  name  is  g^ven  as  Morris 
Prichard.  The  same  Register  records  also  the  burial  of  a  *'  Lewis 
Morris,  Husbandman",  on  the  9th  of  June,  1706,  and  a  slab  to  his 
memory  is  preserved  in  the  parish  church.  No  place  of  abode  is,  in 
any  of  these  cases,  given  in  the  Register ;  but  there  can  be  no  doubt 
as  to  the  family  intended. 


PREFACE.  5 

well  known,  occurred  in  1765.  If  then,  as  here  stated, 
the  compilation  was  completed  in  1757,  and  forty  years 
were  spent  upon  it,  he  must  have  commenced  collect- 
ing his  materials  while  he  was  only  a  youth  of  sixteen. 

The  second  part  referred  to  in  the  title,  the  Editor 
has  never  had  an  opportunity  of  consulting ;  but  the 
original  MS.  is  said  to  be  preserved  in  the  Cymmrod- 
orion  collection  in  the  British  Museum ;  and  in  the 
same  depository  will  be  found  the  Introductiony  which 
does  not  occur  in  the  Penmaen  MS.,  and  which  is  here 
printed  from  a  copy  obligingly  lent  for  the  purpose 
by  the  Rev.  Robert  Jones,  Vicar  of  All  Saints,  Rother- 
hithe. 

The  Bephew's  transcript,  which  is  carefuUy  and  legibly 
written,  was  apparently  made  for  the  patriotic  Owen 
Jones  {Owain  Myfyr)^  from  whom  it  passed,  by  pur- 
chase, to  the  late  Rev.  Walter  Davies  (GwaUterMecfiain), 
who  at  one  time  intended  to  publish  it  with  large  addi- 
tions and  corrections.  This  intention,  however,  was 
never  realised ;  but  the  MS.  has  here  and  there  some 
notes  by  him,  as  well  as  a  few  by  his  contemporary, 
lolo  Morganwg,  through  whose  hands  it  appears  to 
have  passed.  Coming  from  such  men,  these  notes,  few 
and  brief  as  they  are,  it  was  thought  desirable  £o  re- 
tain; and  to  distinguish  them  from  the  original  matter 
they  are  inserted  between  square  brackets,  with  the 
initials  of  their  respective  writers  ( W.  D.,1.  M.)  attached 
to  them.  In  a  very  few  instances  the  Editor  supplied  in 
a  similar  way  an  occasional  blank  left  in  the  copy,  or 


6  PREFACE. 

corrected  an  obvious  literal  error ;  while  in  some  cases 
the  sequence  of  the  articles  has  been  departed  from 
in  order  to  make  the  alphabetical  arrangement  more 
complete. 

The  author  generally  refers  to  Welsh  writers,  espe- 
cially in  the  quotations  from  the  bards,  by  the  initials 
of  their  names,  after  the  fashion  adopted  by  Dr.  Davies 
in  his  Grammar  and  Dictionary.  Most  of  these  names 
have  been  printed  in  full,  or  sufficiently  full,  to  obviate 
the  inconvenience  of  referring  to  the  explanatory  lists 
in  the  now  scarce  volumes  of  that  eminent  scholar. 
On  the  contrary,  the  terms  nomen  loci,  nomen  proprium 
viriy  nomen  proprium  femin(B^  and  the  like,  which  in 
the  original  are  sometimes  written  in  full,  and  some- 
times more  or  less  contractedly,  will  almost  uniformly 
be  found  here  represented  by  n.  Z.,  n.  pr.  v.,  and  n. 
pr.  f.  The  initials  J,  D.,  which  frequently  occur  after 
place-names,  appear  to  denote  John  Davies,  the  author 
of  Display  of  Herauldry  (1716).  A  few  of  the  contrac- 
tions met  with  in  the  MS.  the  Editor  was  not  able  to 
decipher,  as  the  author  nowhere  explains  any  of  his 
abbreviations. 

With  these  exceptions,  and  the  omission  of  a  sen- 
tence or  two  in  one  of  the  articles,  the  MS.  has  been 
followed  with  fidelity,  no  attempt  having  been  made  to 
revise  either  the  language  or  the  matter.  Any  attempt 
of  the  kind  would  have  marred  the  character  of  the 
work,  and  have  amounted  to  not  much  less  than  writ- 
ing the  whole  anew.     The  work  should  in  all  respects 


PREFACE.  7 

be  considered  in  the  light  of  the  period  in  which  it  was 
written,  when  archaeology  was  little  understood,  com- 
parative philology  unborn,  and  guesswork  the  order  of 
the  day. 

It  only  remains  for  me  to  tender  my  sincere  thanks 
to  Miss  Davies  of  Penmaen  Dyfi,  Merioneth,  the 
worthy  daughter  of  Gwallter  Mechain,  by  whose  kind- 
ness in  allowing  me  for  several  years  the  constant  use 
of  the  MS.  which  once  belonged  to  her  distinguished 
father,  the  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association  has  been 
enabled  to  present  the  public  with  the  Celtic  Remains 
of  Lewis  Morris. 

D.  Silvan  Evans. 


LLafiwrin  Beehryy  Machynlleth  : 
Aiujikct  1,  1878. 


INTRODUCTION. 


SOME  THOUGHTS  ON  THE  ANCIENT  HISTORY  OF 
BRITAIN,  AND  ON  THE  MATERIALS  REQUISITE  TO 
COMPOSE  SUCH  A  HISTORY,  WITH  AN  ENQUIRY 
WHETHER  THE  COLLECTION  NOW  BEFORE  US  IS 
NOT  THE  RIGHT  METHOD  TO  BE  PURSUED  IN 
PROVIDING  SUCH  MATERIALS. 


CHAP.  L 

Of  the  KEGBSsmr  of  haying  the  true  ksd  real  names  of  persons 

AND  plages  recorded  IN  BISTORT;  IF  OTHERWISE,  THE   8T0RT  IS 
FALSE. 

All  men  who  have  the  use  of  letters  and  of  their 
reason  know  that  in  reading  of  history,  or  an  account  of 
any  transactions  ancient  or  modern^  unless  they  have 
the  true  names  of  the  persons  acting,  and  the  places 
where  they  acted,  it  is  no  account  at  all,  and  is  but  like 
an  apothecary  that  gives  you  Ipecacuanha  in  the  room 
of  Jallap.  Is  not  this  exactly  the  case  of  an  historian 
who  gives  you  Walganus  instead  of  G walchmai,  Breigh- 
mons  instead  of  Eryri-mons,  Rududibras  for  Khun 
Baladr  Bras,  Halterenes  for  Allt  yr  Ynys,  Kentigem 
for  Cyndeym  Garth wys,  Gannoc  for  Dyganwy,  Dam- 
nonium  for  Dyfnaint,  Nuevin  for  Aneurin,  etc,,  etc.  ?  Is 
there  anybody  then  that  takes  a  pleasure  in  reading 
the  actions  of  his  ancestors,  or  the  ancient  inhabitants 
of  Britain  and  Gaul,  in  the  ancient  books  that  treat  of 

6 


VI  INTRODUCTION. 

Britain,  but  what  would  willingly  have  the  real  and 
true  names  of  the  people  and  places  that  he  reads  of  ? 
The  occasion  of  the  errors  of  authors  in  this  respect 
being  either  their  want  of  knowledge  in  the  Celtic 
tongue,  or  owing  to  the  ignorance  of  transcribers,  or  to 
the  publishers  of  ancient  manuscripts  in  printing,  or 
else  to  that  vicious  custom  of  modelling  or  Latinizing 
Celtic  names,  whereas  the  names  of  men  and  places  in 
all  nations  should  be  transmitted  as  they  are  used  in 
the  language  that  imposed  them. 

It  vexes  me  to  see  the  renowned  King  of  the  Britains, 
CaswaUon,  nicknamed  in  Caesar  s  Commentaries  Cassi- 
vellaunus  ;  and  several  of  the  like,  as  Cjmfelyn,  Cuno- 
belinus.  To  see  Cynog  Las  in  that  patched  piece  of 
Gildas  called  Curioglassus ;  and  Esgolaind,  LanioFulvey 
a  yellow  butcher — ^a  plain  mark  of  forgery ;  and  in  the 
same  author,  Maelgwn  Gwynedd  transmographied  into 
Maglo  Cunus.  I  am  sorry  to  see  the  lands  oi  Gwyr 
and  Cydweliy  in  Glamorganshire,  transformed  in  dif- 
ferent corrupt  copies  of  Nennius  to  Guiher  cet  Gwdy, 
Gruher  tee  Guiliy  Guir  Gecgadi,  Guircat  Gueli,  and 
Guhir  cet  gwely. 

I  pity  the  fate  of  poor  Silius,  who  Galfrid  in  his 
Latin  translation  of  the  British  History  hath  nick- 
named Silvius,  whereas  the  British  Silius,  as  it  is  in 
the  British  MSS.,  should  have  been  Latinized  Julius. 

The  inhabitants  of  Ireland  are  under  no  obligations 
to  Ptolomy  or  his  transcriber  for  calling  their  Island 
YovepvL^  instead  of  lovepBivi^,  or,  as  the  Britains  wrote  it, 

Y  Werddynys,  i.e.,  the  Green  Island ;  and  at  this  day, 

Y  Werddon. 

Tha  ancient  city  of  Derwennydd,  on  the  river  Der- 
wennydd,  hath  with  several  others  undergone  the  same 


INTRODUCTION,  Vll 

ft 

fate  in  Antoninus's  Itinerary^  where  it  is  called  Der- 
ventio. 

I  shall  now  pass  over  Bede,  Math.  Paris,  Westmin- 
ster, William  of  Neuburg,  and  all  the  Saxon  and 
English  authors  that  succeeded  them,  being  all  swarm* 
ing  with  errors  where  they  have  touched  any  British 
names  of  men  and  places,  which  are  rectified  in  the  fol- 
lowing treatise. 


CHAP.   XL 

That  the  inhabitakts  of  bbitain  and  its  islands  abe  a  mixtube  of 

CELT£,  TETTTONS,  AND  BOMANS,  AND  HOW  THET  BECAME  SO  ;  AND  THAT 
MOST  OF  THE  ENGLISH  HAYE  ANCIENT  BBITISH  BLOOD  IN  THEIB 
YEINS. 

In  the  light  that  I  look  on  the  inhabitants  of  Britain 
and  its  islands,  after  I  have  closely  considered  the 
several  conquests  of  these  islands  and  the  languages  of 
the  conquerors,  I  dare  affirm  there  are  few  among  them 
but  what  have  a  mixture -of  ancient  British  blood  in 
them,  and  that  therefore  this  performance  has  a  claim 
to  the  attention  of  all  the  people  of  Britain  and  its 
islands  in  general,  of  what  language  soever  they  are. 

Men  reckon  it  always  a  glorious  and  an  honourable 
thing  to  be  of  the  race  of  the  first  possessors  and  main- 
tainors of  a  country,  who  valiantly  fought  in  defence 
of  their  rights  and  liberties,  and  for  their  wives  and 
children,  and  successors  in  that  country;  i.e.,  jpro  aris 
and  focis. 

As  far  as  our  histories  and  traditions  reach,  we  find 
from  age  to  age  some  new  colonies  brought  to  these 
islands  from  the  Continent ;  and  it  could  not  be  other- 
wise, for  an  itch  of  dominion  and  conquest  has  possessed 


VIU  INTRODUCTION. 

men  in  all  ages.  But  as  these  colonies^  whether  Gauls, 
Teutons,  Greeks,  Phcenicians,  Romans,  Norwegians, 
Saxons,  Danes,  Normans,  &c.,  or  whatever  other  people 
settled  and  governed  here  for  a  while,  after  leaving 
behind  them  a  few  marks  of  their  languages  and  cus- 
toms, they  were  swallowed  up  in  the  great  body  of  the 
nation,  which  were  always  infinitely  predominant  in 
number  to  that  handful  of  armed  men  that  conquered 
them.  Thus  the  river  Thames  takes  in  a  vast  number 
of  brooks,  and  yet  is  called  the  Thames.  Thus,  for 
instance,  the  Romans,  who  governed  in  Britain  for  above 
400  years,  have  left  but  very  few  tracks  of  their  lan- 
guage behind  them,  which  shows  the  ancient  natives 
to  be  the  body  of  the  people  to  this  day.  Nobody  can 
be  so  duU  as  to  imagine  when  the  Britains,  on  the 
decline  of  the  Roman  empire,  threw  off  the  Roman 
yoke,  that  they  turned  out  or  destroyed  all  the  Roman 
people  then  in  the  island.  It  was  never  done  by  any 
nation  in  the  like  case ;  and  it  is  certain  that  many 
hundred  Roman  families  who  had  incorporated  them- 
selves with  the  Britains,  and  went  by  the  name  of 
Roman  Britains,  remain  in  Lloegr  (now  that  part  of 
Britain  called  England),  and  their  posterity  are  there  to 
this  day  mixed  with  the  Saxons  and  Britains,  as  well  as 
some  of  their  language,  which  must,  of  course,  stick  to 
them  and  their  neighbours. 

North  Britain  and  Wales  and  Cornwall  were  less 
mixed  with  Romans ;  and  Ireland  and  the  small  islands 
very  little,  but  stUl  a  little.  For,  as  the  ingenious 
Sir  Thos.  Brown  observes,  the  Romans  holding  a  stand- 
ing militia  in  aU  countries,  as  in  Britain,  Egypt,  Arme- 
nia, Spain,  niyria,  &c.,  had  mixed  the  languages  of  all 
nations. 


INTRODUCTION.  IX 

The  country  now  csalled  England  having  been  above 
400  years  in  the  hands  of  the  Romans,  the  inhabitants 
of  that  country  must  needs  have  been  after  this  a 
mixture  of  Britains  and  Romans,  who  called  themselves 
civilised  Britains,  and  their  neighbours  barbarians. 
Britain  and  its  islands  was  then  and  before  an  empire 
of  free  princes,  and  the  Romans  either  were  not  able  to 
conquer  them  all,  or  else  in  policy  left  some  of  them  to 
their  ancient  customs,  to  be  a  curb  one  to  another* 
There  was  once  a  prince  in  Dyfhaint  (Cornwall  and 
Devon)  that  wore  a  coronet  or  diadem,  another  in  Gwent 
(Monmouthshire),  another  in  Dyved  (Pembrokeshire), 
another  in  Powys,  another  in  Gwynedd  (North  Wales), 
others  in  North  Britain  and  the  islands.  But  the  chief 
King,  that  wore  the  crown  of  gold,  and  was  supreme 
over  the  rest  in  the  time  of  the  Britains  and  Romans, 
was  the  King  oiLloegr  (England);  and  his  title,  in  the 
British  tongue,  was  Brenh^n,  q.  d.  Y  Breiniol  hynaf ; 
literally  in  English,  the  privileged  elder.  It  is  now 
wrote  Brenhin,  and  signifies  king  or  supreme  ruler,  as 
it  did  then,  and  the  poet  knew  its  etymology : 

Ceinllun  teccaf  Brenhin  hynaf  j  Brenliinedd. 

How  idle  then  is  the  derivation  of  Brennus  from  hrenin 
in  Camden,  when  this  etymology  gives  such  a  plain 
account  of  it.  The  Romans  under  the  Emperors  Con- 
stantino, Maximus,  &c.,  having  drained  that  part  of 
Britain  called  Lloegr  of  its  warriors  and  youth,  that  fine 
country,  destitute  of  men  in  arms,  fell  a  prey  to  the 
neighbouring  princes.  ^ 

The  Northern  Britains,  among  whom  were  the  Picts 
incorporated  (people  always  in  arms  against  the  Roman 
province  here),  clapped  their  paws  on  the  country  now 


X  '  INTRODUCTION. 

called  North  of  England,  then  called  Deifr  a  Brynaich, 
and  by  the  Romans,  Deira  and  Bemicia.  Gwrtheym, 
the  Prince  of  Gwent  in  Wales,  having  some  claim  by 
blood  to  the  crown  of  Lloegr,  as  descended  from  Eudaf, 
father  of  Helen,  the  wife  of  Maximus,  thought  it  a 
proper  time  to  dethrone  an  Armorican  family  married 
into  a  Broman,  who  had  got  the  Loegrian  dominion  on 
the  death  of  Gratian  Municeps,  which  he  compassed  by 
the  then  usual  arts  in  those  cases,  and  wore  the  crown. 

The  Pictish  Northern  Britains  had  also  a  claim  to 
the  crown,  as  descending  from  Maxen  Wledig,  the  late 
Emperor.  Any  kind  of  claim  served  where  there  was 
a  superior  force,  and  when  the  Loegrian  kingdom  as 
well  as  all  other  Roman  provinces  was  like  a  shipwreck. 
Gwrtheym,  in  this  strait,  had  nothing  to  do  but  to  hire 
the  Saxon  pirates,  who  had  been  long  a  plague  to  the 
Eomaa  Britains,  and  who  were  weU  enough  a^uainted 
with  the  coast,  to  defend  him  in  his  empire,  and  to 
quell  the  Northern  Britains,  and  to  keep  off  the  Armo- 
ricans  and  Cornwall  men.  Had  not  this  Welshman  as 
great  a  right  to  keep  the  crown  of  London,  if  he  could, 
as  the  Armoricans  and  other  Britains  had  to  claim  it  ? 
It  was  a  Roman  country  in  effect,  and  had  been  long 
so,  for  which  they  quarrelled,  and  everybody  that  was 
able  did  then  cut  slices  out  of  the  Roman's  loaf. 

Gildas,  who  gives  some  account  of  the  misery  of  the 
Britains.  at  this  time,  speaks  feelingly  and  favourably 
of  the  Roman  power,  which  shows  what  party  he  was 
of;  and  this  gives  a  reason  for  his  bitterness  against 
the  other  princes  of  Britain  then  reigning.  And  it  is 
impossible  to  see  the  drift  of  that  author  without  being 
acquainted  with  these  different  interests  as  laid  down 
here,  and  the  different  powers  then  in  Britain. 


INTRODUCTION.  xi 

The  Saxons,  with  whom  joined  all  the  people  of  the 
North,  Jutes,  Angles,  Frisians,  Danes,  Norwegians,  etc., 
being  then  masters  of  the  sea,  poured  in  so  fast  when 
they  once  got  a  footing  in  the  island,  that  they  grew  too 
hard  for  the  Loegrian  Britains  under  Gwrtheym ;  and 
when  they  once  got  a  footing,  settled  themselves  on  the 
sea-coast  of  Kent,  Stissex,  etc.,  under  their  different 
princes  ;  and  by  degrees  got  to  be  masters  of  all  that 
fine  country  which  had  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Komans, 
but  which  is  now  called  England, — ^a  name  given  it  by 
Egbert,  one  of  their  princes,  who  about  400  years  after 
their  first  settling  in  Britain  conquered  all  the  rest 
of  these  his  feUow  invaders,  and  brought  them  under 
one  head. 

Now  to  come  to  the  point  which  occasioned  me  to 
premise  this  account  of  the  Saxon  conquest.  Can  it  be 
even  supposed  that  the  Saxons  got  this  country  with- 
out fighting  ?  No.  Who  fought  them  on  their  first 
coming  on  the  spot  ?  Who  but  an  army  of  soldiers,  like 
themselves,  raised  among  the  Loegrian  Britains  ?  who 
were  afterwards  dispersed,  and  went  to  seek  for  shelter 
to  the  neighbouring  princes  of  Cornwall,  of  Cymry,  and 
of  Prydyn,  which  last  was  the  name  then  given  by  the 
Britains  to  North  Britain  (now  Scotland). 

The  helpless  inhabitants  of  Loegria,  that  manured  the 
land,  and  followed  manufactures  of  all  kinds,  and  whole 
cities  of  men  yielded  their  necks  to  the  conqueror  s 
yoke  ;  and  this  is  owned  by  Gildas.  But  this  was  to 
those  people  only  a  change  of  masters,  and  (except  their 
religion)  perhaps  for  the  better ;  for  their  late  Roman 
masters  had  left  behind  them  all  their  vices  of  oppres- 
sion and  pride,  so  that  the  British  rulers  deserved  what 
befel  them. 


XU  INTRODUCTION. 

Without  doubt,  the  Saxons,  to  settle  themselves,  de- 
stroyed all  the  British  places  of  Christian  worship  wher- 
ever they  came,  being  then  infidels;  and  in  their  room, 
in  eveiy  city,  put  priests  of  their  own  religion,  as  was 
natural  to  them  ;  and  this  brought  that  glut  of  clergy 
into  Wales  in  that  age,  who  were  founders  of  vast 
numbers  of  Welsh  churches,  and  who  also  set  up  schools 
of  literature,  in  the  nature  of  colleges,  in  divers  places, 
and  by  that  means  kept  learning  and  the  Christian 
religion  in  its  purity  in  Wales  and  Ireland  when  quite 
drove  out  of  England, 

It  is  plain  that  the  Saxons  were  obliged  to  keep  up 
the  same  conquering  army  on  foot  for  the  first  age  after 
their  conquest,  composed  of  their  own  people  from  the 
Continent;  and  they  had  no  time  to  spare  from  fighting, 
either  to  till  the  ground  or  to  carry  on  manufactures, 
for  the  islanders  from  the  north,  south,  and  west,  under 
their  brave  princes,  Emrys,  Uthur,  Arthur,  Maelgwn 
Gwynedd,  etc.,  kept  them  in  constant  action  notwith- 
standing all  the  vast  supplies  they  had  from  tiie  Conti- 
nent. But  as  the  Saxons  had  not  the  sense  to  agree 
among  themselves  to  put  themselves  under  one  general 
head,  they  by  their  private  quarrels  prolonged  the  war 
with  the  natives  of  Cornwall,  Cambria,  and  North 
Britain,  who  held  out  to  dispute  their  title,  and  to  fight 
them  for  some  hundreds  of  years.  The  Britains  running 
into  the  same  madness  with  the  Saxons,  of  falling  out 
among  themselves,  made  them  incapable  of  making  a 
proper  head  against  their  enemies,  and  at  last  could 
barely  keep  their  own,  being  overpowered  by  numbers. 
In  the  first  age  (as  I  said  before)  there  were  but  few 
Saxons  here  that  were  not  warriors,  and  in  constant 
employ.     The  rest  of  the  inhabitants  of  Loegria  were 


INTRODUCTIOlf.  XIU 

Roman  Britains,  who  remained  in  the  land  with  the 
Saxons'  consent  as  their  subjects,  and  some  of  them  pro- 
bably had  the  liberty  of  exercising  their  own  religion ; 
so  that  in  the  next  age  it  became  the  interest  of  the 
Roman  Britains  under  the  subjection  of  the  new  con- 
querors to  fight  for  their  country,  and  so  keep  off  the 
barbarous  Britains,  as  they  called  them,  from  invading 
their  possessions ;  which  had  been  their  game  for  many 
ages  before,  and  indeed  since  the  Eoman  conquest  of 
Britain. 

Doth  it  not  plainly  appear  then  that  the  main  body 
of  the  people  of  the  country  now  called  England  are 
chiefly  of  Roman  and  British  extraction,  but  mixed 
..ith  Saxons;  and  that  the  reason  of  their  falUng  in  with 
the  Saxons  in  their  language,  and  losing  their  own,  was 
their  being  a  mixture  originally  of  the  Belgse  and  some 
other  Northern  Teutons  (witness  Tacitus)  as  well  as  of 
Romans  and  Celtae,  and  were  the  more  ready  to  receive 
a  language  nearly  allied  to  their  own  dialect  as  the 
Loegrian  British  dialect  waa,  which  I  shall  prove  by 
and  by  1 


CHAP.  m. 

Of  the  different  dialects  of  the  Celtic  toncub  in  Britain  and 
its  islands  at  first ;  and  of  the  mixture  of  the  people  after 
their  disputes  subsided,  on  the  saxon  conquest. 

The  clergy  of  Lloegr,  on  the  Saxon  conquest,  and 
some  of  the  laity  that  ran  over  to  Wales,  finding  the 
British  tongue  purer  and  better  kept  there  than  in  the 
Loegrian  province,  fell  in  with  the  dialect  of  that 
country,  and  recovered  their  ancient  language.  But 
those  of  them  that  ran  over  to  Armorica  for  shelter 
from  the  Saxon  fury,  found  there,  among  their  own 

c 


XIV  INTRODUCTION. 

countrymen,  the  Loegrian  dialect  in  its  full  perfection  ; 
and  so  it  hath  to  this  day  the  very  marks  of  the  Roman 
language  deeply  grafted  in  it.  For,  from  Lloegr,  the 
Roman  province  in  Britain,  they  had  gone  over  there 
with  their  countryman  Constantine,  the  son  of  Elen  and 
Macsen  Wledig  (Maximus),  and  they  have  retained  the 
Loegrian  dialect  to  this  day,  plainly  distinguishable  from 
the  dialects  of  the  Cambro-Hntains  and  the  Pictish 
Bri tains,  but  better  agreeing  with  the  Cornish  dialect. 

Every  prince  in  Britain  had  some  marks  of  dialect  to 
distinguish  his  people  by  their  tongues  from  his  neigh- 
bours, though  all  spoke  the  same  language  in  the  main. 
And  even  to  this  day  the  people  of  North  Wales,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  river  Dyvi,  may  be  known  by  their 
dialect  from  the  people  of  South  Wales,  on  the  other  side 
of  the  river ;  though  the  reason  of  keeping  up  that  dis- 
tinction has  ceased  these  500  years  ago ;  and  so  the 
people  of  Gwent  differ  from  them,  and  from  the  people 
of  Dy ved.  And  this  certainly  accounts  for  the  different 
dialects  in  the  English  tongue  in  different  parts  of  the 
island  to  this  day,  owing  to  the  ancient  Saxon  Heptarchy, 
where  they  kept  the  same  distinction. 

After  a  struggle  of  about  400  years  between  the 
Saxons  and  Britains,  and  sometimes  between  Saxons 
and  Britains  against  Saxons,  and  sometimes  of  Saxons 
alone  against  Saxons,  and  very  often  of  Britains  against 
Britains,  Egbert,  the  valiant  king  of  the  West  Saxons, 
about  the  year  829,  brought  all  the  Saxon  Heptarchy 
under  one  head,  but  they  did  not  hold  it  long  thus, 
for  about  a  hundred  years  afterwards,  the  people  of  the 
country  called  then  DanemarJc,  being  masters  of  the 
sea,  and  being  descendants  of  the  ancient  Cimbrians 
of  the  Cimbrick  Chersonese,  who  had  sent  a  colony  of 


INTRODUCTION.  XV 

Picts  formerly  to  North  Britain,  and  having  also  a  claim 
to  dominion  in  Britain,  as  their  kings  were  descended 
from  Cyr^farch,  a  prince  of  North  Britain  about  the 
time  of  the  Saxon  Conquest;  and  seeing  that  the 
Saxons  had  no  greater  right  to  the  country  than  any 
other  neighbour  that  could  win  it  and  keep  it,  they 
plundered  the  coast  of  Britain  and  Ireland,  and  the 
isles,  for  many  years,  and  at  last,  under  Canute,  their 
king,  got  possession  of  the  crown  of  London.  But 
during  the  Danish  dominion  here,  which  was  not  thirty 
years,  the  body  of  the  people  remained  without  any 
great  alteration  in  their  language  or  customs,  there 
being  a  great  aflSnity  between  the  languages  of  all  those 
northern  people,  the  Danes,  Saxons,  and  all  the  branches 
of  the  Teutonic  or  German  race.  (Insert  Canute's  Grant, 
etc.) 

The  Saxons  again  recovering  the  dominion,  the 
Normans  were  the  next  people  that,  about  a  hundred 
years  after  the  Danish  conquest,  got  the  dominion  here 
over  the  English,  and  in  eflfect  demolished  all  the 
English  nobility  through  the  whole  kingdom,  setting 
up  Norman  noblemen  in  their  room.  But  the  main 
body  of  the  people  through  all  Britain  still  remained 
almost  the  same  ;  in  England  a  mixture  of  ancient 
Britains,  Romans,  Saxons,  Danes,  and  Normans ;  in 
Wales  Cambro-Britains  and  some  Irish  (who  settled 
among  them  at  the  time  of  the  general  fusion  on  the 
Saxons'  first  coming,  as  did  also  some  North  Britains) 
and  a  few  Normans  ;  in  North  Britain  ancient  Britains 
mixed  with  Picts  and  some  Irisy  (called  first  by  way 
of  derision,   Scots),   who   settled   themselves   on   the 

^  That  tbere  we  are  to  look  ont  for  the  genuine  remains  of  the 
Saxon  tongne,  and  not  in  England. 


XVI  lin'RODUCTlON. 

western  skirts  against  Ireland  on  the  same  general  con- 
fusion on  the  Saxons'  first  coming,  with  some  Saxons  in 
what  we  call  now  the  Lowlands  (part  of  the  kingdom  of 
Northumbria),  where  they  in  vast  multitudes  retired  on 
the  coming  of  these  Norman  masters.  In  Cornwall  there 
remained  then  some  ancient  Britains  subject  to  the 
crown  of  London,  who  yet  kept  their  language  till  of 
late  years,  and  some  of  them  can  still  speak  it. 

All  the  people  of  the  north  on  the  Continent  were, 
in  very  early  times,  called  by  the  Britains  by  a  Teutonic 
word  Normyn,  and  their  country  Normandir — i.e.,  the 
Northmen's  lands,  from  which  the  word  Normandy  was 
formed  after  their  settlement  in  Gaul,  by  melting 
the  r. 

These  Normans,  afterwards  inhabitants  of  Normandy, 
in  France,  and  subjects  to  the  Duke  of  Normandy, 
who  held  under  the  crown  of  France  since  their  first 
Duke,  Rollo,  a.d.  912,  came  to  England,  as  aforesaid, 
with  a  claim  to  the  crown  of  London,  which  cannot  be 
properly  called  a  conquest  of  the  EnglisL  The  Norman 
language  was  a  mixture  of  French  and  ancient  Gaulish, 
for  the  Franks,  a  German  people  about  the  river  Rhine, 
on  the  conquest  of  that  coimtry  of  Normandy,  so  called 
from  their  being  Northmen,  about  the  same  time  that 
the  Saxons  settled  in  Britain,  mixed  with  the  old 
Gauls — which  mixture  of  language  was  brought  here 
by  the  Normans  and  grafted  on  the  Saxon.  But  still 
the  Saxon  language  as  to  the  main  body  of  it  kept  its 
ground  here,  especially  in  the  Lowlands  of  Scotland. 
And,  as  it  is  observed  by  a  very  learned  Englishman, 
**  From  the  French  (meaning  the  Normans)  we  have 
borrowed  many  substantives  and  adjectives,  and  some 
verbs ;  but  the  great  body  of  numerals,  auxiliary  verbs, 


INTRODUCTION.  XVU 

articles^  pronouns,  adverbs,  conjunctions,  and  preposi- 
tions, which  are  the  distinguishing  and  lasting  parts  of 
a  language,  remain  with  us  from  the  Saxon/'  (Sir  Tho. 
Brown's  Hydriotaphia,  c.  2.)  Therefore  the  English 
borrowed  with  the  French  a  mixture  of  the  ancient 
Gaulish ;  and  he  might  have  added,  if  he  had  thought 
of  it,  that  a  great  deal  of  the  body  of  the  language  of 
the  English  was  had  from  the  Loegrian  Britains,  the 
native  people  that  remained  in  the  land  on  the  Saxon 
conquest.  And  by  that  means  abundance  of  words, 
agreeing  with  the  Welsh  and  Latin,  are  now  found  in 
the  English  tongue,  which  were  naturally  incorporated 
into  the  Saxon  language  on  the  Saxon  conquest  of 
Loegria,  and  not  borrowed  from  the  Welsh  or  Latin 
since. 

Doth  not  everybody  see,  when  he  hath  read  thus  far, 
that  all  the  inhabitants  of  Britain  and  its  islands  are 
only  a  mixture  of  CeltaB,  Teutons,  and  Romans,  and 
also  of  Greeks,  if  our  ancient  traditions  don't  mistake  ? 

That  the  CeltsB  and  Teutons  mixed  here  in  very  early 
times  is  plain,  from  Tacitus,  if  we  had  no  other  autho- 
rity, for  the  Belgic  Gauls  were  originally  Germans. 
But  the  Triades  also  says  it. 


CHAP.  IV. 

That  the  wblsh  or  ancient  British  tonque  is  the  chief  remains 
of  the  celtic  tongue,  proved  from  a  comparison  between  it 
and  the  other  branches  of  the  celtic,  viz.,  the  armoric,  the 
irish,  the  cornish,  and  the  ersh  in  the  hiqhlands  of  scotland. 

I  SHALL  not  engage  here  in  the  dispute  whether  Ireland 
received  a  colony  from  Spain  near  its  first  plantation, 
though  I  believe  something  of  that  kind  has  happened. 


XVIU  INTRODUCTION. 

which  hath  made  the  Irish  tongue  diflfer  vastly  from 
the  British. 

As  Ireland  must  have  been,  as  is  most  probable  and 
natural,  originally  peopled  from  North  Britain,  and 
Britain  from  Gaul,  the  Irish  and  British  tongues 
would  have  agreed,  excepting  a  variation  of  dialect,  if 
some  strange  powerful  colony,  which  was  neither  Teu- 
tonic nor  Celtic,  had  not  mixed  with  the  Irish,  and 
which  we  find  hath  altered  it  surprisingly,  and  much 
more  than  I  expected  till  I  tried. 

I  find  in  the  Irish  Dictionary,  on  a  transient  ohservation 
of  words  which  agree  with  the  Welsh,  and  which  the 
Armoricans  have  not   -  -  -  -       815 

Of  Irish  words  which  agree  with  the  Armoric  and  Welsh      489 

In  all    1304 

These  1,304  words  are,  without  doubt,  the  remains  of 
the  ancient  Celtic  in  the  Irish,  but  all  the  rest  of  the 
language  is  something  dse,  that  has  no  affinity  with  the 
Celtic,  or  very  little  with  any  of  the  modern  languages 
of  Europe. 

Some  few  words  of  the  Teutonic  got  into  it,  I  suppose, 
by  their  intercourse  with  the  Fion  and  Duhh  Lochlon- 
aich — i.e.,  the  white  and  black  Lochlin  men,  some  of 
the  German  nations  from  the  coast  of  the  Baltic,  who 
found  it  their  profit  to  join  the  Irish,  and  sometimes 
the  Picts  against  the  Roman  Provincial  Britains.  These 
people  the  insular  Britains  in  their  own  language 
called  Llychlynwyr — i.e.,  men  of  the  sea  lake,  Llychlyn 
being  the  name  of  the  Baltic  Sea  in  the  old  Celtic,  fi-om 
llwch,  the  sea,  and  llyriy  a  lake. 

But  if  it  should  be  insisted  on,  that  the  whole  body 
of  the  Irish  language  is  the  ancient  original  Celtic 
tongue  kept  in  Ireland  in  its  purity,  and  that  they  re- 


INTRODUCTION.  XIX 

ceived  no  colony  from  Spain  or  elsewhere  since  they 
were  at  first  planted  there  from  Britain,  but  that  the 
people  of  Great  Britain  have  since  received  many 
colonies  of  Teutons,  Greeks,  and  Phoenicians  among 
them,  and  so  formed  a  new  language,  much  different 
from  the  Irish  or  old  Celtic,  which  carries  with  it  a 
great  probability,  it  would  be  dijBficult  to  prove  the 
contrary  ;  for  we  have  so  few  words  of  the  ancient 
Gaulish  tongue  remaining,  retained  by  Roman  authors, 
that  we  cannot  determine  whether  they  agree  best  with 
the  Irish  or  the  British, 

Yet  this  is  plain,  that  the  present  Cambro-British 
agrees  far  better  with  the  Armoric  British  (which  was 
the  Loegrian  dialect)  than  it  doth  with  the  Irish.  For 
by  comparing  these  languages,  I  find  that  the  Welsh 
and  the  Armoric  languages  agree  in  about  1,300  words, 
which  are  not  to  be  found  in  the  Irish ;  and  if  ever 
they  were  there,  what  should  have  become  of  them, 
unless  they  have  been  thrust  out  by  the  language  of 
some  new  colony  ? 

But  what  makes  strong  for  the  British,  to  prove 
it  the  ancient  and  original  language  of  the  Celtse,  is 

That  it  agrees  with  the  Irish  in  words  which  the  Armo- 
ries have  not,  as  I  said  before      -                -                -  815 
In  words  which  the  Irish  and  Armories  have                  -  489 
With  Armoric  words  which  the  Irish  have  not               -  1299 


In  all    2603 

These  2,603  words  may  be  fairly  called  Celtic,  which 
makes  it  probable  that  the  British  tongue  is  the  prin- 
cipal branch  and  chief  remains  of  the  ancient  Celtic 
tongue,  and  that  the  Irish,  the  Ersh,  and  Armoric  have 
issued  from  the  British. 

What  is  to  be  inferred  from  this  comparison  of  these 


XX  INTRODUCTION. 

languages,  but  that  the  Irish  have  retained  in  their 
language  about  1,300  words  of  the  ancient  Celtic  tongue, 
the  language  of  their  first  planters,  and  that  the  rest 
of  it  is  made  up  of  some  other  strange  language,  or  at 
least,  strange  to  me  ?  That  the  Armoric  and  British 
agree  in  1,788  words,  and  that  the  rest  of  the  Armoric 
is  a  mixture  of  the  Roman  and  Teutonic  :  some  it  had 
borrowed  from  the  Romans  and  Belgae  when  it  was  the 
Loegrian  dialect  in  the  Isle  of  Britain,  and  some  since 
from  the  Romans  on  the  Continent  and  the  Franks* 

That  the  present  Cambro-British  or  Welsh  language 
is  for  the  most  part  the  ancient  Celtic  tongue,  once 
spoke  by  the  Gauls  and  Britains,  w4th  a  little  mixture 
in  it  of  the  Latin  brought  into  it  by  an  intercourse  with 
the  Romans,  and  by  the  teachers  of  the  Christian  reli- 
gion since,  but  that  those  Latin  words  are  for  the  most 
part  distinguishable  from  the  Celtic 

That  there  is  also  a  small  mixture  in  it  of  the  Eng- 
lish tongue,  terms  of  arts  and  new  inventions,  and  a 
few  verbs  which  have  crept  into  it  among  the  common 
people  of  late  years,  and  not  into  books,  but  are  as  dis- 
tinguishable in  it,  and  will  ever  be,  as  oil  and  water  in 
the  same  vessel,  which  will  never  incorporate.  But 
this  mixture  [which]  is  chiefly  verbs  having  no  verbal 
nouns  or  participles  belonging  to  them  shows  they  are 
foreign  words,  and  it  is  against  the  rules  of  the  poets  to 
receive  them  into  their  writings. 

That  there  is  also  a  few  Greek  words  in  the  British, 
which  might  creep  in  with  a  Trojan  colony  which  is  said 
to  have  come  here  very  early ;  the  Trojan  language  being 
supposed  to  be  either  Greek  or  a  dialect  thereof,  unless 
such  words  which  are  like  the  Greek  be  really  Celtic, 
and  according  to  Pezron's  opinion  were  borrowed  by 


INTRODUCTION.  XXI 

the  Greeks  from  the  Celtae  when  under  the  name  of 
Titans,  who  gave  the  Greeks  their  religion  and  learn- 
ing ;  as  were  also,  according  to  him,  most  of  the  words 
that  appear  in  the  Celtic  like  the  Latin,  borrowed  from 
the  same  people. 

Let  these  things  be  as  they  may,  the  British  tongue, 
as  things  stand  here,  has  a  better  claim  to  explain 
ancient  Celtic  names  in  Gaul  and  Britain  than  any 
other  language  hath,  especially  taking  to  its  assistance 
the  Irish,  Ersh,  Armoric,  and  Cornish,  the  other  branches 
of  the  Celtic;  for  each  of  them  have  retained  some 
Celtic  words  which  the  British  hath  lost,  or  are  grown 
obsolete  in  it,  or  preserved  only  in  compounds.  See 
D.  Malcolme's  Scheme  of  Explaining  Hebrew  Words 
by  the  Ersh. 


CHAP.  V. 


Of  the  TTTLB  of  this  treatise,  and  why  it  is  called  CELTIC  REMAINS, 
AND  HOW  IT  HATH  A  REGARD  TO  THE  ANCIENT  HISTORY  OF  BRITAIN 
AND   ITS   ISLANDS. 

It  may  not  be  improper  to  give  some  readers  who  are 
not  used  to  the  study  of  ancient  history  a  reason  for 
the  title  of  this  book.  Such  readers  are  to  know  then 
that  in  the  first  confusion  of  languages  (for  the  event 
shows  that  such  a  confusion  hath  happened,  if  Holy 
Scripture  had  not  told  us)  some  of  the  most  powerful 
tribes  or  families  had  more  followers  than  others,  and 
numbers  produced  power ;  among  whom  were  the 
children  of  Noah's  eldest  son  Japhet,  who  kept  together 
in  greater  numbers  than  others  who  disagreed  in  inte- 
rest. But  most  of  these  tribes,  following  their  own 
inclinations,  and  looking  only  for  the  readiest  road  to 

d 


XXU  INTRODUCTION. 

power,  forgetting  or  neglecting  the  manner  of  worship- 
ping the  true  God  delivered  to  them  by  their  father, 
contrived  such  manner  of  worship  as  best  suited  their 
policy  of  government;  and  to  encourage  a  military 
spirit  they  fell  to  the  art  of  deifying  their  princes. 

Among  about  seventy-two  parties,  as  it  is  said,  of  the 
people  at  the  (Confusion,  each  had  their  particular  lan- 
guage.    Gomer,  eldest  son  of  Japhet,  is  said  to  be  one 
who  was  chief  of  a  party  in  which  were  many  followers ; 
and  it  is  probable  that  he  and  hia  wise  men,  either  out 
of  religion  or  pohcy,  fixed  on  the  Sun  as  the  principal 
seat  or  house  of  the  supreme  God,  and  therefore  called 
it  in  their  language  Titan,  i.e.,  the  House  of  Fire ;  and 
this  is  the  meaning  of  the  word  Tytan  to  this  day 
among  their  descendants,  the  insular  Britons  and  Armo- 
ricans ;  for  ty  with  both  these  nations  is  a  house,  and 
tan,  fire ;  and  what  strengthens  this  argument  is  that 
the  Irish  Tiotan  was  the  ancient  word   for  the   sun. 
The  Greeks  and  Romans,  who  afterwards  adored  the 
sun  as  a  god,  called  him  Titan,  but  were  quite  ignorant 
of  the  meaning  of  the  word,  having  borrowed  this  god 
from  the  Celtae.     This  might  be  the  reason  that  these 
descendants  of  Gomer  were  afterwards  called  by  the 
name  of  Titanes.     Others  think  from  Tut,  the  earth. 
Others  from  Titan,  eldest  brother  of  Saturn.     Under 
this  name  they  performed  some  great  actions  in  war, 
which  are  so  involved  in  Grecian  fables  that  we  can 
only  guess  at  them.     They  had  princes  called  Saturn, 
Jupiter,   Mars,   Mercury,  etc.,   whose    names  can   be 
accounted  for  in  the  British  tongue,  and  in  no  other 
language  so  well. 

Mr.Pezron,  Abbot  of  Charmoye  in  France,  has  traced 
these  people  from  Babel  to  Britain,  under  the  several 


INTRODUCTION.  XXUl 

names  of  SacsB,  Titans,  Comerians,  Gomerians,  Cim- 
brians,  Cimmerians,  Galatse,  Celts©,  and  Gauls;  and 
several  branches  that  sprung  partly  out  of  them,  as 
Parthians,  Persians,  etc. 

If  there  was  no  authority  of  ancient  writers  for  this, 
the  very  names  of  the  people,  their  language,  names  of 
their  cities,  mountains,  and  rivers,  prove  all  this.  But 
there  are  authors  in  abundance  that  prove  it  besides. 
See  Pezron's  Antiquities  of  Nations^  translated  into  Eng- 
lish from  the  French  by  David  Jones,  17[06].  Under 
the  name  of  CeltaB  they  performed  very  great  things,  and 
had  an  empire  of  vast  extent,  as  Mr.  Pezron  hath  shown. 

These  Celtse,  and  another  people  called  Teutons  (the 
ancestors  of  the  Germans),  were  pretty  much  mixed 
afterwards,  and  were  the  most  powerful  nations  in 
Europe.  These  Celtse  were  the  people  who  first  brought 
the  Greeks  (another  ancient  nation)  under  subjection, 
and  gave  them  their  gods  out  of  their  own  princes,  and 
al8o  their  learning  and  manner  of  worship.  And  from 
these  Celtse  the  ancestors  of  the  Romans,  the  Sabines, 
and  Umbrians,  that  inhabited  Italy,  had  also  their  reli- 
gion and  a  good  deal  of  their  language,  as  plainly 
appears  to  any  one  that  can  compare  the  several  Celtic 
dialects,  viz.,  the  Irish,  Ersh,  British,  Cornish,  and 
Armoric,  with  the  Latin  and  Greek.  Pezron  has  found 
about  1,200  words  of  the  Celtic  in  the  Roman  language, 
and  about  800  Celtic  words  in  the  Greek,  though  he 
tmderstood  but  one  branch  of  the  Celtic,  which  was  his 
native  language,  the  Armoric. 

When  these  Gomerians  settled  in  the  western  parts 
of  Europe,  from  the  Alps  to  Britain,  they  called  them- 
selves Ceiltiaid  or  Ceiliaid  (Celtse),  which  in  their  lan- 
guage  signifies  herdsmen,   because  they   were   great 


XXIV  INTRODUCTION. 

rovers  and  were  rich  in  cattle,  grazing  from  place  to 
place  ;  and  afterwards  Galluaid  (Gauls),  which  signifies 
in  the  Celtic  tongue  men  of  strength,  power,  etc.  So 
this  day  Gallta  and  Gall,  in  the  Irish,  signify  a  Gaul 
or  a  Frenchman,  and  gallu  in  Welsh  is  strength  or 
power.  But  the  name  of  Celtse  seems  to  be  the  most 
general  and  best  known  at  present  among  writers,  and 
is  also  very  ancient,  and  comprehends  Britains  as  well 
as  Gauls,  and  all  the  other  descendants  of  Gomer. 

From  these  great  people,  the  Celtse,  came  the  inha- 
bitants of  Britain  and  its  adjoining  islands,  Ireland,  the 
Hebrides,  Orcades,  etc.  And  the  chief  view  of  the 
following  collection  is  to  trace  and  mark  out  these 
Bemains  which  are  to  be  found  existing  of  the  names, 
language,  posterity,  and  country,  of  these  people  as  the 
real  ancestors  of  the  body  of  the  people  of  Britain,  Ire- 
land, and  Gaul,  and  to  explain  their  history,  and  to 
clear  it  from  the  cavils  of  the  ignorant  and  the  designs 
of  the  enemies  of  the  Celtic  name.  How  well  this  is 
done  will  appear  by  the  sequel. 


CHAP.  VI. 

That  the  present  age  is  the  only  time  that  this  treatise  could 

BE  collected  and  PUBLISHED,  AND  THE  REASONS  WHY,  AND  OP  THE 
materials  requisite  to  write  the  ancient  history  OF  ANY 
NATION. 

As  the  studies  of  the  antiquities  of  Britain  is  in  the 
present  age  come  to  be  the  general  taste  among  us,  and 
as  prejudice  of  education  and  national  distinctions  seem 
to  be  entirely  laid  aside,  and  that  all  the  inhabitants  of 
Great  Britain  and  its  islands,  English,  Welsh,  Scotch, 
and  Irish,  look  upon  themselves  as  one  mixed  nation 


INTRODUCTION,  XXV 

under  the  protection  of  the  same  wholesome  laws  and 
government,  and  may  live  where  they  please  in  any 
part  of  his  Majesty's  dominions,  and  that  the  old  inve- 
teracy is  quite  banished  and  forgot,  the  causes  of  dis- 
putes and  war  having  ceased,  this  nation  may  not  be 
unwilling  to  accept  from  the  hands  of  one  of  its  own 
natives  the  following  collection,  which  has  cost  him 
great  labour  and  time.  Having  had  uncommon  oppor- 
tunities, which  few  other  men  living  have  had,  to  see 
and  study  ancient  British  MSS.  and  the  matters  herein 
contained,  so  that,  to  use  Mr.  Selden's  words,  there  is 
no  man  in  the  kingdom  but  what  will  find  many  things 
in  this  treatise  that  h'e  knew  not  before,  and  which 
will  please. 

Mr.  Ed.  Llwyd,  author  of  the  ArchcBologia  Britan- 
nica^  intended  his  second  volume  to  be  on  this  model, 
and  he  had  better  opportunities  to  collect  materials 
than  anybody  before  him  ever  had.  But  his  collection, 
if  he  had  made  any  great  progress  in  it,  are  upon  his 
death  fallen  into  hands  that  make  no  use  of  them. 

Mr.  E.  Llwyd  was  under  another  disadvantage  when 
he  first  appeared  in  the  world.  Mr.  Camden  had  gained 
that  credit  among  antiquaries  that  it  was  as  dangerous 
to  contradict  him  as  it  was  formerly  to  oppose  Aristotle 
in  the  schools,  which  occasioned  Mr.  Llwyd  to  stifle 
many  things  which  otherwise  he  would  have  said,  as 
appears  by  his  Welsh  Preface  to  his  ArchcBologia.  But 
in  our  age,  when  no  particular  author  is  set  up  for  an 
idol,  and  when  infallibility  is  quite  banished,  and  Truth, 
though  in  ever  so  mean  a  dress,  is  listened  to,  being 
the  only  thing  searched  for,  every  man  dare  deliver  his 
opinion,  and  it  is  left  to  the  public  to  be  the  judges. 

I  very  well  know  that  this  Essay  is  far  from  being 


XXVI  INTRODUCTION^ 

perfect  and  methodical ;  but  imperfect  as  it  is,  it  may 
open  our  countrymen's  eyes,  and  set  some  of  them  on 
to  finish  what  I  have  begun.  Though  I  could  very  ill 
aflFord  time  to  go  thus  far,  yet  my  love  to  my  country 
hath  outweighed  all  diflElculties,  and  I  thought  it  better 
to  have  this  imperfect  draught  to  begin  with  than  none 
at  all.  I  should  have  thought  I  had  met  a  great 
treasure  if  I  had  met  with  such  a  help  as  this. 

The  first  attempt  of  any  subject  ever  yet  published 
hath  been  lame  and  imperfect.  Time  only  can  bring 
things  of  this  kind  to  perfection,  if  there  is  such  a 
thing  as  perfection  in  the  works  of  men.  When  an 
author  sets  about  writing  the  history  of  a  nation,  he 
first  makes  himself  master  of  the  language  or  languages 
of  those  people  whose  history  he  writes.  It  would  look 
odd  that  a  man  should  pretend  to  write  the  history  of 
my  life  and  actions  that  is  so  great  a  stranger  to  my 
language  that  he  cannot  write  my  name  or  the  name 
of  my  house  or  country.  AU  nations  have  some  kind 
of  historians  of  their  own  that  have  wrote  in  their  own 
tongue  of  their  original,  and  of  the  exploits  of  their 
ancestors  ;  and  some  men  in  every  warUke  nation  have 
performed  glorious  actions  worthy  of  being  recorded. 
Let  a  people  be  ever  so  rude  and  unpolished,  fortitude 
of  mind,  valour,  prudence,  and  good  sense,  have  been 
virtues  common  in  every  enterprising  nation.  The 
Celtse  own  this  in  their  proverb, 

Yjuhob  gwlad  y  megir  glew. 

In  all  nations  that  had  the  use  of  letters,  great  actions 
have  had  great  writers  in  verse  or  prose  to  record  those 
actions.  One  follows  the  other  naturally,  as  a  shadow 
does  the  substance.     The  descendants  of  these  valiant 


INTRODUCTION.  XXVU 

nations,  out  of  a  pride  inherent  in  mankind,  t^ake  a 
pleasure,  from  age  to  age,  to  read  over  and  repeat  their 
ancestors'  feats  in  war,  in  council,  in  letters,  etc. ;  and 
so  these  accoimts  are  handed  from  father  to  son  while 
the  nation  hath  a  being  or  a  name  on  earth. 

It  would  be  impossible  to  impose  on  any  ancient 
nation  who  hath  such  traditions  a  set  of  new  names 
instead  of  their  own  ancestors,  or  to  coin  for  those 
places  where  they  performed  those  actions  new  names 
unknown  to  the  natives,  though  a  Plutarch,  a  Livy,  a 
Tacitus,  or  Caesar,  or  the  greatest  writer  and  the 
greatest  emperor  on  earth,  was  to  attempt  to  impose 
them.  The  body  of  a  nation  is  a  vast,  unwieldy,  and 
untameable  body,  not  to  be  thoroughly  bribed  or  cor- 
rupted or  frightened,  though  some  limbs  may.  So  also 
it  is  in  regard  to  the  imposing  a  language  on  a  nation. 
The  Komans  were  never  able  to  impose  the  Roman 
language  on  any  one  nation  in  the  world  when  they 
were  master  of  a  great  part  of  the  earth.  In  Britain, 
the  natives  paid  so  little  regard  to  the  Latin  tongue, 
though  they  were  under  the  Roman  government  for 
above  400  years,  that  there  is  but  very  obscure  tracks 
of  it  to  be  found  in  either  the  Welsh,  Irish,  Ersh,  or 
even  in  the  Axmorican-British,  which  was  the  Loegrian 
dialect,  and  immediately  under  their  hands. 

Everybody  the  least  versed  in  the  history  of  the 
Britains  and  in  the  Celtic  tongue  knows  that  the 
Roman  writers  were  entirely  ignorant  of  the  Celtic 
tongue,  and  prided  themselves  in  being  so ;  for  in  their 
proud  opinions  it  was  a  barbarous  language,  because 
they  were  masters,  as  they  reckoned,  of  the  languages 
of  all  the  nations  about  them  who  felt  the  weight  of 
their  blows ;  and  so  were  they  once  reckoned  by  the 


XXviii  INTRODUCTION. 

Greeks,  though  it  appears  by  their  own  writers,  especi- 
ally Pliny,  that  the  Gauls  were  not  only  equal  to  the 
Romans  in  arts  and  sciences,  but  far  superior  to  them, 
as  well  as  in  anns ;  Julius  Caesar  and  M.  T.  Cicero,  the 
greatest  men  Rome  ever  saw,  having  had  their  educa- 
tion under  Antonius  Gnipho,  a  Gaul.  The  taking  of 
Rome  by  the  Gauls  under  Brennus,  and  of  Greece  and 
Macedon  under  Belgius,  shews  they  were  then  superior 
in  arms.  The  panic  the  Romans  were  always  under 
when  the  Gauls  made  any  excursions  upon  them,  when 
even  their  prieste  were  not  exempt  from  bearing  arms 
upon  an  invasion  of  the  Gauls,  though  they  were  ex- 
empt at  all  other  times,  shews  the  greatness  of  the 
Celtic  empire  and  the  valour  of  the  Gauls. 

The  cause  of  the  conquest  of  the  Gauls  is  plainly 
owing  to  their  ill-founded  constitution,  for  being  divided 
into  abundance  of  petty  kingdoms  and  governments, 
they  fell  out  among  themselves,  and  gave  room  to  the 
ambitious  Romans  to  get  footing  among  them  ;  which 
was  also  the  case  of  Britain,  a  branch  of  them,  when 
Julius  Csesar  first  attempted  it. 

I  have  shewed  in  Chap.  II,  etc.,  that  for  many  ages 
past  Bi'itain  and  its  islands  hath  been  peopled  by  a 
mixture  of  the  CeltsB  and  Teutons.  Even  in  Caesar's 
time  some  colonies  from  the  Belgic  Gauls,  who  were 
Teutons,  had  settled  here,  as  the  British  history  and 
the  Triads  also  hint.  The  Welsh,  Cornish,  High- 
land Scotch,  and  Irish,  are  of  the  ancient  Celtic  race. 
Their  language  shews  it.  The  English  are  of  the  Teu- 
tonic race  in  the  main,  as  their  language  also  shews  it, 
laying  aside  all  other  evidences.  It  is  plain,  then, 
that  he  that  would  propose  to  write  of  the  remote  anti- 
quities of  the  English  nation^  for  example,  should  be 


INTRODUCTION.  XXIX 

thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  Teutonic  language, 
which  was  anciently  spoke  in  Germany  and  all  Tuytch- 
land.  All  the  languages  of  the  countries  north  of  Gaul 
are  branches  of  it. 

If  the  Teutons,  or  any  branch  of  them,  have  ancient 
MSS.,  coins,  or  inscriptions,  of  a  thousand  or  two  thou- 
sand years'  standing,  those  should  be  studied  and 
understood.  If  they  have  not  such  MSS.,  etc.,  Roman 
or  Greek  authors,  or  the  British  or  other  nations,  who 
have  wrote  of  them,  should  be  looked  into  ;  but  with 
this  caution,  that  no  foreign  writer  whatsoever  can  be 
depended  on  to  give  the  true  names  of  men  and  places 
in  another  nation.  Every  language  has  its  particular 
way  of  expression,  and  places  are  called  by  strangers  by 
different  names  from  what  the  natives  of  a  country  call 
them.  To  this  must  be  added  all  that  can  be  gathered 
from  oral  traditions,  and  the  body  of  the  Janguage,  and 
the  names  of  men  and  places  in  the  ancient  Teutonic 
dominions ;  and  particularly  their  proverbs  should  be 
looked  into,  which  every  nation  in  the  world  have 
endeavoured  to  excel  one  another  in,  and  where  a 
nation  s  temper  and  wisdom,  and  in  some  measure  their 
history,  may  be  as  well  read  as  an  individual's  temper 
may  be  read  in  his  works. 

With  these  helps  and  a  great  share  of  patience,  in- 
dustry, and  honesty,  and  a  knowledge  in  the  history  of 
neighbouring  nations,  a  man  might  sit  down  and  write 
the  history  of  the  Teutons  and  their  descendants,  the 
English,  as  to  what  regards  their  ancient  settlements, 
customs,  and  wars  ;  for  beyond  anything  yet  wrote  of 
them,  we  know  what  Verstegan  has  done  with  only 
some  of  these  helps.  To  attempt  the  ancient  history  of 
the  Teutons  without  these  qualifications  and  materials 


XXX  INTRODUCTION. 

is  to  attempt  to  make  bricks  without  clay  or  straw. 
How,  then  could  it  be  expected  of  a  Milton,  of  a  Selden, 
or  a  Camden  (though  men  of  the  greatest  capacities  and 
learning  in  other  respects),  to  do  anything  to  the  pur- 
pose in  the  antiquities  of  the  Celtic  nations,  the  Gauls, 
Britains,  and  Irish,  when  they  knew  little,  or,  indeed, 
nothing  in  eflfect,  of  the  Celtic  tongue  ?  And  yet, 
rather  than  that  the  world  should  think  that  they 
wanted  anything  to  bring  their  labours  to  perfection 
(such  is  the  pride  of  man),  they  have  thrown  a  cloud 
over  the  things  which  they  could  not  understand,  and 
endeavoured  to  invalidate  those  ancient  historians  of 
the  Britains  which  they  knew  nothing  of.  Camden 
hath,  indeed,  owned  that  the  root  of  our  British  anti- 
quities must  be  looked  out  for  in  the  British  tongue, 
meaning  the  Welsh, — a  language,  says  he,  pure  and 
unmixed  since  the  first  separation  from  the  ancient 
CeltcB.     Take  notice  of  this. 

In  the  next  chapters  we  wiU  see  what  he  hath  done 
towards  that  search,  and  whether  he  was  capable  of 
undertaking  it. 


CHAP.  VII. 

An  examination  into  MB.  CAMDEN'S  comparisons  op  some  CELTIC 
WORDS  WITH  THE  WELSH,  WHICH  WILL  SHEW  HOW  FAR  HIS  KNOW- 
LEDGE ON  THAT  HEAD  MAY  BE  DEPENDED  ON,  WHICH  MAY  BE  A 
CAVEAT  FOR  OTHERS  NOT  TO  LAUNCH  TOO  FAB  INTO  THOSE  DISQUI- 
SITIONS  TILL   THEY   ARE    PROPERLY   QUALIFIED. 

Mr.  Camden  published  the  first  edition  of  his  Britannia 
in  the  year  1586.  This  edition  is  the  only  one  T  have 
now  before  me  ;  and  we  are  sure  it  is  his  own;  though 
some  of  the  following  editions,  translations,  notes,  and 
additions,  may  not  be  properly  his,  and  therefore  he 


INTRODUCTION.  XXXI 

should  not  bear  the  blame  of  other  people's  errors.  In 
this  book  we  find  him  comparing  the  ancient  Gaulish 
words  found  in  Latin  writers  with  the  present  Welsh, 
to  prove  that  the  people  of  Gaul  and  Britain  spoke 
anciently  the  same  language.  But  as  Mr.  Camden  (as 
will  appear  by  and  by)  had  but  a  very  little  smattering 
in  the  British,  and  trusted  to  the  knowledge  of  others, 
he  hath  made  but  a  very  lame  piece  of  work  of  it ;  as 
he  has  everywhere,  through  his  whole  book,  where  he 
attempts  to  give  etymologies,  or  to  compare  this  lan- 
guage with  others.  He  should  have  been  acquainted 
not  only  with  the  language,  but  with  the  ancient  Celtic 
orthography  in  our  old  MSS. ;  and  to  have  been  able 
to  distinguish  between  it  and  the  modern,  which  would 
have  showed  the  similitude  of  words,  which  otherwise 
cannot  be  done. 

Mr.  Camden,  out  of  Ausonius,  says  that  Divona  sig- 
nifies the  Fountain  of  the  Gods,  and  that  God  is  Dyw, 
and  a  fountain  vonaUy  in  the  British ;  and  so  from 
hence  the  Latins  made  Divonan,  and  for  verse  sake, 
Divona.  All  this  is  wrong,  and  sad  guess-worL  Neither 
Dyw  nor  vonan  are  British  words,  either  in  the  ancient 
or  modern  orthography.  In  the  ancient  orthography 
God  was  wrote  Div,  and  in  the  modem,  Duvk  A  well 
or  fountain  was  in  the  ancient  orthography  wrote  ^non, 
in  the  modem  ffynhon.  So  Divjinon  or  Duw  ffynhon 
might,  for  aught  I  know,  in  the  Gaulish  dialect,  signify 
God's  Well ;  but  it  could  not  be  in  the  British, — the 
language  will  not  bear  it.  The  expression  would  be 
ffynhon-dduw.  We  have  at  this  day  a  well  in  Wales 
called  Ffynhon  Dduw  (or  God's  Well) ;  but  Divonan 
hath  no  meaning  in  the  British. 

On  was,  I  am  sure,  a  primitive  Celtic  word  for  water. 


XXXll  INTRODUCTION, 

as  appears  by  its  compounds, — avori,  a  river ;  ffynon,  a 
spring  ;  tonn,  a  wave ;  eigion,  the  ocean ;  and  perhaps 
Llivon,  a  river  s  name,  q.  d.  Liuon,  flood  of  water.  And 
the  very  name  of  Anglesey  [Mon)  may  be  originally 
ym  driy  i.e.,  in  the  water.  And  the  ancient  names  of 
rivers,  Onwy,  Conwy,  Trydonwy,  must  be  looked  for 
here.  What  hinders,  then,  but  that  Divon  in  the 
Gaxilish  might  signify  God's  Water,  without  drawing 
the  British  by  the  hair  of  the  head  to  serve  a  cause  ? 


CHAP.   VIII. 


Of  the  hesus  of  lucan  and  the  heus  of  lactantius,  one  of 

THE   gods   of  the   GAULS. 

Mr.  Camden  says  this  god  was  painted  under  the  form 
of  a  dog,  and  that  Huath  in  the  British  signifies  a  dog. 
A  Cambro-British  reader  would  infer  from  hence  that 
Mr.  Camden  knew  more  of  the  matter  than  others  did, 
or  else  knew  nothing  at  all  of  the  matter ;  for  that  in 
common  use,  or  in  dictionaries,  or  in  ancient  writings, 
Huath  was  never  the  word  for  a  dog,  and  doth  not  in 
the  British  language  signify  anything.  Huad  (not 
huath),  indeed,  is  a  hound,  but  not  a  dog  in  general ; 
and  in  the  Cornish  dialect  it  would  have  been  pro- 
nounced huaz,  which  is  not  far  from  Lactantius  s  Heus, 
but  nothing  like  Mr.  Camden's  huath. 


CHAP.  IX. 


Of  the   GAULISH  WORD  GESSATJl,  WHICH  POLTBIUS   SATS  WAS  THE  NAME 
GIVEN  THE   MEROENARir  SOLDIERS   IN   THE   GAULISH   TONGUE. 

Mr.  Camden  says  that  Guessin  in  the  British  signified 
hired   servants;    but   every   hired   servant    in  Wales 


INTRODUCTION.  XXXIU 

knows  that  he  waa  mistaken,  for  gwas  in  the  British 
and  Armoric  signifies  a  servant ;  and  giiessin,  or,  as 
the  Welsh  write  it,  gwesyn,  is  a  diminutive  of  gwas^  as 
servvlus  is  of  servus.  But  there  was  no  occasion  to 
look  out  for  a  diminutive  when  gwas  would  have  done 
as  well. 

The  word  Gessatw  should  rather  be  derived  from 
cematt,  in  the  modem  orthography  ceisiaid,  men  that 
we  have  been  obliged  to  seek  for,  or  a  help  sought  for, 
auxiliaries,  being  not  our  own  people,  but  hired. 


CHAP.  X. 

Of  THV   GAULISH  WORD  GBSSI,  WHICH  SERYIUS   SATS    SIGNIFIED  IN  THI 

GAULISH  "VIEI   FOETES",  VALLiNT  HEN. 

Mr.  Camdeit  says  that  Gtiassdewr  in  the  British  sig- 
nifies fortis  and  strenuus,  that  is,  valiant  and  active. 
This  was  right  for  aught  Mr.  Camden  knew ;  but  he 
should  not  have  meddled  with  the  language  if  he  had 
not  known  better.  This  gwas  detvr,  falsely  wrote  guass- 
dewr^  is  two  words ;  and  by  the  nature  and  texture  of 
the  language  it  cannot  possibly  be  a  compound,  which 
would  be  dewr  was ;  and  it  would  not  serve  the  pur- 
pose, for  it  would  lose  the  g. 

Gvxis  is  a  servant,  and  dewr  valiant ;  but  what 
hath  a  servant  to  do  in  this  case  ?  To  no  purpose  in 
the  world  but  to  make  a  similitude  of  sounds  between 
Gessi  and  gwas.  Thus  it  is  when  we  walk  in  the  dark 
we  knock  our  heads  against  the  walls. 

Dewr^  of  the  two  words,  is  that  which  hath  the  sig- 
nification of  valour  or  strength  here  ;  and  a  gwas  may 
be  without  any  valour.  But  can  anybody  find  any 
similitude  between  dewr  and  Oessi  ? 


XXXIV  INTRODUCTION. 

So  if  Gessi  in  the  Gaulish  tongue  had  signified 
cowards,  Mr.  Camden  could  have  made  the  British 
tongue  to  answer  that  too,  by  adding  llwrf  to  it ;  and 
by  this  new  method  of  comparing  languages,  all  the 
nations  in  the  world  may  be  proved  to  have  spoke  the 
same  language  in  the  time  of  the  Romans.  Chvas  llwrf 
makes  as  good  a  show  in  a  Latin  book  as  gwass  dewr. 

It  will  be  objected  that  Mr.  Camden's  opinion  was 
right  according  to  my  own  confession,  though  his  proofs 
were  wrong.  The  answer  is  in  everybody's  mouth, — 
Falsehood  cannot  produce  Truth.  If  it  was  asserted 
that  Caesar  transported  his  troops  into  Britain  in  cockle- 
shells, it  would  want  a  proof  that  he  transported  here 
any  troops  at  all.  But  the  word  in  Virgil,  from  whence 
it  is  taken,  is  GesuSy  and  not  Gess^us, — 

Duo  qaisqne  Alpina  corascant 


Gesa  znana. 

And  Gesa,  says  Servius  in  his  notes  on  Virgil,  is  Has^ 
tates  viriles;  for  the  Gauls,  says  he,  call  strong  men 
Gesos.  So  that  the  truth  is,  this  gesa  of  VirgU  signified 
the  Gaulish  youth,  or  young  men,  active  in  arms ;  for 
gwas  in  the  old  Celtic  signified  a  young  man,  as  goas 
doth  still  in  the  Armoric ;  and  in  that  sense  the  word 
was  used  in  Britain  about  1200  years  ago,  as  we  find  in 
the  works  of  Lly warch  Hen  : 

Am  gwymp  h^n  chwerddid  gw6n  gwas. 
(The  yoang  laughs  at  the  fall  of  the  old.) 

LI,  Hen,  Engl.  Calanganaf. 

And  it  is  used  in  that  sense  to  this  day  in  Wales,  in 
some  places,  particularly  in  Cardiganshire.  Dere  'ngwas 
(Come,  my  lad). 


INTRODUCTION.  XXXV 

CHAP.   XI. 

Of  the   GAULISH  WORD   PENNINUM   IN  CJISAB  AND   LIYT. 

Alpibus  PenniniSy  the  highest  top  of- the  Alps.  Livy 
says  it  doth  not  come  from  Hannibal  and  his  Phoenicians 
passing  over  it,  but  from  the  Gaulish  word  Penninum, 
signifying  the  highest  tops  of  mountains.  Mr.  Camden 
says  that  the  Britains  call  the  tops  of  mountains  pen, 
and  proves  it  from  their  having  the  highest  mountains 
in  Wales  called  Pen-mon  Maur,  Pendle,  and  Pennigent, 
and  that  the  name  of  the  Appenine  in  Italy  comes  from 
no  other  original.  This  last  assertion  may  be  true,  but 
it  doth  not  follow  so  from  these  proofs,  which  are  false. 

We  have  no  moimtain  in  Wales  called  Penmon  Maur. 
Then  what  is  become  of  the  argument  ?  But  we  have 
a  mountain  called  Penmaen  Mawr  ;  but  far  from  being 
one  of  the  highest  mountains  in  Wales.  And  it  was 
not  called  so  because  of  its  height ;  for  there  is  another 
little  mountain  near  it,  called  Penmaen  Bach;  and  their 
names  signify  Great  Penmaen  and  Little  Penmaen. 

There  are  other  places  of  this  name  which  are  not 
high  mountains,  as  Penmaen  Bhos,  Dol  Benmaen,  etc. 
Penmaen  signifies  the  top  of  a  stone  or  rock  ;  but  Pen-* 
man  is  a  place  in  Anglesey,  where  there  is  no  high  rock ; 
but  is  so  called  because  it  is  the  extreme  end  of  Mon, 
or  Anglesey,  for  pen  signifies  also  the  extreme  end  of  a 
thing  as  well  as  the  top  or  head. 

Pendle  Mountain,  mentioned  by  Mr.  Camden,  is  not 
to  be  found  in  Wales  under  that  name  ;  nor  can  I  find 
what  place  he  meant  by  Pennigent. 

But  to  pass  over  these  wild  guesses  without  founda- 
tion, we  will  examine  about  the  meaning  of  the  word  pen. 

Pen^  properly  in  the  Celtic,  is  a  head,  as  pen  dyn, 
man's  head. 


XXXVl  INTRODUCTION. 

Pen,  applied  to  an  office,  is  chief,  as  penswyddog  is 
chief  officer. 

Pen,  applied  to  manufactured  matter,  signifies  the 
extreme  end  of  a  thing,  as  dau  henffon,  the  two  ends  of 
a  stick. 

Pen,  applied  to  time,  signifies  end  or  extreme,  as 
pen  y  Jlwyddynj  the  year's  end ;  which  Celtic  phrases 
produced  Nennius's  caput  anni,  for  the  year  s  end,  which 
shews  Nennius  was  a  Welshman. 

Pen,  applied  to  a  thing  that  stands  erect,  signifies 
end,  as  pen  uchaf,  pen  isaf^  the  uppermost  end  and  the 
lowermost  end. 

Pen,  applied  to  land  or  high  ground,  signifies  summit 
or  top,  as  pen  yr  allt,  the  top  of  the  hill ;  pen  y  mynydd, 
the  top  of  the  mountain  ;  pen  y  graig,  the  top  of  a  rock. 
And  there  are  places  of  all  these  names. 

But  Penninum,  take  off  the  Latin  termination  wm,  is 
plainly  Pennin ;  and  in  the  ancient  Celtic  orthography 
which  hath  been  used  by  the  Britains  till  of  late  years, 
the  word  Penwyn,  which  signifies  white  top  or  white 
head,  was  wrote  Penvin.  I  will  leave  the  rest  to  the 
reader's  judgment  to  determine  whether  Penninum  was 
not  formed  from  Penwyn,  Penvinum, 

There  is  no  manner  of  doubt  but  the  Apennine 
Mountains,  which  reach  from  the  Alps  through  all  Italy 
to  its  extreme  end,  were  so  called  from  the  Gaulish 
word  E  Penvin,  the  white  top  mountain,  which  in  the 
present  British  orthography  would  be  Y  Penwyn.  We 
have  a  very  high  mountain  in  Wales  whose  name  was 
fonned  from  words  of  the  same  signification,  Be}^y7i, 
from  bar,  top,  and  gwyn,  white ;  and  also  several 
mountains  which  have  pen  in  their  names,  as  Penbre, 
Penllech,  Peniarth,  Pen  v  Darren,  Penmaen,  etc. 


IKTRODUCTION.  XXXVU 


CHAP.    XIL 

Of    the    GAULISH    WORD    BAGHAUDJE,   WHICH    WERE   CERTAIN    BANDS   OF 

MEN,  IN  Diocletian's  time,  that  strove  in  qaul  against  the 

ROMAN  POWER. 

Mr.  Camden  saya  that  the  Romans  gave  the  name  of 
Bacaudarum  to  some  multitudes  of  rustics  that  raised 
against  the  Romans  in  Gaul  in  Diocletian's  time ;  and 
that  Beichiad  in  the  British  is  a  swineherd.  What 
occasion  was  there  to  turn  these  bands  of  soldiers  into 
swineherds  ?  Would  not  shoemakers,  tailors,  or  any 
other  tradesmen  that  armies  are  composed  of  have  done 
as  well  ?  But  we  should  have  been  told  that  these 
Bacaudse  were  also  called  Bagaudae  and  Bagodae.  (See 
Prosper  in  Chron.,  and  Salvianus,  L.  G.)  And  I  must 
here  inform  the  reader  that  Beichiad  doth  not,  nor 
ever  did,  in  the  British  or  any  branch  of  the  Celtic, 
signify  a  swineherd.  The  word  is  meichiad  in  the 
British,  as  plainly  derived  from  mock,  swine,  as  the 
English  word  shepherd  is  from  sheep.  And  in  the 
Irish,  muicidhe  is  a  swineherd,  from  muCy  swine ;  as  if 
we  should  say  in  Welsh  mochyddy  which  shews  how 
these  Celtic  dialects  support  one  another.  Meichiaidy 
by  no  declensions  or  flections  of  nouns,  can  ever  be 
turned  to  Beichiaid,  and  was  the  word  in  use  in  Britain 
twelve  hundred  years  ago,  as  appears  by  Lly warch  Hen : 

Bid  lawen  meichiad  wrth  nchenaid  gwynt. — Engl,  y  Bidiau, 

That  is,  let  the  swineherd  rejoice  at  the  sighs  of  the 
wind ;  because  on  a  hard  gale  of  wind  the  acorns  fall  to 
feed  his  swine. 

But  what  similitude  is  there  between  meichiad  and 
BagaudcB  or  Bagodw  ?   If  Mr.  Camden  had  been  versed 

/ 


XXXVIU  INTRODUCTION. 

in  the  different  dialects  of  the  Celtic  retained  to  this 
day  in  Ireland,  the  Highlands,  Armorica,  and  Wales, 
he  would  have  seen  that  Bagach  in  Irish  is  war- 
like, that  Bagat  in  the  Armoric  signifies  a  troop  or 
crew,  and  that  Bagad  or  Bagawd  in  the  British  signifies 
the  same  with  the  Latin  turmcB,  a  troop  or  a  company 
of  horsemen.  To  shew  its  affinity  with  BacaudcB  better, 
the  word  was  wrote  by  the  ancient  Celtaa  Bacavd. 
Who  would  ever  look  out  for  swineherds  to  prove  this, 
and  not  be  able  to  find  them  at  last  ? 


CHAP.  XIII. 

Of  the  GAULISH  WORD   BRACCA. 

I  SHALL  not  dwell  long  on  Mr.  Camden  s  comparison  of 
hratt  (a  rag)  in  the  British  with  bracccB,  a  kind  of  wear- 
ing apparel  used  by  the  Gauls  and  Britains,  which 
Diod.  Siculus  [says]  was  of  various  colours;  nor  on 
Mr.  Selden,  in  his  Mare  Clausum,  making  breeches  of 
it.  Who  that  ever  saw  a  North  British  plad  can  help 
observing  that  braccis,  hracca,  or  hrachaSy  is  the  same 
with  the  British  hrych-ivisg,  in  the  old  orthography 
brecvisc,  which  very  name  describes  a  Scotch  plad  ? 
For  brechwisg  signifies  a  party-coloured  dress.  Surely 
it  cannot  be  from  rags  that  the  whole  nation  of  the 
Gallia  Brdccata  had  their  name,  but  from  wearing  this 
plad. 

CHAP.  XIV. 

Op  the    OAU^ilSH   WORD  BRANCE. 

Mr.  Camden  compares  the  Gaulish  word  Brance  with 
what  he  calls  a  British  word,  guinenth  vraiic.     I  am 


INTRODUCTION.  XXXIX 

sorry  to  see  any  man  guilty  of  such  an  intolerable 
blunder.  In  the  first  place  there  are  no  such  words  in 
the  British  as  guinenth  wane.  If  he  meant  gweniih 
Ffrainc,  it  signifies  French  wheat,  which  is  but  a  modem 
word.  But  this  word  hrance  is  mentioned  so  far  back 
as  the  time  of  Pliny  to  be  a  Gaulish  word  for  some  kind 
of  grain  or  bread-corn,  barley,  rye,  or  wheat ;  therefore 
Ffranc  had  then  no  business  with  it,  it  being  before 
the  Ffranks  had  any  footing  in  Gaul,  and  is  quite  out 
of  the  question. 

What,  then,  is  the  Gaulish  word  hrance  f  Bara  in 
the  British  and  Armoric  signifies  bread,  from  whence  it 
may  be  more  rationally  derived  than  from  a  Frank  or 
an  Alman. 


CHAP.  XV. 


Of  THB  GAULISH  WORD  GLISCO  HERGA,  WHICH  THE  ROMANS  CALLED 
CANDIDA  MERGA.  THIS  IS  THAT  KIND  OF  EARTH  WITH  WHICH  WE 
MANDRB  GROUND,  BY  THE  ENGLISH  AS  WELL  AS  WELSH  CALLED  MARL. 

This  white  merga,  Mr.  Camden  says,  might  be  in 
British  called  gluys  marl,  for  that  ghcys  in  British  sig- 
nifies splendid.  Glwys^  and  not  gluys,  is  the  word;  but  it 
never  signifies  splendid,  nor  can  be  applied  in  any  sense 
as  an  adjective  to  marl.  The  meaning  of  it  is  holy, 
pure,  fair.  But  if  Mr.  Camden  had  known  that  the 
ancient  Britains,  for  glaswyn  varl,  i.e.,  bluish  white 
marl,  wrote  glasgvin  margl,  he  need  not  have  strained 
glwys  out  of  its  own  sense.  Marl  gwyn,  or  marl  glas- 
wyn, is  the  word  used  in  Wales  for  white  marl  to  this 
day  ;  which,  if  turned  into  a  compoimd  (for  which  this 
language  is  as  remarkable  as  the  Greek),  will  make 
glasivyn  varl. 


xl  INTRODUCTION. 

CHAP.    XVI. 

Of  the   GAULISH  WORD  GALEA. 

This  word  is  found  in  Suetonius,  and  signified  among 
the  Gauls,  very  fat.  Mr.  Camden  compares  it  with  gall- 
uus,  which  he  says  is  a  British  word  signifying  prcB- 
grandis,  very  great  or  large.  But  galluus  never  hath 
that  signification  in  the  British,  but  always  signifies 
powerful,  potent,  valiant,  or  strong,  as  galach  also  doth 
in  the  Irish,  and  gallondus  in  the  Armoric.  How  sur- 
prisingly these  languages  agree  that  have  been  so  long 
separated  1 

Suppose  Mr.  Camden  had  it  his  own  way;  very  great 
and  large  is  not  always  very  fat.  A  very  little  mouse 
may  be  very  fat,  and  a  very  great  and  large  elephant 
may  be  very  lean.  If  Mr.  Camden  hath  fallen  into  such 
traps,  what  will  become  of  the  little,  piddling  etymo- 
logists ?  We  have  no  word  in  any  of  the  branches  of 
the  Celtic  this  day  that  sounds  like  Galha,  signifying 
fat.     So  if  it  ever  was,  it  is  lost. 


CHAP.  XVII. 

Of  the   GAULISH  WORD   CEBYI8IA. 

Cervisia,  says  Mr.  Camden,  the  Gaulish  word  for 
ale  or  beer,  agrees  with  the  British  keirch,  i.e.,  oats, 
of  which  the  Britains  made  drink  in  many  places. 
We  should  have  been  told  also  that  the  word  is  also 
wrote  cerevisia,  and  that  Pliny  attributes  this  liquor  to 
the  Gauls,  and  says  they  made  it  of  barley.  How  comes 
it,  then,  to  be  derived  from  oats  ?  Let  any  man  travel 
through  Wales,  and  he  will  learn  at  every  alehouse 
that  ale  made  of  barley-malt,  which  is  the  only  ale  they 


INTRODUCTION.  xll 

sell  there,  is  called  cwrw^  and  sometimes  wrote  cwrf  or 
cwryfy  and  in  the  ancient  orthography  was  cvriv. 
Would  anybody  then  look  out  for  keirch  (oats)  to  com- 
pare with  cerevisiaf  The  Britains  know  of  no  other 
name  for  this  liquor,  which  was  common  to  them  and 
the  Gauls,  than  cwt^^  currf,  or  cwryfy  which  the  Gauls, 
*  by  a  small  variation  of  dialect,  might  call  cyrvys ;  and 
the  word  this  day,  in  Wales,  for  cervisarius  is  cyrvydd. 

Pobjdd  a  chjrvydd  a  cbog. 

The  poets,  who  were  well  acquainted  with  this  liquor, 
knew  how  to  name  it. 

Cwrw  a  gei  ts  Crag  lenan. — L.  0,  Oothi, 

Griafonllwyn  cwrf  unlliw. — Outt6*r  Qlyn. 

Eli  calon  carw  da. — Prov, 
(Good  ale  is  a  salv^e  to  the  heart.) 

If  anybody  is  so  obstinate  as  to  say  that  the  Britains 
borrowed  their  cwrw  from  the  cerevisia  of  the  B/omans, 
which  the  Bomans  had  formerly  borrowed  from  the 
Gauls,  they  would  do  well  to  consider  that  the  Gauls 
and  Britains  had  this  liquor  in  common;  and  the 
Britains  had  more  occasion  for  it  than  the  Gauls,  as  it 
supplied  the  place  of  wine ;  therefore  it  is  very  extra- 
ordinary that  the  Britains  should  forget  the  name  of 
their  darling  liquor,  and  borrow  it  of  the  Bomans,  who 
had  onlv  borrowed  it  from  the  Gauls. 

I  might  add  many  more  words  which  Mr.  Camden 
hath  misapplied,  as  Zana,  bulga,  planeraty  zitham,  Mo^ 
rini,  etc. ;  but  this  is  sufficient  to  shew  that  a  person 
not  perfectly — nay,  even  critically — acquainted  with  a 
language  ought  not  to  meddle  with  its  roots  and  ety- 
mologies ;  and  that  we  cannot  expect  a  tolerable  exact- 
ness in  the  Greeks'  and  Bomans'  manner  of  writing  our 


xlii  INTRODUCTION. 

names  of  men  and  places  when  men  of  very  great 
learning,  and  who  had  opportunities  of  being  better 
informed,  could  commit  such  slips  as  we  see  are  here 
committed.  Had  not  we,  then,  better  study  our  own 
natural  antiquities,  the  several  branches  of  the  Celtic 
tongue,  and  the  remains  left  of  the  history  of  that 
nation,  than  trust  to  any  foreign  aid  found  to  be  so 
insuflftcient  ? 


CHAP.  xvin. 

Of  the   BRITISH  AUTHORS  QUOTED  IN   THE   FOLLOWING  COLLECTION. 

As  there  are  British  authors  and  treatises  quoted  in 
this  book,  some  of  which  are  very  little,  if  at  aD,  known 
among  English  antiquaries,  it  will  not  be  amiss  to  give 
some  account  of  them,  that  every  authority  may  have 
its  proper  weight,  and  neither  more  nor  less  than  the 
weight  it  should  have  ;  for  we  should  not  deceive,  but 
instruct.  I  shall  slightly  touch  on  the  most  ancient  of 
them,  so  as  to  direct  the  curious  that  hath  a  mind  to 
make  a  further  inquiry. 

1st.  The  most  ancient  British  remains  extant,  or  at 
least  that  hath  come  into  my  hands,  is  the  British  his- 
tory called  Brut  y  Brenhinoeddy  or  the  Traditions  of  the 
British  Bards,  of  which  we  have  several  very  ancient 
copies  in  Wales  in  the  British  tongue.  It  begins  with 
the  Trojan  colony,  and  ends  with  the  reign  of  Cadwal- 
adr,  the  last  King  of  the  Britains.  It  hath  gone  among 
the  Britains  under  the  name  of  Tyssilio,  a  Bishop,  son 
of  Brochvael  Ysgithrog,  Prince  of  Powys,  who  seems  to 
me  to  be  only  the  continuer  of  it  from  the  Roman  con- 
quest to  his  own  time,  about  the  year  620  ;  and  that  it 
was  afterwards  continued  to  the  time  of  Cadwaladr  by 


INTRODUCTION.  xliii 

another  hand,  who  quotes  a  particular  copy  of  Bede's 
Ecclesiastical  History^  which  is  not  extant. 

This  history  of  the  Britons,  about  the  year  1150,  was 
mangled  and  translated  into  Latin  by  Galfrid,  Arch- 
deacon of  Monmouth,  afterwards  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph ; 
and  in  that  shape,  in  Latin,  taking  the  name  of  the 
translator,  it  hath  been  mauled  and  abused  by  all  the 
English  almost  that  have  wrote  of  the  affairs  of  Britain 
since  Camden's  time,  and  by  French  and  Dutch  and 
everybody,  though  none  of  them  ever  saw  the  original 
author  in  the  British  tongue.  This  the  Britains  look 
upon  to  be  very  foul  play,  and  such  usage  as  was  never 
offered  to  any  other  author  in  the  world;  for  the  ancient 
British  copy  differs  greatly  from  Galfrid's  translation 
both  in  names  and  facts.  See  more  of  this  author  in 
chap.  . . .  and  in  title  Brut. 

2nd.  The  next  is  Myrddin  Emrys,  commonly  Latin- 
ized Merlinus  Ambrosius,  who  flourished  about  the  year 
450.  We  have  some  of  his  works  extant  in  the  British 
tongue.  See  more  of  him  in  chap.  ...  and  in  the  let- 
ter J/. 

3rd.  The  next  is  Lly  warch,  surnamed  Hen,  or  Lly- 
warch  the  Old,  a  prince  or  nobleman  of  the  borders  of 
North  Britain.  He  wrote  of  the  wars  of  his  own  time, 
in  which  he  was  concerned,  and  in  the  war-verse  called 
by  the  Britains  Englyn  milwr.  He  was  one  of  King 
Arthur's  generals,  and  of  his  council  (as  appears  by  the 
Triades),  and  lived  to  a  very  great  age.  He  ended  his 
days  in  Wales,  after  he  had  lost  his  country  and  family. 
We  have  extant,  and  I  have  now  in  my  hands,  several 
of  his  works.  It  seems  he  began  to  write  about  the 
year  520,  and  lived  to  the  time  of  Cadwallon,  which 
must  be  about  150  years,  and  his  name  implies  it. 


xliv  INTRODUCTION. 

4th.  Gildas,  the  angry  monk,  a  North  Briton,  is  the 
next  in  time.  He  wrote  in  Latin  about  the  year  560. 
What  we  have  of  him  has  been  mangled  by  the 
monks.     See  chap.  ...  and  under  letter  (?. 

5th.  Myrddin  Wyllt,  Aneurin  Wawdrydd,  and 

6th.  Taliessin.  All  flourished  in  the  reign  of  Mael- 
gwn  Gwynedd  over  the  Britains  about  the  year  570. 

Myrddin  Wyllt  was  a  Caledonian  or  Pictish  Briton, 
of  whose  works  we  have  several  very  curious  pieces 
extant  relating  to  the  wars  of  that  age. 

I  have  met  with  but  few  pieces  of  Aneurin  Wawd- 
rydd. His  Gododin,  an  heroic  poem,  is  the  most  curious. 

But  of  Taliessin's  works  we  have  a  great  deal ;  but 
I  think  more  mangled  than  any  of  the  rest,  because 
oftener  copied.  His  Beddau  Milwyr  Y7iys  Prydaiuy  or 
Tombs  of  the  Warriors  of  Britain,  is  a  noble  piece  of 
antiquity,  and  strikes  a  great  light  on  the  history  of 
those  times,  when  compared  with  the  TriadeSy  the  Bruty 
and  the  succeeding  writers. 

8th.  The  next  thing  of  note  which  I  have  met  with 
is  the  TriadeSy  called  in  the  British  Trioedd  Ynys 
Prydain.  This  little,  curious  treatise,  or  most  of  it,  I 
take  to  have  been  wrote  about  the  year  650,  and  some 
part  of  it  collected  out  of  the  most  ancient  monuments 
of  the  kingdom  ;  but  not  from  the  same  fountain  with 
Brut  y  Brenhinoeddy  as  there  are  facts  and  matters  in 
the  TriadeSy  before  the  Roman  conquest,  not  to  be 
found  in  the  Brut ;  and  also  several  things  after  the 
Roman  and  Saxon  conquests  which  the  author  of  Brut 
y  Brenhinoedd  never  would  have  omitted  if  he  had  met 
with  them. 

As  the  battles  of  Cadwallon  are  mentioned  in  the 
TriadeSy  and  Cadwaladr  also  once  mentioned,  I  suppose 


INTRODUCTION.  xlv 

it  to  have  been  finished  about  the  year  680  or  soon 
after,  though  it  hath  not  been  the  good  luck  of  Nen- 
nius,  who  wrote  almost  two  hundred  years  afterwards, 
to  have  met  with  it 

9th.  Soon  after  this  was  wrote  Hanes  y  24  Brenhyn^ 
the  History  of  the  twenty- four  kings  that  were  most 
famous  for  building  cities,  etc.,  the  ancient  Saxon  names 
being  added  to  the  British  names  of  the  cities.  Guttyn 
Owen,  the  poet,  about  the  year  1480,  hath  left  a  copy 
of  this  in  his  own  handwriting ;  and,  it  seems,  copied 
the  very  errors  in  his  original,  for  he  knew  better  than 
to  commit  those  errors ;  a  copy  of  which  I  have,  besides 
some  other  copies  of  it.  As  this  differs  from  the  account 
in  Brut  y  Brenhyaoedd,  it  must  have  been  taken  from 
some  other  authority,  for  there  has  been  no  attempt 
made  in  any  of  the  old  copies  of  it  that  I  have  seen,  to 
make  it  agree  with  the  history  of  Tyssilio.  Mr.  Vaughan 
of  Nannau  has  an  old  copy  from  Guttyn  Owens  MS., 
A.D.  1767. 

10th.  Nennius,  said  to  be  Abbot  of  Bangor  is  y  Coed, 
and  (as  he  calls  himself)  disciple  to  Elbod,  Bishop 
of  North  Wales,  is  the  next  in  time.  He  wrote  a  his- 
tory of  the  Britains,  in  Latin,  about  the  year  840  ;  but 
all  the  copies  we  have  of  it  in  the  public  libraries,  under 
the  name  of  Nennius,  Gildas  Nennius,  Gildas  Minor, 
etc.,  are  exceeding  incorrect,  owing  to  the  ignorance  of 
transcribers  ;  and  most,  if  not  all,  the  copies  we  have 
of  it  at  Oxford,  Cambridge,  Cotton  Library,  etc.,  have 
been  done  by  a  North  Briton,  as  appears  by  his  writing 
mac  for  mab  (son)  in  the  genealogy  of  Gwrtheyrn ; 
unless  we  suppose  that  Samuel  Beulanus,  who  wrote 
the  genealogies,  was  a  North  Briton ;  or  that  Gildas  ap 
Caw,  the  North  Briton,  was  the  author ;  for  this  mac 

9 


xlvi  INTRODUCTION. 

is  no  more  than  a  deviation  of  dialect  from  mah,  and 
may  be  a  Loegrian  distinction. 

This  history  was  published,  with  several  others,  by 
Dr.  Gale  at  Oxford,  a.d.  1691,  but  is  very  incorrect, 
and  the  notes  and  various  readings  tend  more  to  con- 
found than  instruct,  Mr.  Gale  being  entirely  unac- 
quainted with  the  British  language  and  writings. 

There  is  a  curious  copy  of  this  author,  which  I  have 
seen,  in  the  handwriting  of  the  great  antiquary,  Mr. 
Rob.  Vaughan,  in  Hengwrt  Library,  compared  with  the 
MSS.  in  Oxford,  Cambridge,  Cotton  Library,  Mr.  Sel- 
den's,  Mr.  Camden's,  Sir  Simon  D'Ewes,  Dr.  Markham, 
Usher,  etc.,  besides  several  other  copies  in  other  parts 
of  Wales,  as  at  Llannerch,  Cors  y  Gedol,  etc. 

Mr.  Gale  has  left  part  of  this  author  unpublished, 
because  something  of  the  same  kind  was  in  Eanulph 
Higden,  an  author  that  wrote  about  five  hundred  years 
after  him.  What  shall  we  call  this  usage  of  our  ancieat 
British  author  ?  W  ould  Mr.  Gale  have  been  allowed 
to  use  Bede  after  this  manner,  without  being  lashed  to 
pieces  for  cutting  off  the  limbs  of  a  venerable,  ancient 
writer,  as  he  is  called  ?  Why  then  is  the  British  Nen- 
nius  to  be  mutilated  and  cut  into  piecemeal  ?  It  is 
pity  he  is  not  taken  care  of  by  some  able  hand. 

Some  think  that  this  book  of  Nennius  was  begun  by 
Gildas,  author  of  the  epistle  De  Excidio  BritannicB^ 
about  the  year  560,  and  only  continued  by  Nennius  ; 
for  it  is  quoted  by  the  name  of  Gildas  in  Tyssilio,  and 
by  many  of  our  English  historians,  and  by  Sir  John 
Pryse  and  Humphrey  Llwyd  ;  besides  that  in  two 
MSS.  in  the  Cotton  Library  it  is  to  be  seen  wrote  after 
the  61st  chapter,  "  Here  endeth  the  Acts  of  the  Britains 
wrote  by  Gildas  Sapiens."     But  Nennius,  in  his  pre- 


INTRODUCTION.  xlvii 

face,  says  it  was  his  own  collection  from  traditions, 
writings,  and  ancient  British  monuments,  and  also  from 
foreign  authors. 

It  seems  to  me,  then,  that  Gildas  ap  Caw,  the  author 
of  the  epistle,  was  not  the  author  of  this  ;  but  the  real 
author  8  first  name  was  Gildas,  and  after  he  had  taken 
his  degree  of  abbot,  took  the  name  of  Nennius,  which 
was  a  common  thing  in  those  early  times ;  for  we  know 
Rhu7i  ap  Urien  was  named  Paulinus  by  Pope  Gregory 
upon  his  being  made  a  missionary  to  the  Saxons  ;  and 
that  the  true  name  of  St.  Patrick  was  Maenvryn,  but 

was  named  Patricius  by  Pope  upon  his  being 

made  his  legate  to  Ireland.  So  it  is  no  improbable 
thing  that  Nennius  was  this  man's  ecclesiastical  name 
only,  and  that  the  book  is  entitled  (as  it  is  in  some 
ancient  copies)  Gildas  Nennius,  to  distinguish  it  from 
Gildas  ap  Caw,  the  North  Briton  ;  and  in  some  copies 
Gildas  Minor,  as  that  at  Oxford  ;  in  others,  Gildas 
Sapiens  (by  mistake  I  suppose) ;  and  in  others,  plain 
Nennius.  And  this  gave  a  handle  to  persons  that  knew 
nothing  of  it,  such  as  Polydore  Virgil  and  his  followers 
Vertot,  Nicolson,  etc.,  to  call  it  Pseudo-Gildas,  or  false 
Gildas,  as  if  it  was  impossible  there  should  be  two 
men  of  the  name  of  Gildas.     See  more  in  chap 

11th.  Our  MSS.  of  genealogies,  which  are  spread  all 
over  the  kingdom,  and  agree  in  the  main  without  any 
material  difference,  are  some  of  the  most  ancient  remains 
of  Celtic  antiquities  now  in  being,  and  bespeak  them- 
selves to  be  genuine ;  for  it  is  impossible  to  impose  a 
whole  race  of  ancestors  on  any  single  man,  let  alone  the 
whole  nation  ;  and  these  genealogies  must  naturally  be 
continued  from  age  to  age,  from  father  to  son  ;  and  in 
a  nation  who  have  always  kept  their  ground  since  their 


xlviii  INTRODUCTION. 

first  plantation,  it  is  ridiculous  to  imagine  that  they 
would  change  their  ancestors  for  any  new-fangled^ 
names.  These  antiquities  of  the  Britains  are  different 
enough  from  any  supposed  genealogies  that  may  be 
called  Saxon,  for  those  nations  are  owned  to  be  illite- 
rate (and  no  man  hath  pretended  to  prove  them  other- 
wise) when  they  invaded  this  island.  The  Britons, 
then,  have  no  small  reason  to  glory  in  their  ancient 
genealogies,  as  they  are  such  a  considerable  evidence  of 
their  antiquity  in  their  native  country.  Among  these 
is  Bonedd  Gwyr  y  Gogledd. 

12th.  The  history  of  the  Cowri,  or  Cambro-British 
princes,  who  built  the  forts  on  the  mountains  of  Wales, 
seems  to  be  very  ancient ;  but  I  cannot  so  much  as 
guess  at  the  time  it  was  wrote.  This  MS.  is  in  Hen- 
gwrt. 

13th.  Bonhedd  y  Saint ^  or  the  Noble  Descent  of  the 
Saints  of  Britain,  the  founders  of  the  churches  and  reli- 
gious houses  which  still  bear  their  names  all  over 
Wales.  This  is  a  most  valuable  piece  of  antiquity,  a 
very  ancient  copy  of  which  is  now  extant  (1760)  at 
Llannerch. 

1 4th.  The  works  of  the  British  Poets  from  about  the 
Danish  Conquest  to  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth  are  so 
numerous  that  it  is  needless  to  say  anything  of  them 
here,  but  refer  you  to  the  body  of  the  work  for  each 
by  name.  But  I  shall  only  remark  that  poetry  and 
good  language  was  in  greater  perfection  here  a  little 
before  and  a  little  after  the  Norman  Conquest  than  it 
hath  been  since,  and  that  the  historical  parts  of  those 
works  are  a  great  light  to  our  historians,  both  English 
and  Welsh,  Irish  and  Scotch. 


INTftODUCTION.  xlix 


CHAP.  XIX. 

It  will  be  objected  by  some,  that  it  looks  odd  that 
these  unheard-of  things  have  not  been  advanced  sooner, 
for  that  we  have  had  very  able  antiquaries  in  England 
and  Wales  for  many  ages  past.  Where  hath  the  book 
of  Triades  been  all  this  while  ?  Where  hath  the  British 
©opy  of  Tyssilio  lain,  the  Catalogues  of  ancient  Cities, 
the  Dictionaries  of  the  several  branches  of  the  Celtic 
tongues,  the  inscriptions  in  the  ancient  Celtic  charac- 
ter, the  works  of  the  ancient  British  poets,  the  old 
MSS.  of  genealogies,  the  remains  of  Druidism,  the 
account  of  the  tombs  of  the  warriors  of  Britain,  the 
book  of  British  proverbs,  the  history  of  the  twenty- four 
kings  that  built  cities,  the  history  of  the  Cowri  that 
built  forts  on  mountains,  Bonhedd  y  Saint  ? 

In  answer  to  this  we  say  that  though  the  Britains 
had  these  things  in  their  possession,  it  doth  not  follow 
that  the  English  antiquaries  and  historians  should 
know  anything  of  them,  nor  that  the  few  Welsh  anti- 
quaries that  have  wrote  should  know  them  all  ;  and  in 
all  ages  there  have  been  more  antiquaries  than  there 
hath  been  publishers. 

Everybody  the  least  versed  in  the  history  of  Britain 
knows  what  implacable  hatred  there  was  formerly^  for 
above  a  thousand  years,  between  these  two  nations, 
from  the  year  449  to  the  year  1485,  and  which  hath 
but  lately  subsided.  The  English  nation  were  so  noted 
for  their  ferocity  to  strangers  that  it  became  a  proverb 
in  Wales, — 

Galon  Sais  wrth  Gjmro  ; 

t.e.,  the  heart  of  an  Englishman  to  a  Welshman.  But 
the  case  is  now  altered  :  witness,  among  other  things, 


1  INTKODUCTION. 

the  great  and  generous  subscriptions  of  the  English 
towards  the  publication  of  the  Welsh  Bible  lately,  under 
the  care  of  the  Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Know- 
ledge, which  shews  they  have  a  greater  regard  for  the 
Welsh  than  the  Welsh  have  for  themselves. 

Is  it  any  more  strange  that  there  were  ancient  MSS. 
in  Wales,  unknown  to  the  English,  than  that  there 
were  plants  growing  on  Snowdon  which  no  Englishman 
ever  heard  of  till  within  our  days  the  indefatigable 
Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  described  them,  as  well  as  other 
rarities  of  that  country  ?  The  same  excellent  person 
was  the  first  that  gave  the  English  antiquaries  any 
light  into  these  things,  by  giving  an  account,  in  his 
ArchcBologia  Britannica,  of  the  ancient  MSS.  he  had 
the  luck  to  meet  with,  or  heard  of,  in  his  travels 
through  England,  Wales,  and  Ireland.  His  account, 
imperfect  as  it  is,  is  more  than  any  English  writer  ever 
dreamt  of,  or  so  much  as  expected  to  be  found  among 
us;  and  his  book  will  stand  for  ever  as  a  noble  attempt 
of  retrieving  the  Celtic  tongue  and  its  antiquities  from 
oblivion. 

The  British  book  of  Triades,  though  to  this  day  very 
little  (if  at  aU)  known  among  English  antiquaries,  hath 
been  always  quoted  by  our  British  poets  from  age  to 
age,  though  I  am  certain  Galfrid,  the  Latin  trans- 
lator of  TyssUio,  never  saw  it,  so  little  did  he  know  of 
our  antiquities,  or  else  he  would  have  embellished  that 
history  with  its  contents,  instead  of  those  ridiculous 
things  which  in  his  translation  he  hath  added  to  it  out 
of  Myrddin  Emrys's  works  and  oral  tradition. 

Mr.  Robt.  Vaughan,  our  excellent  antiquary,  about 
A.D.  1630  attempted  a  translation  of  the  Triades  into 
English,  and  Mr.  W.  Morris  of  Cefn  y  Braich  says  he 


INTRODDCTION.  U 

interprets  it  surprisingly ;  but  this  was  too  hard  a  task 
even  for  Mr.  Vaughan.  This  English  translation  he 
gave  to  Archbishop  Usher,  but  we  have  heard  no  fur- 
ther of  it ;  and  I  suppose  the  copy  is  lost,  unless  it  is 
among  his  papers  in  Hengwrt. 

Camden  quotes  this  book  of  Triades  in  his  Britannica 
as  of  ancient  authority,  to  prove  the  Britains  joining 
the  Cimbrians  and  Gauls  in  some  expeditions  against 
Italy  and  Greece ;  and  also  in  Shropshire,  about  Caer 
Caradoc.  But  had  he  dealt  fairly  with  us,  and  used 
the  other  authorities  found  in  that  book,  he  might 
have  saved  most  of  the  objections  which  he  has  so  art- 
fully put  in  the  mouths  of  his  great  men.  He  did  not 
dare  to  attack  a  national  history  in  his  own  person, 
but  pretended  to  defend  it  with  all  his  eloquence  ;  but 
it  was  against  the  intention  of  his  plan  to  own  any- 
thing existing  among  the  Britains  which  would  clear 
up  their  history  (though  he  committed  a  slip  in  men- 
tioning the  Triades  at  all),  as  his  scheme  was  to  be  the 
father  of  the  history  of  Britain. 

Mr.  Nicolson,  in  his  Historical  Library,  has  behaved 
still  worse  than  Mr.  Camden,  for  he  knew  so  little  of  the 
book,  and  speaks  so  slightly  of  it,  that  he  supposes  it 
to  be  what  Camden  quotes  and  calls  in  his  Remains  the 
Book  of  Triplicities.  He  might  as  well  have  called  the 
Book  of  Ecclesiasticus  the  Triades;  for  the  British  TH-- 
ades  is  merely  historical,  and  the  other  is  only  a  rheto- 
rical collection  of  wise  sayings  and  proverbs. 

Though  this  British  book  of  Ttiades  was,  according 
to  the  judgment  of  Mr.  Rob.  Vaughan,  the  antiquary, 
about  A.D.  1630,  about  a  thousand  years  old,  neither 
Bede,  Nennius,  nor  Galfrid,  knew  anything  of  it.  No 
more  did  they  of  the  works  of  the  British  poets.     Bede 


lii  INTRODUCTION. 

could  not ;  and  Nennius,  where  he  attempts  to  mention 
some  of  them,  scarce  knew  their  names,  unless  those 
blundera  were  committed  by  his  transcribers. 

If  Galfrid,  when  he  translated  Tyssilio,  had  known 
the  works  of  Myrddin  Wyllt,  Taliessin,  and  Llywarch 
Hen,  he  would  have  found  in  them  abundance  of  histo- 
•rical  passages  to  embeilish  the  history  then  in  his  hand, 
where  it  is  most  blind  and  bald.  What  hath  he  added 
to  Tyssilio?  Flamines  and  Archflamines  of  his  own 
invention  ;  some  fine-formed  speeches  of  his  own  ;  and 
the  dark  and  abstruse  prophecy  of  Myrddin  Emrys, 
called  the  Great  Prophecy ;  and  some  trifles  which  had 
better  been  out. 

By  the  very  style  of  Tyssilio  s  British  History  it 
appears  that  the  first  part  of  it  is  very  ancient,  and 
that  it  was  put  in  the  form  it  is  now  about  the  year 
600  or  before,  probably  by  Tyssilio  ;  and  from  Tyssilio 
to  Cadwaladr  by,  I  think,  another  hand. 

Though  it  doth  not  appear  that  Galfrid  knew  any- 
thing of  the  Triades,  yet  the  British  poets,  his  cotempo- 
raries,  Meilir  Brydydd,  Daniel,  Cynddelw,etc.,  were  well 
versed  in  the  writings  of  the  ancient  poets  and  histo- 
rians, and  in  the  Triades,  as  appears  by  their  works. 

Can  any  antiquary  now  in  the  kingdom  say  he  knows 
every  old  Saxon  MS.  now  existing  ?  No  ;  no  more 
than  he  knows  every  old  house  in-  the  kingdom,  or  all 
the  old  coins  that  are  in  private  hands.  Why  then  is 
it  urged  that  if  such  and  such  MSS.  were  in  being  in 
the  time  of  Gildas,  of  Nennius,  of  Galfrid,  etc.,  they 
must  have  seen  them  ?  This  is  childish  reasoning,  as 
if  no  ancient  MS.  in  the  kingdom  could  possibly  escape 
the  eyes  of  a  monk,  an  abbot,  or  a  bishop,  when  it  doth 
not  appear  to  us  that  they  ever  made  any  inquiries 


INTRODUCTION.  llli 

after  such  MSS.  out  of  their  own  monasteries,  and 
when  it  plainly  appears  that  the  clergy  had  an  utter 
aversion  to  the  works  of  the  British  bards,  who  were 
the  historians  of  the  ancient  Britains  ;  and  the  bards, 
perhaps,  were  not  behind  hand  with  them. 


CHAP.  XX. 


I  FORESEE  it  will  be  objected  that  a  very  great  stress 
is  laid  here  on  proofs  out  of  the  British  poets,  and  that 
among  the  greatest  modern  historians  in  Europe  such 
proofs  are  reckoned  but  slight,  and  not  so  much  re- 
garded as  the  authorities  of  prose  writers  of  history,  or 
regular  historians  (as  they  call  them),  learned  in  anti- 
quities, etc. 

Fable  (they  say)  is  an  ingredient  in  poetry  ;  and 
Vertot,  the  French  historian,  in  a  sneer  on  an  historical 
poem  of  the  Britains  of  Armorica,  which  they  call  their 
Breviary,  says  that  fables  never  succeed  better  than  in 
verse.  But  men  of  greater  weight  in  the  learned  world 
than  Vertot,  and  in  affairs  of  the  greatest  consequence, 
viz.,  the  dominion  of  the  British  seas,  have  not  thought 
it  beneath  them  to  make  use  of  poetical  authorities, 
not  only  to  prove  the  use  of  words,  but  also  the  use  of 
things.  The  admirable  Selden,  in  his  Mare  Clausmn, 
condescends  to  make  use  of  the  authority  of  an  English 
poet,  G.  Chaucer,  no  older  than  Richard  IIFs  time,  to 
prove  the  dominion  of  the  sea  in  the  English  in  those 
days ;  and  in  the  same  manner  Virgil,  Ovid,  Plautus, 
and  other  ancient  poets,  are  quoted  by  the  assertors  of 
Mare  Liberum.     See  Mar.  Claits.,  p.  5. 

These  objectors    should  also  consider  that  nations 

h 


liv  INTKODUCTION. 

differ  in  their  customs,  and  what  is  true  in  France  is 
not  always  so  in  other  countries  ;  and  that  the  most 
ancient  histories  were  originally  in  verse,  but  more  par- 
ticularly among  the  Gauls  and  Britains  who  were  under 
the  Druidical  government,  the  recorders  of  the  actions 
of  their  great  men  being  a  branch  of  their  religious 
institution  ;  or,  in  other  words,  their  bards  were  their 
historians,  who  handed  down  to  posterity  (witness 
Lucan)  the  ancient  traditions  of  their  ancestors ;  and 
this  was  the  case  of  other  northern  nations,  the  Swedes, 
Islanders,  etc.,  who  had  their  scalds.  See  Olaus  Worm- 
ius.  This  method  of  historical  writing,  and  also  the 
very  kind  of  verse,  hath  kept  its  ground  in  Britain,  in 
spite  of  the  Roman  power,  till  after  the  Romans  left 
them. 

The  kind  of  verse  in  which  the  bards  wrote  their 
exploits  in  war  was  called  Englyn  Milwr^  a  triplet 
stanza  of  seven  syllables  each  verse.  The  meaning  of 
the  name  is  the  warrior's  verse,  or  military  verse.  I 
make  no  doubt  but  the  North  American  war-song  is  of 
the  same  original,  where,  in  their  meetings,  or  before 
a  battle,  they  all  join  in  this  military  song,  which  gives 
an  account  of  the  brave  actions  of  their  ancestors  main- 
taining their  liberties,  and  is  the  greatest  incentive  to 
courage  that  can  possibly  be.  It  is  observable  that  the 
most  ancient  poetry  in  the  world  was  in  triplet  verse 
of  seven  or  eight  syllables. 

In  ancient  times,  among  the  Britains,  it  was  common 
for  the  princes  themselves  to  write  their  own  actions  in 
verse, — and  who  more  able  to  do  it?  Llywarch  Hen, 
a  nobleman  of  North  Britain,  hath  left  us  an  account 
of  the  wars  he  was  concerned  in,  in  this  very  kind  of 
verse,  Englyn  Mihvr;  and  in  such  a  pathetic,  honest, 


INTKODUCTION.  Iv 

plain  manner  that  there  can  be  no  room  to  suspect  him 
of  falsehood  or  unfair  dealings.  Here  are  no  embellish- 
ments, no  fictions,  no  show  of  art,  and  but  a  plain  rela- 
tion of  matters  of  fact,  not  without  their  beauties. 
This  was  about  a  hundred  years  aftef^e  had  thrown 
off  the  Roman  yoke.  Our  princes  and  generals  conti- 
nued this  custom  of  writing  their  own  actions  in*  verse  as 
late  as  Henry  ll'a  time,  for  the  famous  warrior,  Howel 
ap  Owain  Gw3medd  (brother  of  Madoc,  who  first  dis- 
covered America),  hath  wrote  his  own  battles  in  a  most 
elegant  though  a  modest  manner,  of  which  we  have 
several  copies  in  Wales.  Hath  not  J.  Caesar  wrote  his 
own  actions  ?  And  what  deterred  other  emperors  from 
doing  the  same  was  that  they  had  not  matter  enough, 
or  that  they  were  not  as  great  masters  of  fighting  and 
writing  as  he  was,  and  that  he  had  got  the  start  of 
them. 

It  should  be  also  observed  the  Britains,  Gauls,  and 
Irish,  never  could  be  brought  into  the  same  way  of 
thinking  with  the  Greeks  and  Romans  in  regard  to 
heroic  poetry.  Poetry  was  so  sacred  with  these  Celtic 
people,  as  being  a  branch  of  their  religion,  that  they 
never  suffered  invented  fables  (the  chief  ingredient  in 
heroic  poetry)  to  have  a  footing  in  it,  which  is  the 
reason  that  neither  the  Gauls,  Britains,  Irish,  Ersh, 
Picts,  Cornish,  or  Armoricans,  ever  had  to  this  day  a 
poem  in  the  nature  of  the  Iliad  or  ^iieid,  though  most 
other  nations  took  a  foolish  pride  in  imitating  them. 
So  that  what  in  one  nation  is  called  an  heroic  poem, 
and  the  grandest  performance  in  human  art,  is  in 
another  nation  called  a  fabulous,  empty  song  or  poem 
stuffed  with  flourishes  and  the  scum  or  over-boiling  of 
the  poet's  brains,  to  please  a  vain,  boasting  people ;  as 


Ivi  INTRODUCTION. 

if  the  nation  had  no  real  actions  of  valour  of  their  owu 
to  be  recorded  in  poetry,  but  must  have  recourse  to 
fictitious  gods,  to  fictitious  heroes,  to  fictitious  battles, 
and  such  anachronisms  that  a  grave  Celtic  writer  would 
be  ashamed  of.  Is  it  not  agreed  upon  that  -^neas  and 
Dido,  who  Virgil  hath  brought  together,  were  really 
two  hundred  years  distant  ? 

Historians  used  to  these  kinds  of  writings  may  well 
call  poetry  fabulous  and  fictitious.  But  that  is  not  the 
case  of  the  British  bards.  Poetry  with  them  is,  and 
hath  been,  the  sacred  repository  of  the  actions  of  great 
men,  and  hath  been  always  so  from  the  most  ancient 
times,  as  the  Song  of  Moses  was,  among  the  Jews,  of 
the  defeat  of  the  Egyptians.  Taliessin's  historical  poem 
of  the  tombs  of  the  warriors  of  Britain  is  a  noble  piece 
of  history,  which  will  last  while  the  nation  has  a  being; 
but  is  exceeded  by  Gododiuy  an  heroic  poem  of  Aneurin. 

Though  other  nations,  more  devoted  to  the  Greek 
and  Roman  learning,  may  call  this  way  of  thinking  a 
mark  of  Celtic  barbarity,  and  speaking  unlike  scholars, 
the  Britains  own  it  is  so  in  the  Roman  proud  manner 
of  speaking,  but  insist  that  the  assertion  is  not  founded 
on  truth  or  nature,  and  therefore  not  to  be  regarded. 


CHAP.    XXI. 


It  is  to  be  observed  that  among  the  learned  writers  of 
the  British  nation  who  have  wrote  in  Latin,  such  as 
Gildas,  Nennius,  Asserius,  Galfrid,  etc.,  not  one  of  them 
hath  mentioned  a  word  to  the  honour  of  these  Druidi- 
cal  bards,  and  of  their  manner  of  recording  historical 
facts  ;  and  scarce  a  word  of  the  Druidical  learning,  no 


INTRODUCTION.  Ivil 

more  than  if  they  had  never  heard  of  the  Druids. 
What  could  be  the  reason  of  all  this  silence  ?  Foreign 
"writers,  and  also  the  British  writers  in  their  own  native 
language,  often  mention  them  with  great  honour. 

Nis  gwyr  namjn  Duw  a  dewinion  byd  a  diwyd  dderwjddon. 

I^jsgogan  derwyddon  dewrwlad  i  esgar 

I  wisgwyd  weiniviad. — Gynddelw^  i  Ow.  Cyfeiliog, 

Drndioa  a  Yeirddion 
A  fawl  neb  Dragon 
Namyn  draig  ai  dirpar. — Jd. 

Dywawd  derwyddon  dadeni  haelion 
%  O  hil  Eryron  o  Eryri. — Prydydd  Moch, 

Let  it  be  taken  notice  of  that  these  writers  in  the  Latin 
tongue  were  ecclesiastics,  and  that  their  heat  and  zeal 
against  Druidism  and  paganism  drove  them  beyond 
themselves,  for  Christianity  in  those  early  times  could 
be£ir  no  competition.  The  reason  is  this.  In  the  infancy 
of  Christianity  here,  the  zeal  of  the  Christians  were  so 
very  hot  that  nothing  favouring  of  paganism  was  to  be 
mentioned  publicly  without  incurring  the  displeasure  of 
the  clergy;  and  when  the  Church  of  Rome  got  the  upper 
hand  here,  then  everybody  knows  that  ignorance  was 
the  mother  of  their  devotion.  Let  the  learned  ancient 
Druids  be  ever  so  learned,  it  was  reckoned  a  sin  and  a 
scandal  for  a  clergyman  to  borrow  anything  from  them, 
for  all  Druidical  learning  was  called  vain  philosophy. 
And  is  not  this  the  cant  to  this  very  day  among  some 
kind  of  Christians  ? 

The  British  poets,  in  the  beginning  of  Christianity 
here,  were  a  class  of  people  distinct  enough  from  the 
clergy,  and  were  members  of  the  civil  power,  being 
made  use  of  by  the  ruling  princes  in  a  political  way,  as 
prophets  and  family  historians,  who  were  not  very  well 


Iviii  INTRODUCTION. 

liked  by  the  Church,  being  strongly  addicted  to  their 
ancient  customs  and  Druidical  traditions  ;  and,  indeed, 
the  poets  thought  themselves  men  of  greater  conse- 
quence, and  better  heard,  than  the  clergy ;  so  that  in 
the  very  height  of  the  Popish  power  in  Britain  we  find 
the  poets  ridiculing  the  monks  and  their  superstitions 
and  cheats  : 

Mor  fran  yr  Ysbryd  Glan. — D.  wj^  OwUym. 

Gwas  arall  a  ddwg  Seirioel,  etc. 
Dos  dithe  frawd  i  law  dd — 1. 

D.  ap  OwUym^  and  Go,  Dwynwen. 

And  in  the  declension  of  the  Roman  empire,  and  before 
the  Saxons  became  Christians,  the  poets  violently  railed 
against  the  prevailing  corruptions  in  the  Church,  and 
the  idleness  of  the  clergy  : 

Owae  ofifeiriaid  byd,  etc. — Taliessin. 

Bid  amlwg  marcHawc,  bid  redegawo  gorwydd, 

Bid  mab  lien  yn  chwannawc, 

Bid  aniwair  dau  eiriawc. — Llywarch  Hen. 

It  is  natural  that  a  knight  be  public  (popular), 
A  horse  swift,  a  clergyman  avaricious, 
An  unchaste  man  double-tongued. 

Now  let  us  examine  who  these  learned  British  writers 
were,  that  wrote  in  Latin  of  the  affairs  of  Britain,  and 
which  among  other  nations  are  ignorantly  called  the 
only  ancient  British  historians,  because  they  never 
heard  of  any  other.  All  these  writers  before  mentioned 
were  of  the  clergy,  not  one  layman  among  them.  What 
is  become  of  the  laymen's  writing  then  ?  Why,  they 
ai-e  in  MSS.,  in  everybody's  hands  in  Wales,  and  in 
the  works  of  their  poets,  who,  as  Di.  Siculus  owns,  were 
the  recorders  of  the  valiant  acts  of  their  countrymen. 
See  A.  Marcellinus,  Lucan,  and  Giraldus  Cambrensis, 
Wynne's  Preface. 


INTRODUCTION.  lix 

Gildas  was  an  angry  monk  who  had  run  over  to 
Armorica  from  a  party  who  had  got  the  upper  hand  in 
Britain,  in  which  Cwstenyn,  the  reigning  Prince,  had 
killed  two  of  his  nephews,  the  sons  of  Medrawd  ;  and 
Arthur  had  killed  his  brother  Ho wel.  Sir  J.  Pryse,  and 
Usher,  Primordia. 

Tyssilio,  son  of  Brochwel  Ysgithrog,  Prince  of  Powys, 
was  Bishop  of  Powysland ;  had  his  college  and  see  at 
Meivod,  when  his  brother  Cynan  reigned  in  Powys. 

Nennius  is  said  to  be  Abbot  of  Bangor  is  y  Coed,  and 
better  acquainted  with  monks  than  with  poets ;  for 
where  he  mentions  in  his  History  a  few  of  them,  he 
hardly  knows  their  names,  or  his  transcribers  have 
abused  him  much. 

Asserius  Menevensis,  Bishop  of  Sherborne,  and  living 
with  King  Alfred  and  his  tutor,  etc.,  nephew  to  another 
Asser,  Bishop  of  St.  David's,  hath  wrote  so  little  about 
the  Britams  that  we  can  pass  no  judgment  about  his 
knowledge  of  them,  though  it  is  probable  he  assisted 
Alfred  in  translating  and  digesting  the  laws  of  the 
Britains,  which  he  is  said  to  have  translated. 

Galfridus  Monemuthensis  was  at  first  a  Benedictine 
monk,  afterwards  Archdeacon  of  Monmouth,  afterwards 
Bishop  of  St,  Asaph,  and,  as  some  say,  Cardinal,  which 
was  a  title  common  then  in  Britain.  By  his  translation 
of  Tyssilio's  Brut  y  Brenhinoedd  out  of  the  Armorican 
British  into  the  Latin,  it  appears  that  he  was  in  a 
manner  quite  ignorant  of  the  affairs  of  the  Britains. 
He  knew  nothing  of  the  British  writers  in  the  native 
language  of  the  Britains,  or  else  he  would  never  have 
committed  such  blunders  in  his  works  as  to  turn  Llew 
ap  Cynfarch  into  Lotho,  Meuric  into  Marius,  Gwalch- 
mai  into  Walganus,  Medrawd  into  Mordredus,  Julian 


Ix  INTRODUCTION. 

into  Sulgenin,  Rhun  Baladr  Brasin  to  Rudhudibras  (as 
the  Latin  MSS.  have  it)  as  well  as  printed  copies.  If 
he  had  been  acquainted  with  the  ancient  British  writers 
he  would  have  known  that  Llew  and  Urien  and  Aron 
were  sons  of  Cynfarch  Hen  o'r  Gogledd ;  and  Llywarch 
Hen,  who  was  cotemporary  with  these  three  brothers, 
would  have  set  him  right,  whose  works  we  have  extant. 
Besides  the  gaps  which  Galfrid  hath  left  in  the  His- 
tory, which  he  might  have  filled  up  out  of  the  British 
writers,  if  he  had  known  anything  of  them,  it  is  a  weak 
thing  to  say  that  the  Britains  had  no  poetical  or  histo- 
rical writings  among  them,  because  that  an  Archdeacon 
of  Monmouth  or  a  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph  knew  nothing 
of  them. 


CHAP.   XXIL 

Now  we  have  taken  a  short*  view  of  these  writers  com- 
monly known  by  the  name  of  British  historians,  and  we 
find  them  all  ecclesiastics,  people  who  had  then  an 
utter  aversion  to  our  poets  and  writers  in  our  native 
language,  and  therefore  it  was  their  principle  not  to 
have  any  intercourse  with  them  and  their  writings. 

It  will  be  allowed  that  the  knowledge  of  books,  and 
consequently  histories,  is  more  universal  now,  since  the 
invention  of  printing,  than  it  was  when  Galfrid  trans- 
lated the  British  History  into  Latin  at  the  request  of 
Walter  Calenus,  an  Archdeacon  of  Oxford.  Would  it 
be  any  wonder  if  even  now,  in  our  illuminated  age, 
when  everybody  almost  is  a  philosopher  and  an  histo- 
rian, an  Archdeacon  of  Oxford  should  give  an  Arch- 
deacon of  Bangor  or  St.  Asaph  a  Welsh  history  out  of 
the  Bodleian  Library,  for  such  there  are,  to  be  trans- 


IKTRODUCTION.  Ixi 

lated  into  Latin,  and  that  it  should  happen  that  the 
Welsh  archdeacon  should  make  a  bungling  piece  of 
work  of  it  ?  having  never  seen  so  much  as  an  ancient 
manuscript  in  his  mother's  tongue,  or  looked  into  its 
antiquities,  and  being  only  what  we  call  Latin  and 
Greek,  a  mere  scholar. 

Doth  his  ignorance  prove  there  are  no  ancient  manu- 
scripts in  Wales  ?  But  this  is  the  logic  made  use  of 
by  the  opposers  of  the  British  History.  If  there  had 
been,  say  they,  such  MSS.  in  being,  Gildas,  Tyssilio, 
Nennius,  Bede,  etc.,  would  have  made  mention  of  them. 
And  my  logic  is  the  direct  contrary ;  and  to  me  it  is 
plain  that  if  every  layman's  house  in  Wales,  in  those 
days,  abounded  with  such  manuscripts,  and  every 
parish  with  poets,  these  imperious  clergymen,  bishops, 
abbots,  and  monks,  would  not  have  vouchsafed  to  take 
notice  of  them.  The  Latin  tongue  was  their  idol,  which 
had  remained  here  as  a  relic  of  the  Roman  imperial 
government,  and  was  afterwards  a  great  means  to  help 
to  introduce  the  Boman  papistical  government  here. 
Is  it  not  as  possible  to  suppose  an  Abbot  of  Bangor  in 
those  days  ignorant  of  the  Welsh  tongue,  as  it  is  now 
a  Welsh  Bishop  ? 

Everybody  iJiat  hath  read  Mr.  Edw.  Llwyd's  Arch. 
Brit  knows  that  he  hath  been  indefatigable  in  search- 
ing for  ancient  British  MSS.,  and  yet  I  know  of  great 
numbers  in  Wales  that  he  never  saw  or  heard  of,  and 
several  that  I  have  in  my  own  possession ;  nay,  even 
the  copy  of  the  Triades  which  he  made  use  of  was  but 
an  incorrect  one,  and  had  not  been  compared  with  the 
various  genuine  copies  which  the  great  antiquary, 
Mr.  R.  Vaughan,  had  in  his  possession ;  and  this  hath 
led  Mr.  Llwyd  astray  in  his  etymological  guesses,  who, 


Ixii  INTRODUCTION. 

by  the  strength  of  a  pregnant  wit  and  a  great  know- 
ledge of  languages,  hath  overrun  the  bounds  of  the 
Celtic  tongue  as  it  had  been  settled  by  the  British, 
bards,  and  wrested  abundance  of  words  to  please  his 
own  luxurious  fancy.     Yet  I  am  far  from  despising 
Mr.  Llwyd's  works  :   they  are  great  and  surprising. 
But  it  is  pity  that  he  was  not  bett/cr  acquainted  with, 
the  writings  of  our  bards,  which  could  not  be  without 
being  himself  acquainted  with  the  rules  of  the  British, 
poetry,  which  he  was  not,  as  shall  be  shown  in  its  pro- 
per place.    He  had  also  the  misfortune  of  being  cotem- 
poraiy  with  other  great  men  of  the  same  way  of  think- 
ing with  himself,  which  was  a  great  help  to  lead  him 
astray,  viz.,  Mr.  Pezron,  Abbot  of  Chennay  in  Little 
Britain  in  France,  author  of  the  Antiquities  of  Nations  ; 
Mr.  Baxter,  Master  of  the  Mercer  s  School  in  London, 
author  of  the  Glossography ;    and   Mr.   Rowlands    of 
Anglesey,  author  of  the  Mona  Antiqua:  three  persons 
of  extraordinary  talents,  and  of  very  extensive  know- 
ledge in  languages,  and  of  fine  heads  for  etymologizing. 
But  Mr.  Baxter  and  Mr.  Rowlands,  giving  a  loose  to 
their  fancies,  and  not  observing  the  same  caution  with 
Monsr.  Pezron,  lost  themselves  in  a  fog.     Mr.  Pezron  s 
guesses  were  at  first  privately  weighed  with  the  author- 
ities  of  ancient  authors,  and  then  artfully  produced  as 
mere  guesses  and  probabilities  ;  and  all  of  a  sudden  he 
throws  upon  you  a  heap  of  ancient  authorities  to  back 
his  reasonings.     But  the  others,  not  aware  of  this  art, 
have  ingeniously  enough  followed  his  method  of  guess- 
ing, but  want  ancient  authorities  to  back  them. 

It  is  not  a  great  knowledge  in  modem  languages 
(which  may  swell  a  man  up  with  pride  and  self- 
suflBciency)  that  will  make  a  man  master  of  the  Celtic 


J 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixiii 

tongue  and  its  branches  and  antiquities,  but  it  must  be 
a  great  knowledge  in  the  Celtic  writers.  A  man  that 
applies  himself  to  study  the  Hebrew  or  Chaldean  will 
find  very  little  help,  or  none  at  all,  from  his  knowledge 
in  the  French,  Spanish,  Portuguese,  Italian,  or  the 
school  languages,  the  Latin  and  Greek.  The  Hebrew 
hath  nothing  to  do  with  them,  no  more  than  the  Celtic 
hath.  He  that  would  be  master  of  the  Celtic  tongue, 
and  capable  of  finding  the  etymology  of  it,  and  of  its 
curious  structure,  should  be  acquainted  with  Aneuryn 
"Wawdrydd  and  Bardd  Glas  o'r  Gadair,  Cynddelw 
Brydydd  Mawr,  Taliessin,  etc.,  rather  than  with  Homer, 
Virgil,  Tasso,  or  Milton,  etc. 

Mr.  Baxter  says  that  in  the  Celtic,  pend  and  cond 
signified  a  head ;  but  there  is  no  man,  living  or  dead, 
besides  himself  that  says  so.  Mr.  Rowlands  says  that 
the  Ferry  of  Porthaethwy,  the  passage  over  Menai  to 
Anglesey,  was  called  so,  q.  d.  Porth-aeth-hwy,  ^.e.,  as 
he  explains  it,  the  port  which  they  passed;  but  the 
words  will  neither  bear  that  signification  in  the  British, 
nor  doth  any  ancient  author  back  it,  or  is-  there  any 
case  parallel  to  it.  Aeth  and  hivy  do  not  agree  in  con- 
struction, and  will  not  do  at  all.  If  he  had  considered 
that  the  name  of  the  commot  adjoining  to  this  Ferry  is 
Dindaethvnfy  or  Tindaethivy,  which  is  plainly  Daethwy's 
Fort,  he  would  have  looked  out  for  the  ruins  of  that 
fort  in  that  commot,  and  would  probably  have  found  it 
near  this  ferry  or  passage,  which  took  its  name,  beyond 
all  doubt,  from  the  same  person,  Daethioy,  and  the  fort 
he  had  here;  consequently  the  name  of  the  Ferry  shoidd 
be  wrote  Forth  Ddaethwy,  i.e.,  Daethwy's  Passage  or 
Port.     See  Mabinogi  Bran  ap. . . . 

Cynhaethwy  ap  Herbert  ap  Godwin  larll  Cemyw  a 
Dyfneint. — Llyfr  Achau, 


Ixiv  INTRODUCTION, 


CHAP,  xxiri. 

The  better  to  understand  the  reason  of  the  difference 
between  the  real  Celtic  names,  and  the  same  names  in 
Roman  authors,  you  are  to  consider  that  the  Eoman 
writers  made  it  a  general  rule  to  soften  the  harsh  names 
of  the  towns  and  countries,  etc.,  of  the  nations  con- 
quered by  them,  as  appears  by  Pliny  Junior  s  letter  to 
Caninius  (L.  8,  Ep.  4.) :  "  Some  little  trouble,  too,  you 
will  find  is  to  soften  the  names  of  these  barbarous 
people,  and  particularly  of  their  towns,  so  as  they  shall 
not  shock  our  ears  when  they  come  into  verse.  But 
there  is  nothing  so  harsh  and  dissonant  but  what  may 
be  made  harmonious,  or  at  least  tolerable,  with  a  little 
care  and  alteration.  Besides,  if  it  were  lawful  for 
Homer  to  contract,  to  extend,  and  to  turn  words  (even 
of  Grecian  extraction),  for  the  better  cadence  of  his 
verse,  why  should  not  the  same  privilege  be  allowed 
you,  especially  since  it  is  not  affected  but  necessary  ?" 
What  truth  can  we  expect,  then,  in  Boman  writers  in 
relation  to  names  ?  And  what  have  we  to  trust  to  but 
our  own  ancient  writers,  who  made  it  the  greatest 
crime  to  alter  their  language  or  names?  There  was 
something  of  this  temper  among  the  Gauls  (French) 
even  as  low  down  as  the  time  of  Montaigne ;  and  it 
may  not  be  amiss  to  set  down  that  ingenious  man's 
opinion  of  this  affair,  as  few  men  understood  mankind 
better  than  he.  (Mont.,  L.  1,  c.  46.)  A  gentleman,  a 
neighbour  of  mine  (says  he),  a  great  admirer  of  anti- 
quity, and  who  was  always  preferring  the  excellency  of 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixv 

preceding  times  in  comparison  with  this  present  age  of 
ours,  did  not,  among  the  rest,  forget  to  magnify  the 
lofty  and  magnificent  sounds  of  the  gentlemen's  names 
of  those  days.  Don  Grumedan,  Quadregan,  Angelisan, 
etc.,  which  but  to  hear  named  he  perceived  to  be  other 
kind  of  men  than  Pierre,  Guillot,  and  Michel. 

I  am  mightily  pleased  with  Jaques  Amiot  for  leaving 
throughout  a  whole  French  oration  the  Latin  names 
entire,  without  varying  and  dissecting  them  to  give 
them  dr  French  termination.  It  seemed  a  little  harsh 
and  rough  at  first;  but  already  custom,  by  the  authority 
of  Plutarch,  whom  he  took  for  an  example,  hath  over- 
come that  novelty. 

I  have  often  wished  that  such  as  write  chronicle  his- 
tories in  Latin  would  leave  our  names  as  they  find 
them,  and  as  they  are  and  ought  to  be ;  for  in  making 
Vaudemont  Valemontance,  and  metamorphosing  names 
to  make  them  suit  better  with  the  Greek  or  Latin,  we 
know  not  where  we  are,  and  with  the  persons  of  the 
men  lose  the  benefit  of  the  story. 

To  conclude.  It  is  a  scurvy  custom,  and  of  very  ill 
consequence,  that  we  have  in  our  kingdom  of  France  to 
call  every  one  by  the  name  of  his  manner  or  segneury, 
and  the  thing  in  the  world  that  doth  the  most  pre- 
judice, and  confound  families  and  descents.  So  far 
Montaigne. 

Leland,  the  great  oracle  of  antiquity  among  the  Eng- 
lish, by  his  not  being  able  to  find  any  writings  of  lay- 
men in  his  search,  concludes  that  there  was  very  little 
learning  in  Britain  after  the  Saxon  conquest  of  Loegria, 
except  among  the  monks.  He  searched  among  the 
monasteries,  and  knew  nothing  of  our  writers  in  the 
British  tongue ;  but  we  that  are  acquainted  with  the 


Ixvi  INTRODUCTION. 

British  writers  (who  affected  to  write  in  their  own  lan- 
guage, and  took  a  pride  in  it),  insist  that  the  British 
tongue  never  was  wrote  in  greater  perfection  than  a 
little  before  and  a  Uttle  after  the  Norman  conquest, 
which  shews  that  the  learning  then  in  vogue  among 
the  Britains  was  the  studying  and  polishing  of  their 
own  language ;  and  in  that  language  their  antiquities 
and  history  must  be  searched  for,  and  not  in  what  Mr. 
Leland  and  others  call  the  learned  languages. 

It  will  be  again  objected,  and  it  is  very  well  known 
to  be  true,  that  the  lives  of  the  saints  of  Britain  and 
Ireland  are  more  stuffed  with  incredible  miracles  than 
any  other  nation  on  earth,  and  that  even  BoUandus, 
Baronius  (see  Fleetwood's  Pref.)y  and  the  greatest 
sticklers  for  the  miracles  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  are 
even  ashamed  of  them  ;  and,  indeed,  nothing  can  come 
up  with  the  many  men  s  heads  which  St.  Beuno  hath 
set  on,  which  had  been  cut  clean  off;  St.  Ffred's  eye 
dropping  out,  and  put  in  again  ;  and  abundance  of  the 
like  absurdities.  So  that  it  is  concluded  that  either  the 
nation  must  be  very  silly  that  could  swallow  this  kind 
of  cookery,  or  the  writers  very  ignorant  that  prepared 
it  for  them  ;  and  therefore  it  may  be  probable  the  his- 
torians and  poets  of  the  same  nations  may  be  guilty  of 
the  same  foibles  as  the  writers  of  the  lives  of  their 
saints  are. 

The  first  part  of  this  charge  is  too  true ;  but  if  you 
consider  that  neither  poets  nor ^ any  lay  historians  had 
any  hand  in  writing  these  lives  of  the  saints,  and  that 
they  were  the  entire  production  of  monks,  who  wrote 
them  with  a  view  of  bringing  a  grist  to  their  own  mill 
in  the  monastery,  the  bards  will  be  acquitted,  who  for 
the  most  part  not  only  despised  these  pretended  mira- 


IXTROD  UCTION.  Ix  Vli 

cles,  but  exposed  them  in  verse.  And  if  our  British 
monks  have  had  a  more  fertile  invention  in  writing 
these  miracles  than  other  dull  nations,  it  only  shews 
they  were  greater  masters  of  their  trade,  and  it  is  pity 
their  talents  were  not  better  employed.  I  own  these 
monks  and  abbots,  by  means  of  keeping  plentiful  tables 
and  cellars,  have  found  some  poor,  wandering  poets 
that  for  the  sake  of  their  bellies  have  put  some  of  these 
contrived  legends,  or  lives  of  the  saints,  in  good  verse, 
which  became  a  means  of  making  them  public;  but 
these  are  but  a  few,  and  modern. 

There  was,  in  D.  ap  Gwilym's  time,  about  a.d.  1390,  a 
vast  concourse  from  all  parts  of  Wales  to  the  Monastery 
of  St.  Dwynweri  in  Anglesey,  now  called  Llanddwyn, 
in  ruins.  Here  were  their  constant  waxlights  kept  at 
the  tomb  of  this  virgin  saint,  where  all  persons  in  love 
applied  for  remedy,  and  which  brought  vast  profit  to 
the  monks  ;  and  Dwynwen  was  as  famous  among  the 
Britains,  in  afiairs  of  love,  as  Venus  ever  was  among 
the  Greeks  and  Romans.  But  David  ap  Gwilyms 
ludicrous  manner  of  applying  to  this  saint  for  relief, 
and  his  publishing  it  in  a  poem  which  is  in  everybody's 
hands,  shews  how  slightly  the  poets  made  of  these  reli- 
gious cheats  : 

"  Dear  St.  Dwynwen  (says  he),  by  your  virginity  I 
beg  of  you,  and  by  the  soul  of  your  great  father  Bry- 
chart,  send  this  girl  to  meet  me  in  the  grove.  You  are 
in  Heaven.  God  will  not  be  angry  with  you  for  it,  nor 
turn  you  out,  for  he  will  not  undo  what  he  hath 
done'^  etc. 

Another  poet,  describing  the  craft  of  the  monks  in 
carrying  little  images  about,  and  exchanging  them  for 
provision,  etc.,  says  : 


Ixvili  INTRODUCTION. 

Un  a  arwain  yn  oriog 
Ourig  Iwjd  dan  gwr  ei  glog ; 
Owes  arall  a  ddwg  Seirioel 
A  naw  o  gaws  yn  ei  goel ; 
Drwy  nndeb  erchM'r  Drin^dawd 
Gnnf  o  wlan  accw  nen  fiawd. 

One  carries  the  greyheaded  Cyricus  under  his  cloak  ; 
another  carries  St.  Seiriol  with  nine  cheeses  in  his  arms, 
and  so  exchange  them  for  wool  and  flour.  The  image 
of  St.  Seiriol  was  to  help  the  farmer  to  make  more 
cheese,  etc. 


CHAP.   XXIV. 


That  thb  peoop  op  the  pronunciation  op  words  in  the  present 
welsh,  or  ancient  british  tongue,  is  such  that  no  language 
in  the  world  can  shew  the  like,  and  that  it  is  stronger 
than  any  other  proofs  of  writings,  inscriptions,  or  coins. 

It  will  be  naturally  asked  by  persons  unacquainted 
with  the  language  and  antiquities  of  the  ancient  Britains 
and  Celtse,  How  comes  it  that  we  can  be  now  sure 
that  such  and  such  words  were  pronounced  anciently 
after  such  a  manner  as  we  now  positively  assert  them 
to  be,  and  that  even  a  letter  can  hardly  be  altered  in 
the  Welsh  language  ?  This  is  a  thing  never  heard  of 
in  any  other  language  in  the  world,  and  seems  a  para- 
dox which  requires  explanation.  If  this  is  so,  it  is  no 
wonder  the  British  tongue  hath  lasted  so  long,  or  that 
it  wiU  last  for  ever,  and  is,  as  Camden  owns,  pure  and 
unmixed,  and  extremely  ancient  (Camden,  Names  of 
Britain) ;  for  that  such  authority  is  greater  and  stronger 
than  any  ancient  inscriptions,  in  which  there  may  be  a 
mistake  of  the  stonecutter,  or  from  the  whims  and 
fancies  of  alteration.    The  Greek  and  Boman  languages 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixix 

can  shew  no  such  security  for  their  pronunciations ; 
and  if  it  was  not  for  some  ancient  inscriptions  and 
coins,  we  should  hardly  know  anything  of  their  ancient 
manner  of  writing,  which  yet  proves  nothing  in  regard 
to  their  pronunciation.  In  the  ancient  monumental 
pillar  of  Duillius,  the  Roman  admiral  that  defeated  the 
Carthaginians,  we  have  «  Lecio  pugnandod,  exfociont'', 
etc.,  for  "Legio  pugnando,  effugiunt",  etc.;  "/n  cdtod 
maria  pugnandod'\  for  "/n  alto  mart  pugnando". 

How  can  it  be  proved  that  the  ancient  Romans,  who 
writ  "  Piuna  Carthaio",  etc.,  pronounced  "  Pugna"  and 
"Carthago"?  It  will  be  answered  that  they  had  no  g 
at  that  time ;  but  as  soon  as  they  took  the  letter  g  into 
their  alphabet,  they  wrote  "  Pugna''  and  "  Carthago", 
and  did  not  continue  the  c.  This  only  proves  that 
about  the  second  Punic  war,  the  time  they  took  the 
letter  g  in,  they  softened  and  refined  their  language 
from  c  into  g. 

All  ancient  nations  originally  affected  the  hard  let- 
ters, p,  0,  ch,  or  X,  ty  ffy  rhy  as  well  as  the  Romans ;  but 
the  Britains  in  their  language,  now  called  Welsh  (the 
principal  remains  of  the  Celtic  tongue),  can  prove,  from 
the  very  nature  and  structure  of  their  language,  and 
their  ancient  rules  of  poetry,  that  unless  the  whole  lan- 
guage is  demolished  and  framed  anew,  it  is  impossible 
for  any  word  by  the  ancient  poets  to  be  pronounced 
otherwise  than  it  is  at  this  day,  and  that  not  even  a 
letter  or  a  sound  could  be  changed  in  those  words. 
What  a  glorious  thiug  this  would  have  been  if  it  had 
been  found  in  the  Greek  and  Latin  tongues  I  If  Homer 
and  Virgil's  works  could  have  been  so  well  fortified 
from  attacks.  But  it  is  so  far  to  the  contrary  that  there 
is  hardly  a  verse  in  Virgil  but  hath  a  different  reading 

k 


Ixx  INTRODUCTION. 

in  different  copies,  or  hardly  a  word  in  the  Latin  tongue 
whose  use  can  be  proved  to  be  as  ancient  as  the  begin- 
ning of  the  Roman  nation.  Tt  is  owned  that  the  Laws 
of  the  Twelve  Tables  were  not  understood  in  the  time 
of  Cicero.  (See  Festus's  Verhor.  Signific.y  with  Scali- 
ger's  notes.     Amst.,  1699,) 

It  will  be  again  objected,  how  can  it  be  proved  that 
these  rules  in  the  British  poetry  have  been  always  laws 
to  that  language  ?  In  answer  we  say  that  these  rules 
and  poetry  seem  to  be  near  as  old  as  the  language  itself, 
being  beyond  all  history  or  tradition,— the  greatest 
mark  of  antiquity,  as  it  is  said,  of  the  Egyptian  Pyra- 
mids. The  historians  of  all  nations  of  Europe  mention 
the  Druidical  institutions  among  the  Celtse,  and  that 
the  bards  were  a  branch  of  them  ;  but  none  pretend  to 
say  when  they  begun,  but  suppose  the  institution 
patriarchal.  In  the  time  of  the  Druidical  government 
in  Britain  and  Gaul  it  cannot  be  supposed  that  those 
strict  people  would  suffer  any  innovation  in  the  rules  ,of 
their  bards,  when  once  settled,  being  a  branch  of  their 
religion,  and  we  read  of  none.  When  that  order  was 
abrogated,  after  the  coming  in  of  Christianity,  their  art 
of  poetry  was  handed  down  to  their  children  as  being 
of  use  to  the  Christian  princes  as  well  as  in  the  times 
of  Druidism ;  and  the  art  and  its  professors  have 
always,  from  time  to  time,  been  looked  upon  as  sacred, 
and  the  name  poet  or  bard  was  synonymous  to  a  pro- 
phet, to  which  gift  all  the  ancient  poets  pretended ; 
and  by  that  means  the  bards  were  not  less  useful  to 
Christian  kings,  to  help  to  govern  the  people,  than 
they  were  in  the  time  of  the  ancient  Druidical  govern- 
ment, as  appears  by  their  prophecies  extant,  which  pro- 
bably are  all  political. 


INTRODUCTION*.  Ixxi 

It  must  be  confessed  that  these  strict  rules  in  the 
British  poetry  have  so  cramped  the  poets  that  no  great 
performances,  in  the  nature  of  long  heroic  poems,  was 
ever  attempted  by  them  in  their  fettered  way  of  writ- 
ing ;  but  it  had  one  good  effect.  Besides  saving  the 
language,  these  excessive,  strict  rules  prevented  men  of 
slow  or  weak  parts  from  meddling  with  this  difficult  as 
well  as  sacred  vocation ;  for  he  must  be  a  person  of  vast 
knowledge  in  the  language,  and  of  excellent  parts,  or 
else  of  indefatigable  industry  (besides  being  born  with 
a  poetical  genius),  that  could  make  any  tolerable  figure 
in  the  British  poetry.  If  such  unqualified  persons 
attempted  it,  their  works  were  not  like  to  be  regarded 
even  by  shepherds  or  the  meanest  of  the  people ;  for 
there  is  something  in  the  texture  or  genius  of  the  lan- 
guage which  will  admit  of  nothing  to  be  called  poetry, 
even  among  the  vulgar,  except  it  agrees  with  the  old 
rules  of  this,  which,  as  it  were,  naturally  please  the 
people,  having,  as  it  were,  grown  up  with  the  language. 

Now  to  come  to  the  proof  of  what  we  have  been 
stating  here.  Let  us  suppose  that  the  word  Conwy ^  the 
name  of  a  river  and  town  in  Carnarvonshire,  was  to  be 
disputed  whether  the  Britains  wrote  it  Cynwy,  as  Mr. 
Ed.  Llwyd  {Notes  on  Camden,  Carnarvonshire)  would 
have  it ;  or  Condui,  as  Mr.  Baxter,  with  his  intolerable 
whims,  has  it ;  or  Conwey  or  Conway,  as  the  modem 
English  write  it  ;^  or  Conovium,  as  Antoninus  has  it ; 
or  Coisobius,  as  Ptolemy,  which  Camden  makes  to  be 
Conohius ;  or  Conwy,  as  the  natives  write  it  and  pro- 
nounce it,  who  call  the  town  and  the  entrance  of  the 
harbour  Aherconwy,  the  fall  of  Conwy  into  the  sea. 

^  Or  Gonubw,  as  Mr.  Baxter  (anonym.  MS.)  has  it ;  or  Novius^  as 
Mr.  Camden,  from 


Ixxii  INTRODUCTION. 

It  would  take  too  much  time,  and  would  be  unneces- 
sary, to  explain  these  bards'  rules  at  length  in  this 
place,  for  it  would  be  writing  a  book  ;  therefore  in  the 
quotations  I  shall  make  here  out  of  the  poets,  it  will  be 
enough  to  point  out,  in  italic,  how  those  rules  require 
such  and  such  consonants  and  such  and  such  vowels  to 
be  in  the  different  parts  of  the  verse.  First,  let  the  let- 
ters in  the  word  Conwy  be  numbered. 

13346 

Conwy 

One  of  our  poets,  in  his  metamorphosis  of  a  fiiir  lady 
into  an  owl,  takes  occasion  to  name  this  river  : 

Gwdion  mab  Don  ar  Qonwy 

Hudlath  ni  ba  o'i  fath  ftvy. — D.  ajp  OwUym,  a.d.  1400. 

Here  the  first  line  proves  the  second  and  third  letters ; 
and  the  rhyme  in  the  second  line,  compared  with  the 
first,  proves  the  fourth  and  fifth  letters.  Now  there 
remains  only  the  letter  c  tobe  proved,  which  in  flexions 
turns  to  g,  aa  in  the  above,  as  every  one  the  least 
versed  in  the  British  tongue  knows.  As  I  have  no  very 
ancient  MSS.  now  by  me,  where  I  write  this,  I  must 
be  oontoted,  in  tlmLMppla.  with  tho«e  passages  out 
of  poets  who  wrote  no  further  off  than  about  three 
hundred  or  four  hundred  years  ago,  which  I  can  recol- 
lect in  my  memory  : 

Y  cawt*  ar  Ian  Conwy'r  wledd. — T.  Aled. 

In  this  verse  not  only  the  letter  c  is  proved,  but  also 
the  letter  n,  as  also  in  the  following : 

Nan  C/onwj  man  cawn  j  medd. 

What  other  nation  can  do  this  ? 

In  all  hypotheses  where  no  records,  or  traditions,  or 
marks,  or  traces  of  the  memory,  of  the  facts  are  pre- 


INTRODUCTION.  IxX  ill 

tended,  disproving  by  denying  is  as  easily  done  as 
proving  by  ajsserting  only.  But  any  kind  of  national 
records  or  traditions  are  beyond  all  guesses. 

Common  sense  is  the  growth  of  every  country.  Where 
there  are  ancient  MSS.  and  the  works  of  poets  and 
historians  to  shew  in  a  nation,  it  is  ridiculous  for  any 
man,  though  of  the  highest  character  in  the  learned 
world,  to  advance  his  own  guesses  about  the  language 
or  the  history  against  the  national  authorities  received 
time  out  of  mind.  If  he  doth,  he  will  be  only  laughed 
at  by  the  natives,  and  he  will  repent  it.  Therefore,  if 
there  be  such  authorities,  they  should  have  their  due 
weight. 

As  I  have  above  proved,  in  the  above  example,  that 
our  poets,  who  had  it  by  tradition  from  father  to  son, 
for  time  immemorial,  and  probably  since  they  were 
planted  here,  called  the  river  Conwy;  and  that  accord- 
ing to  the  rules  of  the  bards  it  could  not  be  since  called 
otherwise,  nor  a  letter  changed  in  it,  without  altering 
the  whole  language,  and  that  every  name  and  word  in 
the  British  tongue  is  upon  the  same  footing  of  security, 
as  is  easily  seen  by  observing  the  proofe  or  quotations 
out  of  the  poets  in  the  learned  Dr.  Davies'  Dictionary. 
It  remains,  then,  on  such  as  pretend  to  wrest  the 
British  names  of  places,  and  play  them  through  all  the 
vowels  (to  serve  a  scheme  of  etymologising),  to  shew 
that  the  poets  or  anybody  else  have  ever  wrote  those 
words  as  they  would  have  it,  or  to  bring  some  authority 
equivalent  to  this  of  the  poets,  if  there  be  any  such  in 
the  world,  and  not  with  a  magisterial  air  pronounce 
things  to  be  as  their  fancy  suggests  to  them. 

Mr.  Baxter,  indeed,  might  be  ignorant  that  there 
were  such  rules  of  the  bards  existing,  for  it  is  plain  he 


Ixx  i  V  INTRODUCTION. 

knew  nothing  of  our  antiquities  except  what  he  picked 
out  of  Llwyds  Archceologia,  with  whom  he  corre- 
sponded, and  who  he  in  a  great  measure  corrupted 
with  his  odd  whims.  But  Mr.  Llwyd  knew  there  were 
such  rules,  though  he  knew  not  how  to  apply  them,  as 
plainly  appears  to  any  one  that  hath  read  his  British 
elegy  on  the  death  of  Queen  Mary,  printed  at  Oxford, 
and  also  the  Englyn  about  Rhossyr,  in  his  Notes  on 
Camden's  Anglesey,  which  doth  him  as  little  honour  as 
the  attempt  the  great  Cicero  made  to  be  a  poet. 

When  a  word  is  wrote  differently  by  the  poets,  as 
suppose  Brodorddin  for  example,  it  shews  they  knew 
not  the  etymology  of  it,  or  that  some  particular  authors 
disputed  it ;  for  that  word  is  wrote  Brodorddun  and 
Brodorddyn  as  well  as  Brodorddin;  and  so  of  some 
others,  which  may  be  modem  names  and  places  of  so 
little  note  as  to  be  scarcely  mentioned  by  our  bards. 

In  derivation  of  names  I  have  set  down  Mr.  Ed 
Llwyd  s  etymologies  in  his  ArchcBologia  for  such  as  he 
hath  touched  upon,  and  where  I  differ  from  him  have 
given  my  reasons.  As  for  the  derivations  of  authors 
who  were  strangers  to  our  language,  I  need  say  no 
more  than  that  they  groped  in  the  dark,  and  are  not 
worth  the  trouble  of  confuting.  My  own  etymologies 
I  offer  to  the  world  not  always  as  certainties,  but  pro- 
babilities, on  such  proofs  as  I  produce,  which  any  one 
skilled  in  the  language  is  welcome  to  disprove,  if  he 
can,  with  better  authorities  than  I  produce ;  which  I 
shall  be  glad  to  see,  and  that  this  study  of  retrieving 
antiquities  out  of  the  dust  is  revived. 

How  ridiculous,  in  the  eyes  of  an  Englishman  or 
Cambro-Britain,  doth  Goropius  look,  that  derives  the 
word  Angli  (English)  from  the  English  nation's  being 


_j 


INTRODUCTION.  IxXV 

good  anglers  ;  and  that  the  British  name  Howel  is 
derived  from  sound  or  whole  ?  One  would  think  that 
it  would  be  impossible  for  a  man  of  letters  to  be  so 
ignorant  as  not  to  know  that  whole  is  a  mere  English 
or  Teutonic  word, — a  language  he  was  master  of ;  and 
that  Howel  (or,  as  it  should  be  wrote,  Hywel)  is  a 
British  name  in  use  among  the  Britains  before  the 
arrival  of  the  Saxons  in  Britain ;  and  yet  this  Goropius 
was  a  man  learned  in  languages,  and  physician  to  the 
Queens  of  France  and  Hungary ;  therefore  I  have  the 
charity  to  think  that  this  great  man  waa  not  in  earnest, 
and  only  shewed  his  wit  in  these  flashes  ;  as,  perhaps, 
may  be  the  case  of  Camden  when  he  offers  to  explain 
some  British  words,  being  a  kind  of  itch  of  playing  with 
words,  and  to  shew  great  reading. 


CHAP.   XXV. 


A  CAVEAT  to  English  readers  who  are  unacquainted 
with  the  pronunciation  of  the  Cambro-British  alphabet. 
Let  them  remember  that  in  British,  c  is  before  all  the 
vowels  sounded  as  a  i,  and  never  as  the  English  c  before 
i  and  e  in  the  words  civet,  cerate,  source,  etc.,  and  it  is 
pity  Dr.  Da  vies  did  not  retain  it ;  and  that  II  is  sounded 
after  a  manner  peculiar  to  the  Welsh,  being  an  I  aspir- 
ated something  like  thl ;  so  that  the  word  llan  sounds 
something  like  thlan^  or  between  that  and  clxin.  Let 
it  be  also  remembered  that  in  the  British  there  are  no 
such  sounds  as  the  letter  g  makes  in  the  English  George, 
nor  ch  in  the  English  church,  or  that  j  makes  in  the 
English  jerk,  jilt ;  and  that  these  are  mere  Teutonic 
sounds,  and  never  used  by  the  Celtae.     But  it  is  pro- 


Ixxvi  INTRODUCTION. 

bable  the  Roman  language  had  this  soUnd  ofj,  which 
they  expressed  at  first  by  j,  and  aiterwanls  by  gi,  as 
that  ancient  name  of  the  Celtic  British  King  Beli  was 
Latinised  by  them  into  Beljus,  and  lastly  into  Belgius ; 
but  foolishly,  by  succeeding  Latin  writers  and  our 
modems,  without  rule  or  reason,  turned  into  Belinus. 

The  British  ch  also  hath  a  sound  which  is  not  at  pre- 
sent used  in  the  English,  though  the  old  Saxon  and 
other  branches  of  the  Teutonic  had  it,  as  had  also  the 
Greek  and  Hebrew.  Gh  in  the  word  lough,  for  a  lake, 
sounds  something  like  it,  as  doth  wh  in  the  words  why, 
where,  when,  etc.,  if  strongly  pronounced. 

The  British  i  is  always  pronounced  as  ee,  in  hhed  and 
in  gill  A  is  always  broad  and  gaping,  as  in  the  English 
par,  car;  dd,  always  as  th  in  the,  this,  etc. ;  y,  never  as 
the  English  in  Jit,  but  as  a  v  in  veal ;  g,  never  as  in 
English  before  e  and  i,  but  always  hard,  as  in  God,  gad, 
gun ;  t,  never  as  an  5,  as  in  action,  but  always  a  hard 
i,  as  in  tar,  tin,  heart. 

It  will  be  objected  that  the  division  said  to  be  made 
by  Rhodri  Mawr  between  his  three  sons,  or  some  divi- 
sion equivalent  to  it,  had  been  from  ancient  times ;  for 
when  the  Romans  found  us,  the  people  of  Cambria 
were  divided  into  three  distinct  people,  the  Silures,  the 
Dimetse,  and  the  Ordovices ;  that  it  hath  been  after- 
wards in  four  parts,  Deheubarth,  Dyfed,  Gwynedd, 
a  Phowys.  So  that  Rhodri  only  joined  Dyfed  and 
Deheubarth  in  one  dominion  called  Dinefwr,  and  let 
Gwynedd  and  Powys  rest  as  they  were. 

The  fault  of  the  plan  of  Rhodri  Mawr  was  this.  He 
made  Dinefwr  and  Powys  tributary  to  Gwynedd,  when 
at  the  same  time  he  knew  that  those  two  powers  join- 
ing to  refuse  payment  and  subjection,  would  be  rather 


INTRODUCTION.  IxX  vi  l 

too  hard  for  Gwynedd.    This  was  a  bone  of  contention. 
This  was  not  the  case  when  these  petty  principalities 
were  tributary  to  the  crown  of  London  (which  they 
always  have  been  as  far  as  the  British  history  reaches 
till  the  Saxon  conquest),  for  the  Loegrian  power  was 
able  at  any  time  to  quell  any  rebellion  or  disputes  among 
them,  before  the  Roman  conquest,  and  after  the  Romans 
left  us,  while  the  Loegrian  Britains  governed,  and  until 
they,  idiot-like,  called  in  the  Saxons,  and  gave  away 
their  country  and  dominion.     For  in  the  time  of  the 
ancient  Britains,  before  the  Roman  conquest,  this  island 
was  a  commonwealth  of  free  princes,  as  Germany  is 
now,  but  yet  all  holding  of  the  Loegrian  crown.     But 
when  the  Saxons,  who  were  strangers,  came  to  wear 
that  principal  crown,  and  to  be  masters  of  that  Loegr- 
ian power,  the  tributary  native  princes  of  the  Britains 
refused   to  obey  the  strangers ;   and   in   good   policy 
should  have  joined  all  under  one  head  instead  of  divid- 
ing their  powers,  and  falling  by  the  ears  among  them- 
selves. 

Here  Providence  has  wonderfully  interposed,  and  by 
the  ruin  of  the  old  British  constitution  saved  the  re- 
mains of  the  Britains,  and  made  them  a  most  happy 
people,  if  peace  and  quietness  and  freedom  be  a  happi- 
ness ;  for  now,  in  our  days,  the  English  not  only  fight 
and  pray  for  them,  but  also  go  to  market  for  them.  It 
was  the  ancient  policy  of  the  English,  and  a  very  just, 
sensible  maxim  of  maintaining  power,  not  to  levy  sol- 
diers among  them,  that  their  military  spirit  might  be 
broke  ;  not  to  let  them  have  Welsh  bishops,  that  their 
language  in  time  might  be  neglected  by  the  clergy  ; 
and  as  to  trade  and  merchandise,  they  have  been  indo- 
lent enough,  and  fed  themselves  with  their  high  pedi^ 

I 


Ixxviii  INTRODUCTION. 

grees  and  gentility,  that  men  of  fortune  have  thought 
it  beneath  them  to  trade. 

Some  of  the  effects  that  followed  Rodri  Mawrs  divi- 
sion of  the  Principality  of  Wales,  the  constitution  of 
that  government  being  so  unnatural  that  it  must  neces- 
sarily be  the  ruin  of  that  nation  that  was  under  it, 
especially  a  nation  addicted  to  war  and  broils ;  who,  if 
they  had  not  a  foreign  enemy,  must  quarrel  among 
themselves,  so  that  their  feuds  were  at  last  carried  to 
such  a  head  that  perhaps  the  like  is  not  to  be  found  in 
any  history,  not  even  among  the  most  barbarous  nations 
in  the  world.  Even  tigers  and  lions  have  more  gene- 
rosity'than  these  Britains  had  at  last.  Their  bravery 
in  arms,  and  the  strength  and  activity  natural  to  them, 
partly  on  account  of  the  situation  of  their  coimtry  and 
their  diet^  drove  them  to  that  pitch  of  enthusiastic 
military  spirit  that  neither  law  nor  religion  had  any  tie 
upon  them.  And  it  is  a  great  wonder  how  any  part  of 
their  posterity  remains  on  the  face  of  the  earth. 

It  is  true  the  murdering  of  relations  began  very  soon, 
on  the  first  setting  out  of  mankind  in  the  world,  and 
continued  while  society  remained  in  small  detachments 
dispersed  over  the  world,  without  that  administration 
and  execution  of  laws  which  a  powerful  monarch  only, 
or  some  government  of  that  nature,  is  able  to  put  in 
force. 

After  about  4000  years'  experience  (in  all  which  time 
one  would  have  thought  a  proper  manner  of  governing 
mankind  would  naturally  have  been  hit  upon  by  some 
enterprising  nation  or  other),  the  Christian  religion 
appeared,  which  proposed  the  most  worthy  and  amiable 
rules  as  men  could  wish  to  be  governed  by,  provided 
they  had  anything  good  in  their  nature.     But  this 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixxix 

creature  is  generally  so  perverse  that  nothing  goes 
down  with  him  but  rapine,  plunder,  and  villany.  Under 
the  colour  of  religion  one  man  hath  pretended  a  power 
from  heaven  to  burn,  torture,  destroy,  and  murther,  all 
others  that  differ  in  opinion  from  him  about  things 
that  are  impossible  for  either  of  them  to  be  certain  of ; 
that  is,  about  the  nature  of  God,  and  of  a  God  incom- 
prehensible, and  the  manner  of  worshipping  him. 

Some  nations,  superior  in  pride  and  power  to  the 
rest,  have  attempted  to  bring  this  little  earth  under 
one  monarch,  which,  if  it  could  have  been  effected, 
would  not  have  remained  long  so.  The  limbs  would 
have  been  too  many  for  the  head,  and  would  have  soon 
£sdlen  out  among  themselves,  as  hath  been  the  case 
with  all  great  empires.  Nature  or  Providence  throws 
things,  afber  a  great  confusion,  into  their  proper  places  ; 
so  out  of  disorder  oometh  order,  out  of  corruption 
Cometh  generation.  It  is  plain  that  God  never  intended 
that  the  whole  earth  should  be  governed  by  one  king, 
for  he  alone  is  the  King  of  kings  and  Lord  of  lords,  and 
vain  is  the  man  that  sets  up  for  these  titles  which  can 
belong  to  nobody  but  the  Supreme  Being. 

Among  all  nations  experience  shews  that  monarchy 
(or  a  government  equivalent  thereto,  where  the  people 
place  a  law  agreed  upon  to  be  their  inviolable  and 
standing  rule)  will  always  be  the  best  method  of  govern- 
ing mankind,  provided  the  governing  law  is  strictly  put 
in  execution.  If  the  power  is  in  many  hands  they  will 
quarrel  about  it. 

But  now  to  come  home  to  my  subject,  the  ancient 
Britains  or  Welsh,  where,  after  Rodric's  division,  almost 
every  little  lord  had  a,  jura  regalia,  and  the  lives  and 
fortunes  of  his  tenants  in  his  own  hands,  who  was  to 
call  him  to  an  account  for  what  he  did  ? 


IXXX  INTRODUCTION. 

If  there  were  some  good  men  in  Wales,  and  could 
not  bear  to  see  a  lord  kill  his  brother,  imprison  his 
father,  geld  his  next  relations  that  they  might  not  in- 
herit, and  pretended  to  check  him  for  it,  or  punish  him, 
were  not  the  kings  of  the  Saxons  just  at  hand  to 
receive  any  reprobate  under  their  protection,  and  very 
glad  of  the  opportunity  ?  And  was  not  the  good- 
natured,  religious,  forgiving  Pope  ready  to  absolve  him 
for  a  sum  of  money  ?  "We  must  cease  to  wonder,  then, 
at  the  character  our  countrymen  bear  while  under  that 
vicious  government  from  the  year  876,  when  Rodri 
died,  to  the  year  1282,  when  the  last  Llewelyn  was 
slain,  which  is  406  years.  It  was  the  fault  of  the  con- 
stitution of  their  government,  and  not  of  the  people, 
who  were  naturally  brave  and  generous  ;  but  by  being 
left  to  their  own  ways,  by  the  relaxation  of  the  laws  of 
a  bad  government  ill-founded,  they  became  such  mon- 
sters that  the  most  uncultivated  nation  in  the  world, 
even  the  Hottentots,  would  not  be  guilty  of  the  crimes 
they  have  committed;  till  they  eflfectually  destroyed 
their  crazy  constitution  and  their  power,  which  dis- 
solved itself  into  that  of  the  general  crown  of  the  island, 
and  happy  for  the  nation  it  did. 

Not  to  mention  those  of  their  countrymen  they  killed 
in  battle  in  their  civil  wars,  or  of  the  cruelties  used  by 
the  Saxons  or  Normans  upon  them  when  they  took 
part  with  one  side  against  the  other,  I  shall  give  here 
a  list  only  of  the  butcheries  of  a  Britan  against  Britan 
in  those  days,  as  I  have  hastily  collected  them  out  of 
Caradoc's  Chronicle : 

In  the  year  917  Clydawc  ap  Cadell  was  slain  by  his 
brother  Meurig.     (Caradoc  in  Edwal  Voel.) 

A.D.  933,  Owen  ap  Gruffudd  slain  by  the  men  of  Car- 
digan. 


INTRODUCTION.  IxXXl 

972,  Howel  ap  leuaf  put  out  his  uncle  Meyric  ap 
Edwal's  eyes,  and  kept  him  in  prison  till  his  death. 
(Car.  in  leu.  ap  laco.) 

982,  the  gentlemen  of  Gwent  rebelled  against  their 
Prince,  and  cruelly  slew  Einion  ap  Owen,  who  came  to 
appease  them.     (Car.  in  Ho.  ap  leu.) 

A.D.  1021,  Llewelyn  ap  Seisyllt,  Prince,  was  slain  by 
Howel  and  Mredydd,  the  sons  of  Edwyn,  (Car.  in  Lin. 
apS.) 

A.D.  1044,  the  gentlemen  of  Ystrad  Towy  did  trea- 
cherously kill  140  of  Prince  Gr.  ap  Llywelyn's  men. 
(Car.  in  Gr.  ap  Lin.) 

A.D.  1054,  Griff,  ap  Llewelyn,  Prince  of  Wales,  was 
cruelly  and  traitorously  slam  by  his  own  men,  and  his 
head  brought  to  Harold.     (Car.  in  Gr.  Lin.) 

A.D.  1073,  Blethyn  ap  Cynfyn,  King  of  Wales,  was 
traitorously  and  cowardly  murdered  by  Rhys  ap  Owen 
ap  Edwyn  and  the  gentlemen  of  Ystrad  Ty  wy.  (Car.  in 
Bl.  ap  Con.)  About  the  same  time  Cynwrig  ap  Rhiw- 
allon,  a  nobleman  of  Maelor,  was  slain  by  the  North 
Wales  men. 

A.D.  1079,  Gwrgeneu  ap  Seisyllt,  a  nobleman,  was 
slain  by  the  sons  of  Rhys  Sais.     (Car.  in  Trah.) 

A.D.  1103,  Gwgan  ap  Meyrick  invited  Howel  ap 
Grono  to  his  house  to  make  merry,  who  strangled  him 
as  he  got  out  of  bed,  and  delivered  his  body  to  the 
Normans,  who  cut  off  his  head.  (Car.  in  Gr.  ap  Cyn.) 
About  this  time  Mejorick  and  Gruff,  ap  Trahaearn  ap 
Caradoc  were-slain  by  Owen  ap  Cadwgan  ap  Bleddyn. 
(Car.  in  Gr.  ap  Cyn.) 

A.D.  1112,  Owen  would  not  put  Madog  to  death,  but 
put  out  his  eyes,  and  let  him  go,  and  took  his  lands. 
(Car.) 


Ixxxii  INTRODUCTION. 

A.D.  1115,  Gruff,  ap  Cynan  attempted  to  deliver  up 
Gruff,  ap  Rhys,  Prince  of  South  Wales,  to  King  Henry  I, 
though  he  had  taken  refuge  with  him. 

A.I).  1122,  Gruff,  ap  Rhys  (the  above)  killed  Gruff,  ap 
Trahaeam. 

A.D.  1125,  Cadwallon  ap  Gr.  ap  Cynan  slew  his  three 
uncles,  and  Morgan  ap  Cadwgan  slew  his  brother  Mre- 
dydd  with  his  own  hands.     (Car.  in  Gr.  ap  Cyn.)  • 

Mredydd  ap  Llywarch  slew  Meyrick  his  cousin,  and 
put  out  the  eyes  of  his  two  cousiu-germans,  sons  of 
Griffri. 

A.D.  1128,  leuaf  ap  Owen  put  out  the  eyes  of  two  of 
his  brethren,  and  banished  them  the  country;  and 
Llewelyn  ap  Owen  slew  lorwerth  ap  Llowarch.  And 
Mredydd  apBleddyn  took  the  same  Llewelyn  his  nephew, 
and  put  out  his  eyes,  and  gelded  him,  that  he  might 
have  his  lands,  and  slew  leuaf  ap  Owen  his  brother. 

Also  Meyric  slew  Llowarch  and  Madog  his  son,  his 
own  cousins,  who  himself  waa  so  served  shortly  after. 
(Carad.  Gr.  ^p  Cyn.,  p.  187.) 

A.D.  1132,  Cadwallon  ap  Gr.  ap  Cynan  slain  by  Eneon 
ap  Owen  ap  Edw3m  his  uncle,  whose  three  brethren  he 
had  slain. 

A.D.  1140,  Cynwrig  ap  Owen  was  slain  by  the  men 
of  Madog  ap  Mredydd  ap  Blethyn  ap  Cynfyn  ;  and  the 
sons  of  Blethyn  ap  Gwyn  slew  Mredydd  ap  HoweL 

A.D.  1142,  Howel  ap  Mredydd  ap  Blethjna  was  mur- 
dered by  his  own  men.  And  Howel  and  Cadwgan,  the 
sons  of  Madoc  ap  Idnerth,  killed  one  another.  Anar- 
awd  ap  Gr.  ap  Rys  was  killed  in  a  quarrel  with  his 
father-in-law,  Cadwallon  ap  Gr.  ap  Cynan. 

A.D.  1148,  Howel  ap  Owen  Gwynedd  took  his  uncle 
Cadwaladr  prisoner,  and  took  possession  of  his  country. 


INTRODUCTION.  IXXXIU 

A. D.  1151,  Owain  Gwynedd  took  Cunethe,  his  brother 
Cadwallon's  son,  put  out  his  eyes,  and  gelded  him,  lest 
he  should  have  children  to  inherit  part  of  the  land. 

A.D.  1158,  Morgan  ap  Owen  was  traitorously  slain  by 
the  men  of  Ifor  ap  Meiu-ig. 

A.D.I  160,  Cadwallon  ap  Madoc  ap  Idnerth  was  taken 
by  his  brother  Eneon  Clyd,  and  delivered  to  Owein 
Gwynedd,  who  sent  him  to  the  king  s  officers,  to  be 
imprisoned  at  Winchester. 

A.D.  1168,  Cynan  ap  Owen  Gwynedd  slew  Gwrgeneu, 
Abbot  of  Llwythlawr,  and  his  nephew  Llawthen. 

A.D.  1169,  Meyric  ap  Adam  of  Buallt  was  murthered 
in  his  bed  by  Meredydd  Goch  his  cousin. 

A.D.  1175,  How.  ap  lor.  ap  Owen,  of  Caerlleon,  took 
his  uncle,  Owen  Pencam,  prisoner,  and  putting  out  his 
eyes,  gelded  him  lest  he  should  beget  children  which 
should  inherit  Caerlleon  and  Gwent.  (Carad.  in  D.  ap 
Owen.) 

A.D.  1186,Cadwaladr,  son  of  Lord  Bees,  slain  privately 
in  West  Wales.  The  same  year  Madoc  ap  Mredydd 
slain  in  the  night,  in  the  Castle  of  Caregho va,  by  Gwen- 
wynwyn  and  CadwaUon,  sons  of  Owen  Cyfeiliog.  And 
Llewelyn  ap  Cadwallon  ap  Gr.  ap  Cynan  was  taken  by 
his  own  brethren,  and  had  his  eyes  put  out. 

A.D.  1193,  Anarawd,  son  of  Prince  Rees,  took  his  two 
brothers,  Howel  and  Madoc,  prisoners,  under  colour  of 
friendship,  and  put  out  their  eyes. 

A.D.  1193,  Prince  Rees's  own  sons,  Maelgwn  and 
Anarawd,  laid  wait  for  their  own  father,  and  took  him 
prisoner,  fearing  he  would  revenge  their  cruelty  on 
their  brothers ;  but  by  means  of  his  son  Howel,  who 
was  blind,  he  escaped  out  of  Maelgwn  his  son's  prison. 
(Carad.  in  D.  ap  Owen.) 


Ixxxiv  INTRODUCTION. 

A,D.  1194,  Prince  Rys  takes  his  sons  Rees  and  Mre- 
dydd,  who  had  taken  from  him  the  castles  of  Cantre 
Bychan  and  Dinefwr,  and  kept  them  in  safe  prison. 

A.D.  1197,  Maelgwn  ap  Rys,  after  he  had  imprisoned 
his  elder  brother,  got  his  castles  of  Aberteifi  and  Ystrad 
Meirig. 

A.D.  1201,Mredydd  ap  Rhys  was  slain  at  Camwyllion 
by  treason,  and  his  elder  brother  Gruffydd  seized  upon 
his  castle  at  Llanymddyfri  and  all  his  lands. 

A.D.  1204,  Howel,  the  son  of  Prince  Rees,  being  blind, 
was  slain  at  Cemmaes  by  his  brother  Maelgon's  men. 
Soon  after  Maelgon  ap  Rees  hired  an  Irishman  to  kill 
Cadivor  ap  Griflfri,  whose  four  sons  Maelgon  took,  and 
put  them  to  death. 

A.D.  1226,  Rees  Vychan,  son  of  Rys  Gruc,  Prince  of 
South  Wales,  took  his  father  prisoner,  and  would  not 
let  him  at  liberty  till  he  had  given  him  the  Castle  of 
LlanymddyfrL 

A.D.  1282,  Madoc  Min,  said  in  the  Earl  of  Maccles- 
field's MS.  to  be  BisJiop  of  Bangor,  betrayed  Llewelyn 
ap  Gruffudd,  the  last  Welsh  Prince,  into  the  hands  of 
Edward  I's  men  near  Buallt,  who  sent  his  head  to  the 
King,  being  himself  at  Conwy.  And  soon  after  David 
his  brother  was  delivered  into  the  King's  hand  by  his 
own  countrymen,  who  was  put  to  death  at  Shrews- 
bury. 

And  thus  the  Britains,  through  pride,  perverseness, 
and  a  bad  constitution,  destroyed  themselves,  and  lost 
their  dominion  and  power  in  the  Isle  of  Britain,  accord- 
ing to  their  deserts ;  and  so  will  any  other  nation 
destroy  itself  that  follows  the  same  road. 


INTRODUCTION.  IxXXV 


Of  Cognomens  or  Surnames^  or  Appellatives,  or  Nick- 
names among  the  Britains  from  the  Colour  of  their  Hair: 
as,  Du,  Gwyn,  Llwyd,  Glas,  Coch,  Melyn :  Dafydd  Ddu, 
Cynog  Las,  Madog  Goch,  lolo  Goch,  lorwerth  Fyng- 
Iwyd,  Gwyn  Fardd  Brycheiniog,  leuan  Goch  Benllwyd ; 
Torddu,  Philip  Dorddu ;  Cynfelyn. 

From  their  Stature,  Habitudes,  Perfections  or  Imper- 
fections of  the  Body. — Bychan,  Mawr,  Moel,  Cam,  Main, 
Cryt  Crych,  Cryg,  Hir,  Byr,  Bras,  Cnl,  Llwm  :  Madog 
Fychan,  Eodri  Mawr,  Edwal  Voel,  Dafydd  Gam,  Gruff- 
udd  Gryg,  Madog  Benfras,  Harri  Hir. 

Names  of  Places  from  Men,  the  inhabitants  in  ancient 
times  being  a  property  as  well  as  the  country  : 

Wys. — So  the  land  of  Lloegrin  was  called  (including 
the  people)  Lloegrwys;  the  lands  of  Py  or  Paw,  Powys; 
from  Gwent,  Gwenwys.    (Gwys,  pi.  of  Gwas). 

Og. — The  land  and  people*  of  Rhufon,  Rhyfoniog  ; 
the  land  and  people  of  Cyfail,  Cyfeiliog  ;  the  land  and 
people  of  Brychan  Yrth,  Brycheiniog;  Morgan,  Mor- 
gannog  or  wg  ;  Meriad,  Meriadog. 

On. — The  land  of  Madog,  called  Madogion  ;  the  lands 
and  people  of  Cynwyd  was  called  Cynwydion  ;  the 
people  of  lorwerth,  lorwerthion  ;  Ceredig  makes  Cere- 
digion; from  Mawym,  Mawymiawn;  from  Gwyn,  Gwyn- 
ogion ;  Swydd  Wynogion  ;  from  Mervyn,  Merfynion,  or 
Powys. 

laid. — The  people  of  Cynfyn,  called  Cynfyniaid ;  the 
people  of  Caesar,  Csesariait ;  the  people  of  Coran,  called 
Coranniait ;  of  Brychfael,  Brychfaeliaid    (Cynddelw.) 

Ydd. — From  Melian  or  Mael  ap  Cadvael,  Melienydd 
or  Maelienydd ;  from  Eiddion,  Eiddionydd ;  from  Meir- 
ion,  Meirionydd. 

m 


THE    SUBJECT  OF  THIS  BOOK,   AND  THE   AUTHOR'S 

DRIFT. 


Olrhain  yr  wyf,  caffwjf  bob  coffa    hen, 
A  hanes  gan  wjrda, 
Enwan  llefjdd/  defbydd  da, 
Trigolion  Gyntir^  GkJia. 

Ailrhyw  gorchwyl  yw  olrhaiii    hjnod 
Hen  heDwan  ym  Mhrydain  ;^ 
A  dosparthu,  rhannu  rhai'n, 
Henoes,  yn  ea  Ue'a  hnnain. 

Yno  cyff*lyba  enwaa    y  Ueoedd, 
Gerllaw  Mynydd  Mynnaa,^ 
A'r  ben  awdwyr,  clydwyr  clan, 
Yn  iawn,  ft'n  henwau  ninnan. 

Yno  dangOB  achos  iawn    a  gwreiddiau, 
A  grndd  enwan  estrawn : 
Ag  iaith  y  Ceiltiaid^  a  gawn, 
A'i  ffraeth-lais  yn  dra  ffrwytblawn. 

Y  Fmtanittith,*  bon  yw'n  iaitb  ni,     coeliwcli, 
Colofn,  mawr  ei  bynni ; 
Gwraidd  Groegiaith,^  gradd  ddigrygi, 
A  bad  Lladiniaitb^  y  w  bi. 

Cawn  enwan  en  Dnwian,  a'n  dysg    bynod, 

Yn  ein  h4n  iaitb  byddysg ; 

A  mawr  na  wyddynt  i*w  mysg 

O  ba  wraidd  y  bn'r  addysg ! 

Lewis  Mukeis. 

^  Lleoedd.  >  Britain.  •  The  Geltae.  '  Greek  tongue. 

»  Ancient  Gaul.      *  The  Alps.         •  British  tongue.     "  Latin  tongue. 


CELTIC  KEMAINS. 


A. 

Abad,  an  abbot  (f.  g.  abodes,  an  abbess).  This  is  derived  from 
the  Syrian  word  ahbas,  signifying  a  president  of  monks.  The 
abbots  were  originally  laymen,  and  the  British  monks  in  former 
times  were  no  clergymen. 

Giraldus  Cambrensis  tells  us  the  monks  in  the  monastery  on 
Bardsey  Island  were  first  governed  by  a  lay  abbot,  and  called 
Colideos,  Probably  they  were  so  csJled  from  their  black  hoods, 
t.  e.,  cyliau  duon.  But  it  seems  they  were  ecclesiastics  when 
Dyfric,  the  archbishop,  went  there  from  the  Synod  of  Brevi,  a.d. 
619.  (This  was  the  year  before  the  battle  of  Badon  HilL  Usher) 
See  EtUU  and  Myrddin  Wyllt 

Sometimes  the  princes,  in  the  beginning  of  Christianity  here, 
took  it  in  their  heads  to  build  monasteries,  and  to  act  as  abbots 
over  them,  whereby  they  got  the  title  of  Saints.  "Abbas  erat  et 
princeps  super  Guntianam  (GwenUwg)  regionem,"  says  the  Book 
ofLlaTidaff,  in  the  Life  of  St.  Cadoc.  He  was  the  son  of  Gwyn- 
lUw  Filwr,  the  prince  of  that  country. 

Ababis,  a  British  druid  cotemporary  with  Pythagoras,  who  is 
said  to  have  taught  Pythagoras  the  doctrine  of  transmigration  of 
souls,  etc.  He  lived  about  510  years  before  Christ,  and  about 
the  244th  year  of  Bome.  Some  fanciful  men  think  his  ncune 
was  Ap  Eys. 

Abeb,  recti  Abekw,  the  fall  of  one  water  or  river  into  another 
or  into  the  sea ;  and  as  it  was  natural  to  build  houses  or  towns 
on  such  convenient  places,  abundance  of  towns  in  Britain,  North 
and  South,  are  to  this  day  called  by  the  names,  of  the  rivers 

1 


2  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

there  dischaiging  themselves.  So  the  word  aher  or  aberw  is  com- 
pounded of  a  and  herw^  to  boil,  or  the  ebullition  it  makes  in  its 
fall.  Hence  Aberflraw,  formerly  the  seat  of  the  princes  of  Wales 
in  Anglesey,  hath  its  name  from  the  fall  of  the  river  Ffraw  into 
the  sea ;  and  this  may  suflSice  for  all  the  rest.    Vide  Ffraw. 

Places  in  Scotland  that  have  Aber  in  their  name  are  the  fol- 
lowing, viz. :  Aberdeen,  Aherhrothock,  Abemethy,  Aberdour,  Aber- 
cam,  Lochaber,  and  Aberwic  (i.  e.,  Bervnc). 

Aberalaw,  in  Anglesey,  the  fall  of  the  river  Alaw  into  the  sea. 

Aberarth,  Cardiganshire. 

Aberavan  :  vid.  Avan, 

Aberbargod,  in  Bedwellty,  Monmouthshire. 

[Barged  Taf,  ger  Ilaw  Mynwent  y  Crynwyr. — Walter  Patnes.] 
Aberbekgwm,  Glamorganshire. 

Bwrw  Aber  fal  nyth  Eryr 

Bergwm  wenn  bu'r  gwae  am  w^r. — L,  Morgcmwg. 

Aberbban. 

Hafart  o  Aberbran. — Vafydd  Eppynt 
[Br&n  i  Dawy  uwch  Ynys  Cedwyn. — W,  P.] 

Aberbeothock  or  Arbrothock,  a  town  on  the  river  Tay,  in 
the  county  of  Angus  in  Scotland^  forty  miles  north-east  of  Edin- 
burgh. 

Aberbwthyn,  Carmarthenshire. 

Aberbythych,  Caermarthenshire. 

Abercar,  in  Taf  Fawr,  Breconshire. 

Abercaraf,  in  Llyfr  Coch  Hergest,  for  Abercoraun,  and  that 
for  Abercaraun.  Mynydd  yn  Abercarav. — Gwasgargerdd  Vyrddin^ 

Aberoaron,  the  fall  of  the  river  Caron  into  the  sea.  See-4&er- 
cumig  and  Caron. 

ABERCioa  or  Abebkeog,  see  Ciog  river.  Aber  Cuauc,  and  Kyog. 
— Llywarch  Hen. 

Aberconwy  Abbey,  on  the  river  Ilechog,  called  also  Mynach- 
log  Lechog  and  Aberllechog.  It  was  built  after  the  year  1145 
(see  Ty  Gwyn  ar  Ddf)  and  before  1157.     (See  Caradoc,  p.  ...) 

Here  Gruflfydd  ap  Cynan  ap  0.  Gwynedd  was  buried  in  a  monk's 
cowl,  AD.  1200.  The  monks  were  in  such  credit  among  the  Welsh 
in  those  days,  that  they  believed  Heaven  was  in  their  gift ;  nay. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  3 

80  superstitious  were  they,  that  they  thought  if  they  had  but  a 
monk's  cowl  on,  it  would  give  them  admittance  through 

Abergorak  or  Abercomyn  Castle,  in  Caermarthenshire  (Cara^ 
doc,  p.  321) ;  recti,  Abercowyn.  This  Castle  was  kept  by  the 
Norman,  Bobt.  Courtmaine,  a.d.  116. . .  (Powel's  Caradoc,  p.  178.) 

Abergurnig  or  Aebergurnig,  a  monastery  mentioned  by  Bede 
(I  i,  c.  12)  at  a*  place  called  in  the  Pictish  language  Peanvahd 
(or,  as  the  annotator,  PenvaeJ)  ;  but  in  the  English  tongue,  Pe?t- 
Tultun ;  in  the  British,  Abercaron.  It  is  now  called  Abercaron 
Castle,  where  the  Picts'  Wall  is  said  to  begin  at  a  place  called 
WaUtoun,  {Notes  on  Bede)  Probably  the  name  Penneltun,  in 
the  language  of  the  natives,  was  Fen  y  Wal  (i,  e.,  the  end  of  the 
wall).  But  the  place  of  this  town  is  disputed  by  Warburton  in 
his  Survey  of  the  WalL 

Abercwyddon,  in  Monmouthshire.  [Aberffwyddon  ym  mhlwyf 
Maesaleg. — lolo  MorganwgJ] 

Aber  Ctken  or  Ctnan,  in  Caermarthenshire.  Qu.  whether 
Cenrun  ? 

Abercynlleth,  a  gentleman's  seat. — J,  2>.  [Cynllaith  i  Dan- 
ad.— JT.  2>.] 

Aberdar,  a  parish  in  Glamorgan. 

Aberdaron,  a  church  dedicated  to  StHowyn.  {BrovmeWUlis.) 
(Qu.,  whether  it  belonged  to  Enlli  ?)  This  was  a  sanctuaiy  in 
Gruffydd  ap  Cynan's  time,  A.D.  1113  ;  and  Gruffydd  ap  Eys  ap 
Tewdwr  took  sanctuary  there,  and  from  thence  he  fled  to  Ystrad 
Tywy.    Vide  Daron  river. 

Aberdau  :  see  Dau. 

Aberdeen  or  Aberdon,  a  city  in  the  county  of  Marr  in  Scot- 
land, on  the  mouths  of  the  rivers  Dee  and  Don,  about  eighty-four 
miles  north-east  of  Edinburgh.  It  is  divided  into  two  parts,  and 
styled  Old  and  New  Aberdeen.  The  rivers  go  into  the  sea  about 
a  mile  distant,  and  the  new  town  is  built  on  the  Dee.  The  fish- 
ing town  of  Fetty  lies  on  the  sea-side. 

Aberdulas  [in  Glamorgan. — L  Mi\ 

Adfydd  Pfranc  ar  ffo  fibrdd  ni  ofyn 

Yd  Aberdulas  gwanhas  gwehyn 

Cochwedd  yn  eu  cylchwodd  yn  cu  cylchwyn. 

Hoianau  Myrddin, 


4  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Abebdyh,  a  village  in  Merionethshire,  on .  the  motith  of  the 
river  Dyfi-  There  was  a  castle  built  by  Rhys  ap  Gruffydd,  King 
of  South  Wales,  A.D.  1155,  at  Aberdyfi,  over  against  North  Wales, 
that  is,  in  Cardiganshire ;  but  now  there  are  not  the  least  marks 
of  it  to  be  seen-     See  Caradoc  in  0.  Givynedd, 

Aberenion,  a  castle  built  by  Maelgwn  ap  Rhys,  A.D.  1205. 

Abebffos  (nomen  loci). 

DiddoB  AberflTos  ni  bu. — Ekys  Pennardd, 

Abeeffeaw  :  vide  Ffraw.  Cantref  Aberflfraw,  one  of  the  three 
cantrefe  of  Anglesey,  containing  two  commots,  Uion  and  Mall- 
draeth. 

Abebffbtdlan,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Merionethshire,  on  the 
river  Ffiydlan. 

Abebgabth  Celyn  is  Aber  village  and  church  in  Caernarvon- 
shire, called  also  Abergwyngregin,  at  the  entrance  of  the  great 
pass  of  Bwlch  y  Ddeufaen.    Vid.  Oarth  Celyn, 

Abergavenni  or  Abergavenny  (now  Abergenny),  a  town  in 
Monmouthshire,  fourteen  miles  west  of  Monmouth.  Here  Wm. 
de  Bruse  treacherously  murdered  the  men  of  Gwent,  ad.  1176. 

Abergelau,  a  church,  village,  and  parish,  in  the  deanery  of 
Rhos,  Denbighshire.    Vid.  Gelau, 

Abergorlech,  in  Carmarthenshire. 

Abergwaith. 

A  chad  Abergwaith  a  chad  laithon. — Hoicmau  Myrddin. 

Abergwili,  near  Caermarthen.  A  battle  was  fought  here 
between  Llywelyn  ap  Seisyllt  and  the  South  Wales  men,  who 
set  up  one  Run,  a  Scot,  for  a  pretender,  AD.  1020.  The  North 
Wales  men  got  the  victory. 

Aberhonddu,  a  town  and  castle  on  the  fall  of  Honddu  into 
the  Wysg ;  in  English,  Brecknock ;  the  chief  town  of  Brecknock- 
shire. It  was  inhabited  in  the  time  of  the  Romans,  as  Camden 
observes,  because  their  coins  are  found  here.  Ber.  Newmarch, 
in  Wm.  Rufus*  time,  built  here  a  stately  castle  which  the  Breosses 
and  Bohuns  afterwards  repaired;  and  here  was  a  Collegiate  Church 
of  fourteen  prebendaries,  which  Henry  VIII  translated  here  from 
Abergwili,  in  the  Priory  of  the  Dominicans.     Vid.  Honddu. 

Aberllai,  if  rightly  read  by  Mr.  Edward  Uwyd,  the  place 
where  Urien  Reged  was  killed  by  the  Saxons. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  5 

Yn  Aberllai  lladd  JJxien.'^Llywarch  Hen,  If  not  Aberllew, 
which  see  [s.  v.  Llew\. 

Aberllech,  a  place  in  South  Wales,  where  the  Britains  fell 
upon  the  Normans,  Anno  Domini  1094,  and  destroyed  most  of 
them.    {Garadoc,  p.  154) 

Aberllechog  :  see  Llechog.  Here  was  the  Abbey  of  Aberconwy. 

Aberllienn Awc,  rightly  Aberlleiniog,  in  Anglesey.  Caradoc 
(in  Gr.  ap  Cynan)  is  mistaken.  Built  by  the  Earls  of  Chester  and 
Salop  (p.  155)  A.D.  1095. 

Abermaw,  a  village  and  a  good  harbour  at  the  mouth  of  the 

river  Maw  in  Meirion.     Here  a  customhouse  for  coast  business 

hath  been  lately  set  up,  and  here  is  a  public  ferryboat  to  cross 

the  river.     Now  called  Bermo. 

Talwn  fferm  porth  Abermaw 

Ar  don  drai  er  ei  dwyn  draw. — D.  ap  OwUym, 

Abermenai,  where  the  river  Menai  faUs  into  the  sea  near 
Caernarvon ;  but  it  is  properly  no  river,  but  an  arm  of  the  sea. 
Here  Cadwaladr  ap  Grufiydd  ap  Cynan  in  the  year  1142  landed 
with  a  great  force  of  Irish  and  Scots,  whom  he  had  hired 
agaiMt  his  brother,  Owain  Gwynedd;  but  the  auxiliaries  were 
defeated,  and  peace  was  concluded  between  the  two  brothers. 
{Garadoc,  p.  197.)  Caradoc  says  they  had  no  battle  ;  but  if  this 
was  that  described  by  Gwalchmai  ap  Meilir,  it  was  a  desperate 
one.  But  that  seems  to  me  to  be  a  sea-fight  with  Henry  II  and  all 
the  power  of  England  and  Normandy  and  the  hired  fleets  of  Irish 
and  Danes.  His  first  expedition  to  Wales  was  in  the  year  1154 ; 
and  his  second  in  1157,  at  Chester. 

Abernaint,  a  gentleman's  seat. — J.D,  [Near  Ilanfyllin,  Mont- 
gomeryshire.—  W,  D."] 

Abernant  Bychan,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Cardiganshire. 

Abernefyetd,  or  Mefydd,  or  Newydd,  or  Nevydd,  where  Elidir 
Mwynfawr  was  killed  by  Ehun.    {MS.) 

Abernon  :  Eglwys  Abemon  near  St.  David's.  (Llwyd^s  N^otes 
on  Gamden.)  It  seems  there  is  a  river  here  called  iVoTi,  so  named 
from  Non,  the  mother  of  St.  David.    [See  Eenton. —  W.D,] 

Aberporth,  Cardiganshire,  and  Blaenporth. 

ABERRfiEiDoL  {Garadoc  in  0.  Gwynedd,  p.  220).  This  is  either 
Aberystwyth  or  the  Dinas  by  Aberystwyth.     [The  junction  of 


6  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Eheidiol  and  Ystwyth  was  formerly  in  a  difiTerent  place  from  the 
present  junction.     See  my  Tour. —  W.  D.] 

Abertanat,  near  Ilansilin :  vid.  Tanad. 

Abebtabadr. 

Am  Abertaradr  yn  tremyna 

Am  Byrth  Ysgewin  yn  goresgynxin. 

Owynfardd  Brycheiniog,  i  Arg.  Ry8« 

Abertarogi  :  see  Tarogi. 

Abertawy,  Swansey  in  Glamorgan ;  a  seaport  and  town  of 
good  trade.  [The  river  Tawy  here  falls  into  the  Bristol  Channel 
—  JV.  D.] 

Aberteifi,  a  town  and  castle  built  on  the  river  Teivi,  near  the 
sea.  This  place^  in  the  time  of  the  wars  with  the  Normans, 
Saxons,  Flemings,  etc.,  was  the  key  and  lock  of  all  Wales.  Rhys, 
the  Prince  of  South  Wales,  in  the  year  1177,  being  in  peace  with 
Henry  II,  proclaimed  through  all  Britain  a  great  feast  to  be  kept 
at  this  castle,  where,  among  deeds  of  arms  and  other  shows,  the 
poets  and  musicians  of  Wales  were  to  try  their  skill  for  the 
honour  of  their  several  countries,  with  great  rewards  for  the  over- 
comers.  Here  North  Wales  got  the  better  in  poetry,  and  South 
Wales  in  music.     (Caradoc  in  J),  op  Ovniin,) 

Aberthaw  or  Aberdaon,  a  seaport  in  Morganwg. — Dr.  Powel, 
p.  122.  [Aberddawon,  where  the  river  Dawon  falls  into  the  Bristol 
Channel ;  in  English,  Aberthaw. — I.  Jf.] 

Abertridwr,  Glamorganshire. 

Abertrinant,  Cardiganshire. 

Abertwrch,  in  Ilangiwg,  Glamorgan.  [Twrch  i  Dawy.  See 
Survey  of  South  Waks.—  W.  D.'\ 

Aberwig,  qu.  Berwick  ?    Vid.  y  Ferwig. 

["Mwnt  a'r  Ferwig,  maent  ar  fai."— TF.  D.] 

Aberwiler  {B.  Willis),  part  of  the  parish  of  Bodflfari,  Flint- 
shire.    [Commonly  Aberchmler ;  "  Gwylary,"  say  some. —  W.  U.] 

Aberyw  or  Aberhiw,  now  Beriw,  a  parish  and  church  in  Mont- 
gomeryshire, dedicated  to  St.  Beuno  (k  aber  and  yw). 

Y  barr  mwya*n  Aberyw, 

A'r  bel  yn  aur  o'r  blaen  yw. — 0.  ap  LI,  Moeh 

Abloic,  was  King  of  Ireland,  who  landed  in  Anglesey,  burnt 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  7 

Holyhead,  and  spoiled  Ueyn,  about  A.D.  958,  in  the  reign  of  lago 
and  leuaf,  sons  of  Idwal  VoeL     (Powers  Caradoc,  p.  61.) 

AccwiL,  a  msoi's  name.  Perhaps  from  AquUa ;  and  hence 
some  think  the  prophecy  of  Eryr  Caersepton  (i  «.,  the  Eagle  of 
Caersepton)  took  its  name^  a  man  called  AquUa  having  prophe- 
sied those  things  about  his  countrymen,  the  Britains.  See 
Powel's  CaradoCy  p.  5 ;  and  see  also  Leland's  Script  Brit.,  c.  5. 

AcH  and  Achau  :  pedigree,  or  a  table  of  the  descents  of  persons 
from  their  ancestors.  Sir  Peter  Leicester,  in  his  Antiquities^  says 
in  great  triumph,  that  there  are  only  sixty-six  descents  between 
Shem  and  Christ  in  St.  Luke ;  but  that,  according  to  the  British 
history,  the  descent  from  Brute  to  Cassibelan  is  seventy,  and 
twenty-two  more  from  Noah  to  Brute,  in  all  ninety-two.  This, 
he  says,  is  a  plain  mark  of  imposture  in  the  British  history  of 
Galfrid.  But  to  any  impartial  man  it  is  a  strong  proof  of  its 
authenticity;  for  the  Scriptursd  descents  axe  of  sons  from  fathers, 
but  the  British  account  is  of  kings,  brothers,  and  strangers,  and 
some  of  but  short  reigns. 

AcH,  pro  Merch.  (Dr.  Davies,  Orammar,  p.  161.) 
.  AcHLACH,  Glyn  Achlach,  or  (as  in  one  MS.)  Glyn  Achalch, 
a  place  in  Ireland  where,  in  a  meeting  of  the  British  and  Trish 
musicians  about  the  year  1096,  the  rules  of  composition  of  music 
for  Wales  and  Ireland  were  settled  by  order  of  Murchan,  the 
Irish  prince,  and  of  Gruffydd  ap  Cynan,  the  Welsh  prince.  This 
was  Murchartus.     (Offygia,  p.  438.) 

Adakau  :  vid.  Caer  Adanau. 

Adab  (Ynys),  the  Adros  of  Pliny,  etc.  Ynys  Adar,  the  old 
name  of  Skerries.     (Hum.  Llwyd,  Brit,  JDescript.y 

Adda  and  Addap  (n.  pr.),  Adamus. 

Adda  Fsas,  the  poet  and  pretended  prophet  of  Isconwy  about 
the  year  1240. 

Adbbon  or  Gadebon  (n.  pr.  v.).  "  Gorchan  Adebon"  by  An- 
euryn. 

Adles,  verch  Dafydd  ap  Llywarch  Goch  o  DegaingL 

Adwy'r  Beddau,  a  pass  through  Offa's  Ditch,  where  the  graves 
of  the  Saxons  are  to  be  seen  to  this  day,  that  were  killed  there 
in  Henry  the  Second's  expedition  to  Berwyn.  See  Crogen  and 
Corwm. 


8  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Aedan  ap  Blegored,  a  prince  or  king  of  Wales  in  the  year 
1003. 

Aedenaw,  or  Aedenawc,  mab  Gleisiar  o*r  Gogledd,  un  o'r  tri 
•glew.     {Tr.  27.) 

Aedd  ap  Clys  or  Aedd  mab  Clys :  see  Afarwy, 

Aedd  Mawk,  father  of  Prydain,  who  is  said  to  have  conquered 
this  island.  Ehys  Goch  Eryri  says  this  Aedd  was  son  of  Anto- 
nus,  son  of  Ehiwallawn,  son  of  Ehegaw,  daughter  of  Ilyr.  See 
Prydain  and  Dyfnvxd  Mod  Mud. 

Aedd  AN  (n.  pr.  v.),  Aidanvs  or  ^danus;  in  the  Saxon  Chro- 
nicle Aegthan ;  in  the  English  of  Bede,  Edan. 

Aeddan  Fradawg,  father  of  Gafran,  {Triad  34.)  This  Aeddan 
was  a  prince  of  the  Northern  Britains^  or  British  Picts,  who  had 
the  civil  war  with  Rhydderch  Hael.  (TV.  46.)  Bede  calls  him 
a  king  of  the  Scots  (lib.  i,  c.  34).  This  is  the  Bridevs  of  Nennius. 
His  great  battle  with  Ethelfrid,  King  of  the  Angles  of  North- 
umbria,  was  fought  at  Daegstane  in  Cumberland,  in  the  year 
603,  as  Bede  says,  but  the  Saxon  Chronicle  sajs  606.  This  I  take 
to  be  that  battle  the  Triades  caU  "Y  DifancoU,"  i.  e,,  the  total 
loss.  {Triades,  34.)  That  part  of  the  army  commanded  by  Gaf- 
ran, his  son,  being  2,100,  in  retreating  to  save  their  lord,  were 
drove  into  the  sea.  "  Un  o  dri  diwair  deulu"  {i.  e,,  one  of  the 
three  faithful  clans),  I  suppose,  retreated  into  the  Isle  of  Man. 
Fordun,  Boethius,  and  Buchanan,  are  all  confusion  about  his 
successor. 

Aedden  ap  Cyngen,  about  eight  descents  after  Biychwel  Ys- 
githrog. 

Aeddon,  n.  pr.  v. 

Aeddon  o  Eon,  his  elegy  wrote  by  Taliesin. 

Aeddon  (Tref),  near  Aberflfraw;  vulgo  Tre  Eiddon :  Yid.  Arch- 
a^eddon  (Llyn). 

Aeddren,  a  place  in  liangwm,  where  it  is  said  Bedo  Aeddren 
came  from.    (MS.) 

Aedwy,  river  in  Badnorshire.  Aberaedwy,  a  parish  in  Badnor- 
shire.    Vid.  Edvry. 

Aeles,  verch  Kcart  ap  Cadw  ab  Gr.  ab  Cynan ;  probably  Alice. 

Aeluaiarn  (Saint).    Llanaelhaiam  in  Caernarvonshire. 

Aelianus:  yii.  Elian. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  9 

Aeron  (nom.  fluv.),  a  river  in  Ceretica. 

Ymddifnstlei  lew  ar  Ian  Aeron  berth 
Pan  borthes  eiyron. 

Cynddelw,  i  Howel  ap  Owain  Gwynedd. 

HcDce  Aberaeron,  a  village  and  sea-creek  in  Cardiganshire ;  Uch 
Aeron,  the  country  to  the  north  of  the  river  Aeron ;  and  Is  Aeron, 
the  country  to  the  south  and  south-west  of  it. 
Aeron  (n.  pr.) :  see  Euron. 

Aeron  galon  galed. — Myrddin. 

Aeron  (Llanerch),  a  gentleman's  seat. — J.  D.  PerUre  Aeron, 
a  gentleman's  seat. 

-^tna,  a  fiery  mountain  in  Sicily,  which  may  have  got  its 
name  from  the  Celtic  tan :  so  the  ancients  wrote  etan,  L  e.,  y  tan, 
the  fire. 

Aethog  ap  Iddig  ap  Cadell  Deymllys  (in  other  places  Deym- 

Afagddu  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Afngddn  mab  Caridwen. — Hanes  Talienn. 

Afallach  (n.  pr.  v.).     (Triad  52.) 

Afallon,  Ynys  Afallon,  the  Isle  of  Avalonia ;  called  also  by 
Latin  writers  Glasconia.  This  was  a  spot  of  ground  encompassed 
with  rivers  and  marshes,  and  where  anciently  stood  a  monas- 
tery. It  lies  in  the  county  of  Somerset,  and  is  now  called  Glas- 
tonbury. The  name  is  derived  from  a/al  (an  apple),  as  Giraldus 
Cambrensis  says  it  abounded  formerly  with  apples  and  orchards ; 
or  from  Avallon,  once  lord  of  that  place,  which  I  take  to  be 
Afallach.  In  this  ancient  monastery  King  Arthur,  the  great 
British  hero,  was  buried,  and  his  sepulchre  was  discovered  in 
the  time  of  Henry  II ;  and  a  grand  monument  was  erected  for 
him  in  the  new  abbey  by  Henry  de  Sayle.  (Vide  Morgain.) 
But  the  name  seems  to  be  derived  from  avallcn,  the  plural  of 
which,  among  the  Loegrian  British,  might  be  Afallon,  which  is 
the  termination  of  the  plural  of  many  nouns,  as  dyn,  dynUm ; 
(fwas,g^weision;  though  the  Cumbrians  and  the  Northern  Britains 
or  Picts  would  have  called  it  Avallennau,  as  appears  by  Mer- 
dtlin's  works,  who  was  a  Pict  of  the  forest  of  Kdyddon,   Giraldus 

9 


10  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Cambrensis'  Avallon,  lord  of  the  territory  called  Avellonia,  his 
British  name  seems  to  be  Afallach, 

Felly  'n  Ynys  Afallach 
Efe  a  aeth  yn  fjw  iach. 

Leiois  Glyn  Cothi,  i  Arthur. 

The  island  was  also  called  Ynys  Wydrin,  or  the  Glass  Island, 
from  the  colour  of  the  river  being  like  glass.   Hence  GloAconia, 

Afan,  a  river  in  Glamorganshire :  hence  AherafaHy  corruptly 
wrote  by  Camden  Aberafon.  Cwmmwd  rhwng  Nedd  ac  Afan. 
(Price's  Descript) 

Afan  (Saint).    lianafan. 

Afan  Neddig,  bardd  Cadwallon  ap  Cadvan.    (H.  Lhoyd.) 

Afan  Ferddic,  a  poet  mentioned  by  Cynddelw  to  Hywel  ap 
Owain  Gwynedd.   Mian  Verdic,  bardd  Cad.  ap  Cadvan.  {Tr.  17.) 

Afaon  (n.  p.  v.),  mab  Taliesin,  one  of  the  three  tarw  unben 
(TV.  13),  killed  by  Llawgad  Trwm  Bargawd.    {Tr,  38.) 

Afarwy,  ap  Lludd  ap  Beli  Mawr,  un'or  tri  w;^r  gwarth.  {Tr. 
90.)  "  He  invited  lulcessar  and  the  men  of  Rome  to  this  island, 
and  caused  3000  [pounds]  of  silver  to  be  paid  annually  as  tribute 
from  this  island  to  the  men  of  Rome."     {Triades,  91.) 

Afarwy  (n.  p.  v.). 

Lleith  Ywein  llith  brain  braiddfrys 
1  faran  Avarwy  aedd  mab  Cl^s. 

Cynddelw^  Marwnad  Yw.  ap  Madawc. 

Afarwy  and  Afarddwy.  Mr.  Ed.  Ilwyd  thinks  Mardubra- 
tius  or  Mandubratius  was  Afarwy  Fras. 

Afarwy  Hir,  father  of  Indeg.     {Tr.  60.) 

Afawn  (n.  pr.  v.).  Hence  Bodafawn  or  Bodafon :  vid.  Aeddon. 

Afaerwy  (fl.),  in  Marwnad  Cynddylan.     {Lly^oarch  Hen) 

Affric  or  Affrwic,  the  quarter  of  the  globe  called  Africa. 
"Ac  ar  hynny  o  espeit  y  deuthant  hyd  er  Affric.*'  (Tyssilio.) 
From  whence  the  Danes  or  Norwegians  came  to  Ireland  and 
Britain  in  the  reign  of  Ceredic.  "  Gotmwnt  brenin  yr  Affric." 
{Tyssilio,)  Vid.  PoweFs  Caradoc,  p.  6,  where  he  is,  out  of  Cas- 
tor, called  Gurmundus,  an  arch-pirate  and  captain  of  the  Nor- 
wegians, A.D.  590.  Galfrid  calls  him  Gormundus,  king  of  Africa ; 
but  th^  British  copy  of  Tyssilio  has  it  "  brenin  yr  Affric"  (q. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  1 1 

AfiTrwic  ?).    This  termination,  ic  or  vnc,  is  common  in  the  north : 
Leipsick,  Brunswic,  Dantzic,  for  Leipwick,  Dantwick. 

Afia  or  Arafia  {D.  ap  Choilym,  D,  ap  JSdmvmt,  etc.),  Arabia. 

Ag  aur  Arafia  'n  gmg  a  nfwn.—L.  O.  Cothi. 

AGNEDA,Castell  Mynydd  Agnes,  Edinburgh  ;  called  also  Alata 

Castra  and  Castrum  Fuellarum,  Gastell  y  Morwynion,  i.  e.,  the 

Castle  of  Maidens. 

AroAL,  Italy. 

Myn  croes  naid  o  fro  Aidal. 

AiDAN  (St.) :  hence  Llanidan  in  Anglesey.  {H.  Bowlands.) 
Others  say  St.  Nidan.  Aidan  was  the  apostle  of  the  Northum- 
brians about  the  year  600,  and  succeeded  by  Ffinnan. 

AiFFT,  Egypt. 

AiFFTES,  a  gipsy  or  Egyptian  woman. 

AiFFTWR,  an  Egyptian. 

Alaeth  ap  Elgrid  L&s  ap  Eilon. 

Alaethau  ap  Cadvan.  (MS,)  Under  him  Dyfyn  Diarcher 
claimed  the  Principality. 

Alais,  verch  Ithel  Vychan. 

Alan  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  name  very  common  in  Armorica,  several  of 
their  kings  being  of  that  name.  In  Triadcs,  35,  there  is  one  of 
this  name  mentioned  to  have  been  defeated  by  his  men  before 
the  battle  of  Camlan  between  Arthur  and  Medix>d  (a.d.  542),  and 
was  there  killed.  He  was  probably  an  Armorican  auxiliary  of 
King  Arthur's. 

**  Teulu  Alan  Fyrgan  a  ymchoelasant  y  wrth  eu  harglwydd  yn 
Uedrat  ar  y  flfordd  ae  ollwng  yntau  ae  weision  i  Camlan  ac  yno 
y  lias."   {Tr.  35.) 

The  very  surname,  Fyrgan,  whatever  it  means,  hath  been  re- 
tained by  the  Armoricans  to  the  time  of  our  William  the  Con- 
queror ;  for  I  find  Alan  Fergeant, Count  of  Bretagne,  paid  homage 
to  Henry  I  of  England  for  Britanny.    {Vertot,  vol.  ii,  p.  185.) 

Alan,  a  king  of  Armorica  about  the  year  688,  when  Cadwaladr 
deserted  Britain ;  father  of  Ifor  (i  ael  and  glan,  q.  d.  ael-ldn,  fair 
eyebrow).  Camden  would  have  it  to  be  a  corruption  of  Pla- 
nus. But  why  ?  Is  it  impossible  there  nought  be  Alan  as  well 
as  Jilian  ? 


12  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Alasswy.  Tir  Alasswy,  mentioned  in  the  English  battle  of 
Llewelyn  ap  lorwertL  "  Teymdud  Leissawn  ac  Alasswy  dir  i 
deym  Dyganwy." 

Alaw  (fl.),  a  river  in  Anglesey,  on  the  banks  of  which  there  is 
the  Tomb  of  Bronwen  verch  Llyr  o  Harlech.  "  Bedd  petrual  a 
wnaed  i  Fronwen  ferch  lijrr  ar  Ian  Alaw,  ag  yno  y  claddwyd 
hi"  {Mahinogif  ap.  Davies.)  There  is  a  cromlech  in  these  parts 
which  is  said  to  be  Brouwen's  Tomb.  (J.  D.  Uavies's  Letter  to 
E.  Llwyd.)    Hence  Olan  Alaw,  n.  L    (Llwyd*s  Notes  on  Camden.) 

Alban  (n.  pr.  v.).    Alban,  son  of  Brutus ;  St.  Alban,  etc. 

Alban,  father  of  Diflfwg.     (Tr.  72.) 

Alban,  Lat.  Albania,  Scotland.  So  in  the  Irish  tongue,  Alba 
and  Alban  is  Scotland ;  and  Albanach,  Scottish ;  and  the  country 
called  Braidalbain,  in  Scotland,  stiU  retains  the  name  Albania. 

Albanactus  ap  Brutus;  recti  Albanact,  neu  Albanact  ap 
Prydain :  vid.  Lloegr. 

Albion,  one  of  the  ancient  names  of  the  Isle  of  Britain  among 
the  Greeks ;  so  called,  as  some  think,  from  Albion,  the  son  of 
Neptune.  (Perrot)  There  is  a  tradition  to  this  day  in  Wales, 
that  one  Albion  Oaivr  had  once  a  command  or  some  authority 
here.  This  is  commonly  interpreted  Albion  the  Giant,  but  means 
no  more  than  Albion  the  Prince.  This  name,  Albion,  for  the 
island,  it  seems,  never  got  footing  among  the  natives,  for  accord?- 
ing  to  the  Triades  the  original  name  of  the  island  was  Clas  (vide 
Cla$  Merdin),  y  Vel  Ynys,  and  Ynys  Prydain.  Mela  says  that 
Albion  was  killed  in  Gaul  by  Hercules.  If  this  was  the  son  of 
Jupiter,  he  was  six  hundred  years  before  Brutus ;  but  Varro 
reckons  forty-four  Hercules's.    Vid.  Cawr. 

Alclud,  Alclut,  Ue'r  oedd  llys  Ehydderch  Hael.  Alclwyd, 
Alcluyt,  but  properly  Aeklwyd,  a  city  on  the  brow  of  the  river 
Clwyd  (Clyde)  in  Scotland,  which  is  either  Glasgow  or  Dun- 
barton.  Here  was  the  royal  seat  of  the  Strathclwyd  Britains. 
Bede  (L  i,  c.  1)  says  the  Britons  call  it  Alcuith,  in  another  MS, 
Ahluith  or  Alcluick;  1.  i,  c.  12,  Ahluith,  which  in  British  is,  he 
says,  Eock  Cluith.  As  this  city  aiid  several  others  in  the  Triades 
are  not  in  Nennius  (Catalogue  of  Cities),  it  is  plain  he  had  not 
seen  the  Triades, 

Alduyt,  laid  Ithel  ap  Adda. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  13 

Aldyt  ap  Ywain  ap  Edwin  frenin. 

Alectus,  the  eighty-third  king  of  Britain :  q.  Aleth  ? 

Aleth  frenin  am  winoedd. — D.  ap  leuom  Du, 

He  killed  Carawn,  king  of  Britain.  (Tyssilio,)  Selden  calls  him 
Cuius  Alectus,  The  English  translation  of  Bede  calls  himAIlertus 
(L  i,  c.  6) ;  but  the  Latin,  AUectus. 

Aled  (n.  fl.).  DyflFiyn  Aled,  Denbighshire.  Cwm  Aled.  Uwch 
Aled  and  Is  Aled,  two  commots  of  Rhyfoniog  hundred.  Vid. 
Tudur  Aled.    Aled  river  falls  into  Elwy,  Denbighshire. 

Alet  (n.  fl.).    Dr.  Davies  translates  it  Alettvs.    Vid.  Aled, 

Aleth  (n.  p.  r.) :  qu.  Alectus  ?  which  see. 

Aleth,  a  prince  of  Dyfed  {J,  D.),  neu  Alun. 

Aleth,  a  country  in  Armorica :  vid.  Machutus, 

Alfryd  ap  Gronow  o  Wareddog. 

Alffryd,  in  English  Alfred. 

Aus,  taken  by  the  British  poets  for  the  general  mother  of 
Englishmen ;  as  we  say,  sons  of  Eve. 

O  waod  teala  plant  Alia. 

P.  Llwyd  cup  LI.  ap  Gniffydd. 

Plant  Alls,  y  Saeson ;  PlaTit  Alis  y  biswail,  by  way  of  con- 
tempt. 

Almaen,  enw  gwlad. 

Almedha  (St.),  daughter  of  Brychan  Brycheiniog.  (Giraldus 
Cambrensis,  Itin.  Camb.,  p.  826.)     Probably  Eledei. 

Almor  (n.  L).     (Dr.  Davies  in  Allmor.)    Vid.  Alltmor. 

Alne,  a  river  (Bede,  1.  iv,  3,  28),  probably  Alun.  It  is  near 
the  Isle  of  Fame. 

Alo  (n.  p.  v.),  a  great  man  in  Powys,  rhwng  Gwy  a  Hafren,q.  ? 

O  Iwyth  Gw^n  gwehelyth  gynt 

Ag  Alo  ni  fygylynt. — L  ah  Tudur  PenUyn. 

Gwaed  Alo  yn  goed  eilwaith. — Owain  ap  Llyw.  Muel. 

Alser,  mab  Maelgwn.    (Trioedd  y  Meirch,  No.  6.) 
Alser  ap  Tudwal  ap  Rodri  Mawr. 
Alswn,  verch  Howel  ap  Ehobert. 

Alswn  wych  lysieuyn  wawr. 
Alun  (fl.),  a  river  that  falls  into  the  Dee  below  Almore.    Ys- 


14  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

trad  Alun.  Caer  Alun,  Haverfordwest  {Th,  Williams)  Coed 
Alun,  Caernarvonshire.    Penalun  yn  Nyfed. 

Alwen  (fl.),  in  Denbighshire,  falls  into  the  Dee.  (Uywarch 
Hen  in  Marwnad  C3mddylan.)  Llewelyn  Ddu  was  lord  of  Uwch 
Alwen,  and  kept  his  court  at  a  place  called  CynwyA    {J,  D.) 

Allmon  (pL  Ellmyn),  an  Alman  or  German ;  but  AlUmon  is 
literally  a  highland  man  or  High  German.  All  authors  agree 
that  the  Alemanni  were  a  particular  nation  of  Germans,  distinct 
from  them.  The  Britains  distinguished  the  Nort-myn  from  the 
AlU-myn.  The  Germans  are  called  by  the  Spaniards  and  Italians, 
etQ.,Almain8;  but  call  themselves  Twitshmen,  and  know  nothing 
of  the  name  Oerman.    ( Verstegan,) 

Allt,  a  very  ancient  Celtic  word  signifying  the  ascent  or  side 
of  a  mountain ;  and  from  hence  the  Eomans  borrowed  their  alius 
by  adding  vs.  It  is  prefixed  to  the  names  of  many  places  in 
Britain  which  have  that  signification,  as  Allt  Faelwc,  yng  Ngher- 
edigion ;  probably  Allt  Fadoc  (Triades,  Meirch,  1) ;  yr  Allt  Kudd ; 
yr  Allt  Wen  or  Allwen ;  Allt  y  Crib ;  yr  AUt  Goch ;  AUmor, 
Alltmor.  Almeria,  a  city  and  port  of  Spain,  called  from  hence. 
Also  in  compounds  in  the  ends  of  words,  as  Pen'r  Allt,  y  Ben- 
allt,  yr  Alltben,  the  Alpes  (yr  AHpen),  y  Wenallt,  y  Felallt,  y 
Faelallt,  y  GoedaUt,  y  Hirallt,  Allt  Gadwallawn.  Allt  Cwm- 
bobus,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  lai. 

Allt  Meliden  (nom.  loci).  Prebend  of  Allt  Meliden  at  St. 
AsapL 

Alltgrug,  in  Uangwig,  Glamorgan. 

Alltmor,  the  seventh  battle  of  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth,  near 
Pennal.    {Gylch,  Llewelyn)     "  Pennal-dir  angir  angerdd." 

Alltran,  a  rock  near  Holyhead. 

Alltud  Eedegog  :  vid.  Gallu,  Our  books  of  genealogies  make 
this  man  to  be  father  of  St.  Elian,  who  was  the  founder  of  a 
monastery  in  Anglesey.  Qu.,  whether  he  was  not  the  same  with 
Iltvdus,  who  was  head  and  founder  of  a  famous  college  in  Mor- 
ganwg  at  Lantwit  ?    Vid.  Elian  and  Eilian, 

Ambiorix,  a  commander  of  the  Gauls;  first  a  captain  of  the 
Eburones.     {Ccesar) 

Ambri,  Amesbury.   Mynydd  Ambri,  Dinas  Ambri,  Amesbury. 

Ambrones,  some  nation.    Nennius  interprets  this  name  by 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  15 

Ald-Saxonum,  or  Old  Saxons,  which  Paulinus,  Archbishop  of 
York,  baptized.  (Nennius,c.lxiii.)  But  Ainsworth  says  they  were 
a  people  of  Switzerland,  whose  country  being  drowned,  turned 
thieves  ;  from  which  iU  men  were  called  Ambrones. 

Amddyfrwys  :  Ilanamddyfrwys  or  lianamddy&i,  vulgo  Lan- 
dovery. 

Amgoed,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Daugleddeu. 
(Price's  Dcseript.) 

Amhafal  (fl.).    Llyn'arch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cynddylan. 

Amhiniog,  a  lordship  in  Ceretica;  or  Anhiniog,  Anhunoc. 

(Price's  Descript) 

I*nhiniog  oludog  wledd 

Mi  af ;  yno  mae  f  annedd. — Beio  ap  leuan  Du. 

Ami,  verch  ArgL  Herbert. 

Amlawdd  Wledig  [married  Gwen,  daughter  of  Cunedda 
Wledig.— ir.i>.] 

Amlwch,  a  village  and  church  in  Anglesey.  Qu.,  whether  a 
llyn  or  llnHih  there  ?    Llyn  Mynydd  Trysglw}'n. 

Amman  :  vid.  Cvrm  Amman,  in  Llandeilo,  Carmarthenshire. 

Ammwlch  :  Cefn  Ammwlch,  a  place  in  Ileyn ;  from  an  and 
hwleh,  q.  d.  cyfa, 

Ammwyn,  defender  (Celt.),  a  title  of  Jupiter.  By  the  Eomans 
Latinised  Ammon  or  Hammon«  Teml  lou  Ammwyn,  i,  e.,  the 
Temple  of  Jupiter  Ammon. 

Ammwyn  Gakthan  :  qu.,  whether  the  name  of  a  place  where 

Gniffydd  ap  Cynan  ap  Owain  Gwynedd  fought  a  battle  and 

burnt  it  ? 

Molais  rwyf  Cemais  camre  yngaylan 

Yn  ammwyn  garthan  gyrch  i  dandde. 

Prydydd  y  Mochy  i  Gr.  ap  Cynan  ap  Ow.  Qwyncdd. 

Amwyn  Ednob  and  Anmiwyn  Elfael,  in  Cynddelw  in  Marwnad 
Cadw.  ap  Madawc. 

Amode,  verch  Howel  ap  Ivan. 

Amrel,  an  admiral  This  word  seems  to  be  but  of  modern 
use  in  Wales.  The  British  word  for  an  admiral,  in  King  Arthur's 
time,  when  the  British  navy  was  in  its  height  (about  a.d.  520), 
was  llyngesatve,  from  llynges,  a  navy,  or  llyngesdvyr,  a  navy  man. 
(Vid.  Triades,  20.)   But  the  original  Celtic  word  for  chief  admiral 


16  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

seems  to  be  penaig,  q.  d.  pen  eigion,  i.  e,,  head  of  the  ocean, 
though  used  for  any  principal  officer  after  we  had  lost  our  navy. 

Amwn  Ddu,  brenin  Groeg  [Graweg]  :  vid.  Tewdric, 

Amwythig,  or  Amwyddig,  from  gwydd,  surrounded  with  woods 
or  shrubs :  hence  Shrewsbury  or  Shrubsbury,  anciently  Pengweni 
Bowys. 

Anan,  verch  Aneurin*    (TV.  74.) 

Anan  (n.  f.).  Anan,  merch  Meic  Mygotwas,  un  o'r  tair  gohoyw 
riain.    (^r.  74.) 

Anarad,  id.  quod  Anarawd, 

Anarad,  Merfyn,  Gad  ell, 
A  droed  i  wr  edrjd  well  ? — Or,  ap  Llewelyn  Vychan, 

Anabawd,  the  name  of  the  sixth  prince  of  Wales  in  a.d.  877, 
son  of  Eodri  Mawr.  Not  corrupted  from  ffonoratus,  as  Camden 
suggests,  but  derived  from  a'n  or  ein,  and  arawd,  q.  d.  our  ora- 
tor;  as  we  say  ''a'n  dwylo"  for  "ag  ein  dwylo". 

Anarawd  ap  Gr.  ap  Rhys,  prince  of  South  Wales,  a.d.  1142. 

Anarawd,  arglwydd  Emwythig  in  King  Arthur's  time. 

Anawan.    Scr. 

Andras,  king  of  Britain  ;  Androgius. 

Andrau  or  Andrew  (but  in  my  copy  Andryiv),  the  fiftieth 
king  of  Britain ;  from  an  and  derwydd  or  drv^wydd,  a  druid. 

Androenus. 

Aneu.    Sct. 

Anevrin  or  Aneuryn  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  poet  of  this  name,  who 
flourished  about  A.D.  510.  In  Nennius,  iViw^vm ;  Sir  Tho.  Br., 
Enerin,  Aneuryn  or  Aneiryn  Gwawdrydd,  Medeyrn  Beirdd; 
he  was  killed  by  Eidyn  mab  Einygan.  Mr.  Edward  Ilwyd  calls 
him  Mychdeym  Beirdd.    (Triades,  38,  39,  74.) 

Angaw  (n.  1.),  Anjou  in  GauL 

Angell,  a  river.     Aber  Angell,  Meirion. 

Angharad  or  Angharat  (n.  f.).  Angharat  Ton  Felen,  merch 
Rhydderch  Hael,  un  o'r  tair  gohoyw  riain-     {Tr.  74.) 

Angharad  leu  ad  lewych 

Ynghaer  Duw  mae  'Ngharad  wych. 

Angharad  ach  Evrog  Gadam. 
Angharad  ach  Colion.    Scr, 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  l7 

ANGHEifEL.    Sc. 

Anglesey,  the  English  name  of  the  Isle  of  AfSn,  a  county  of 
North  Wales,  called  by  the  natives  Sir  Fon,  Tir  Mdn,  and  Gwlad 

F6n,  i.  e.,  Monshire.     It  was  called  Anglesey  by  King on 

his  conquering  it,  which  signifies  the  Englishman's  Island  (this 
was  the  battle  of  lianfaes,  q.  ?),  i,  e.,  Angles-ey,  ey  being  the 
Saxon  word  for  an  island,  as  Bards-ey,  Cald-ey,  Rams-ey,  Gams- 
ey,  Jers-ey,  etc. 

This  was  the  Mona  of  Tacitus,  and  the  Isle  of  Man  is  the  Mona 
mentioned  by  Caesar  in  his  Commentaries,    Vid.  Mona. 

Merfyn  Vrych,  from  the  Isle  of  Man,  dispossessed  the  English ; 
and  his  son,  Roderick  the  Great,  King  of  aU  Wales,  removed  the 
palace  from  Caer  yn  Arvon  to  Aberflfraw.  {Mona  Antigua,  p.  173.) 

Anguischel,  King  of  Scotland.  (Jo.  Major,  Hist,  Scot,  1.  ii,  3, 6.) 
He  was  Arawn  ap  Cynfarch,  who  was  killed  with  Gwalchmai  in 
the  first  battle  with  Medrawt,  a.d.  542. 
.  Angyw,  Anjou  in  France. 

Anhun.    Sc. 

ANHUNOCjOne  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Canawl.  (Price's 
Descript) 

Anlawd  Wledig.  He  married  Gwen,  daughter  of  Cunedda 
Wledig.     (Ach  Cattwg.)  ' 

Anlhach.    Scr. 

Anllech  Corunawc,  King  of  Ireland,  father  of  Brychan  Brych- 
einiog  (vid.  Brychan).  Corunavjc  seems  to  be  the  same  with 
Coronawc  or  Coronog  (i.  c,  crowned),  being  the  chief  crowned 
head  or  principal  king ;  from  the  Celtic  corun  or  coryn,  the  crown' 
of  the  head.  The  Latin  corona  and  Greek  Kopovri  are  of  the 
same  original ;  so  the  Chald.  kerontha  and  the  Hebrew  keren. 

Annell  (n.  L).    Z.  G.  Cothi  {k  an  and  hell). 

Annes,  AngL  Agnes. 

Annwfn  or  Annwn,  the  deep;  hell ;  the  country  of  the  fairies . 
antipodes.  Duwies  Annwn,  Goddess  of  the  Deep  or  bottomless 
place. 

Anoethon.    Scr. 

Anbheg  ach  Evrog  Gadam. 

Anselmus,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  1100,  temp.  Guil.  Rufi, 

regis  Anglise. 

3 


1 8  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Aktigon  verch  Wmflre,  duwc  o  Gloster. 
Anun  Ddu  ap  Emyr  Uydaw. 
Anundhwt.    &r. 
Anwig,  Enwig  (n.  L). 
Anwis^  some  city. 

A'th  fronn  wrth  fnriau  Anwis. — OwcUn  ap  Uew.  Mod. 

Anwn.    8c. 

Anwyl,  AngL  dear.     Ithel  Anwyl  ap  Bleddyn. 

Aran,  a  mountain  in  Meirion.    Yr  Aran  Fawr  (not  Aren). 

Lliw  eiry  cynnar  Pen  Aran, 

Uoer  bryd  Iwys  vryd  o  Lys  Vr&n. — H.  ah  Einion,  i  Pefanwy. 

Abandr,  enw  gwr.     Rhiwallon  ap  Arandr  o  Lwyth  Penllyn. 

Arawd  or  Arod  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Arawn,  King  of  Alban,  now  Scotland,  in  King  Arthur's  time. 

Arawn  or  Aron  (n,  pr.  v.).  Aron  ap  Cynfarcli,  un  o'r  tri  chy- 
nghoriaid.    {Tr.  86.) 

Arberth,  one  of  the  eight  cantrefs  of  Pembrokeshire ;  in  Eng- 
lish, Narberth.  There  are  fairs  kept  here.  Castell  Arberth, 
AD.  1215. 

Archaeddon.  Uyn  Archaeddon,  a  lake  on  the  top  of  Bod- 
afon  Mountain  in  Anglesey,  which  makes  me  suspect  that  Bod- 
afon  should  be  wrote  Bodaeddon. 

Dyfitl  yngwem  Bodafon. — D.  ap  Edmwnt, 

Archenad.    Cynan  Archenad. 

Arderydd  or  Arderyd  (n.  L),  Tr.  3.  Owaiih  Arderydd,  the 
battle  of  Arderydd,  on  account  of  two  shepherds  who  quarrelled 
about  a  lark's  nest :  one  killed  the  other.     {T.  Aled) 

£r  gwaiih  Arderydd  mi  nim  dorbi 

Cyn  syrthiai  awyr  i  lawr  Uyr  Enlli. — Hoianau  Myrd&in, 

See  Owaiih  Arderydd,  Bhodwydd  Arderydd,  CaerArderyddyAeddan 
Fradatvg,  and  Owenddoleu, 

Ardudwy,  DyflFryn  Ardudwy,  that  part  of  Merionethshire  join- 
ing to  the  Irish  Sea,  where  a  great  tract  of  ground  was  swallowed 
by  the  sea  about  a.d.  500.  Ardudwy  was  formerly  one  of  the 
two  commots  of  Dunodig  in  Caernarvonshire.  Camden  thinks 
he  sees  some  footsteps  of  the  word  Ordovicea  in  Ardudwy,  but  I 
con  see  none.     {Camden  in  Mantg,) 


celtic  remains.  1 9 

Abcuwjsdloo. 

Abddebch  ap  Iddon  ap  Cadrod  Hardd. 

Abdhebch  Drug.    Scr, 

Abdde'b  Mynych,  dan  droed  Mynydd  Tryri;  the  place  of 
the  nativity  of  Dr.  Thomas  Williams,  the  physician,  the  ingenious 
author  of  the  Latin-BritiBh  part  of  Dr.  Davies'  Dictionary,  and 
of  several  other  curious  tracts  extant  in  MSS.,  Achau,  Historian, 
etc.    Qu.,  whether  Gerddi'r  Mynych  ? 

Abddon.  Ynys  Arddon  y w  Ynys  y  Moelrhoniaid.  {Hist,  Or, 
ap  Cynan)    Vid.  Ynys  Hyrddod, 

Abddun  or  Ardun  (n.  pr.  f.) ;  hence  D6i  Arddun.  Ardun 
gwraig  Catcor  apColwyn  orGorolwyn(lV.  5 5), a  noted  chaste  wife. 

Arddu  (Yr),  a  steep  rock  at  Llanberis.     {E,  Llwyd,) 

Arddu  (Yr),  yn  Efionydd.     Qu.,  yr  ardd  ddu  ? 

Arddyfi,  i.  e.,  above  the  river  Dyfi ;  Lat.  Ordovices^  q.  d.  Gw^ 
ar  Ddyfi,  the  North  Wales  men. 

AiU)DYNWYNT,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (J.  D.) 

Aren  Benlltk,  a  high  mountain  in  PenUjm  in  Meirion ;  per- 
haps because  of  the  shape  of  aren,  a  kidney. 

Aren  Fowddwt,  a  mountain  in  Meirion. 

ARENNia  {K  lAwyd),  a  mountain  in  Meirion,  or  Yr  £nnig» 
wrote  by  the  ancients  Aran.    Vid.  Aran, 

Arf-finiog.  Howel  Arf-finiog. 

Arfon,  the  name  of  a  cantref  containing  two  commots,  Uwch 
and  Is  Gwirfau,  in  Caernarvonshire ;  but  was  anciently,  it  seems, 
the  name  of  all  the  coast  of  the  mainland  which  lay  over  against 
M&n,  and  for  that  reason  called  Arfon,  compounded  of  ar  and 
M&n,  or  on  M6n ;  hence  Caer  Arfon  in  the  triades,  now  Caer  yn 
Arfon,  a  garrison  town  and  a  noble  castle.  From  the  name  of 
the  town  tlie  county  took  its  present  name. 

Arfordir,  terra  maritima.  Dinasoedd  arfordir,  civitates  mari- 
timse. 

Argat,  a  poet,  father  of  Cynhaval. 

Argoed.  This  seems  to  be  the  name  of  the  camps  made  by 
the  Britains  by  felling  of  wood  and  heaping  them  up,  as  is  done 
in  all  woody  countries  to  this  day. 

Ni  sefis  na  th^r  na  bwr  bu  crain 

Nag  argoed  na  choed  na  chadlys  drain.  ' 

EinUm  ap  Gwgan^  to  Llewelyn. 


20  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Argoed  and  Arfynydd,  places  mentioned  by  Taliesin  in  the 
Battle  of  Argoed  liwyfain. 

Argoed,  a  gentleman's  seat.  {J.  D)  Vid.  Gargoed  and  Argoed- 
Wys. 

Argoed  Llwyfain  :  vid.  Liwyfain. 

Argoedwys,  the  people  of  Argoed  in  Powys-land. 

Gledr  cad  calon  Argoedwys. 

lAywarch  Hen,  in  Marwnad  Gynddylan. 

Gw^i*  Argoed  erioed  am  porthes. 

Lhjwarch  Hen,  i'w  Blant. 
Argonwy,  i.  e.,  above  Conwy. 

Donn  Argonwy. — D.  ap  OwQym. 

SoArllechwedd,  Arddyfi,Arderydd,  Ar  y  M6r  ucha,  and  Ardudwy, 
Arfon,  etc. 

Argyleshire  :  vid.  Ar  y  Crvryddyl. 

Arian.    Angliarad  Law  Arian,  verch  Dafydd  ap  Einion. 

Arianfagl  (n.  pr.  v.)     {Trioedd  y  Meirch,  1.) 

Arianrhod  ferch  Don,  un  o'r  tair  gwenriain.     (TV.  34.) 

Arianwen  ferch  Brychan. 

Arlegh.  Camden  says  that  in  the  smaU  country  of  Ardudwy 
stands  the  Castle  of  Arlech,  which  signifies  on  a  rock ;  though 
some  call  it  Harlech  qtuisi  Harddlech,  a  rock  pleasantly  situated. 
{Camden  in  Meirion,)  He  also  says  it  was  heretofore  called  Caer 
Collwyn,  and  that  the  inhabitants  report  it  was  built  by  Edward 
the  First.  Mr.  Ilwyd,  in  his  notes,  says  it  is  never  called  Ar- 
lech, but  Harlech ;  and  was  once  called  T^  Bronwen,  and  after- 
wards Caer  Collwyn,  from  Collwyn  ap  Tangno,  a.d.  877,  [who] 
was  lord  of  Ardudwy,  Evionydd,  and  part  of  Ileyn ;  but  thinks 
it  (or  a  place  near  it)  was  called  Caer  before  his  time,  Eoman 
coins  having  been  found  there,  and  an  ancient  golden  torque. 

Arlleghwedd  (n,  1.),  Arllechwedd  Uchaf  ac  Isaf,  two  conmiots 
of  Caernarvonshire.  Menwaed  o  Arllechwedd,  im  o'i  tri  glew. 
(Tr.  23.)  Cantref  Arllechwedd  in  Caernarvonshire.  (Stat. 
Hhvddlan,) 

Armon.    Uanarmon.    Vid.  Garmon, 

Armoriga,  recti  Aremorica,  which  is  literally,  in  the  Celtic 
tongue,  Ar  y  mor  iicha  ;  or,  as  the  ancient  Britains  wrote,  Ar  t 
mor  ica^  i,  e,,  on  the  upper  sea.     Tliis  was  the  name  of  all  the 


CELTIC  BBMAIKS.  21 

sea-coast  of  Gaul  from  Calais  to  Brest  in  J.  Ceesar's  time.  '^  Urn- 
versis  Gallise  civitatibus  quse  oceanum  attingunt  qusequAB  eomm 
consuetudine  Armoricse  appellantur."  {Goes,  Com)  Of  the  same 
sense  is  the  British  name  Llydaw,  which  see.  But  the  name 
Armorica  is  now  attributed  only  to  Little  Britain.  Aremorici, 
gw;^  y  morfa.     {E,  Llwyd)     Irish,  Armhieirich, 

Arodion,  lands  and  people  oiArawd.    {Gwdygorddau  P(ywys,) 

Akovan,  a  poet  mentioned  by  Cynddelw  to  Hywel  ap  Owain 
Gwynedd.  In  Mr.  E.  liwyd's  copy  of  the  Triadea,  Arofan  bardd 
Selyf  ap  Cynan  is  mentioned. 

Akban,  an  isle  in  the  mouth  of  the  Clyde  (Clwyd),  in  Scot- 
land, of  the  same  shape  as  Aren  Benllyn,  which  see. 

Abseth  ap  GwTgi  ap  Hedd  Molwynoc. 

Aktro,  a  river  in  Meirion,  mentioned  in  Taliesin's  works. 

Abth  (fl.);  hence  Aberarth,  a  village  and  church  in  Ceretica. 

Arthal,  the  31st  king  of  Britain. 

Arthanat,  a  place  where  lieweljrn  ap  lorwerth  encamped  his 
second  battle.  Vid.  Cylch  Lkwdyn,  [Ar  Danat,  flu.,  qu.? —  W.D.I 

Arthanat  (n.  pr.  v.).  Arthanat  ab  Gwerthmwl  Wledig.  (TV. 
y  Meirch,  1.) 

Arthawg  ap  Caredig  ap  Cunedda. 

Arthen  ap  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 

Artufael,  the  62nd  king  of  Britain. 

Arthfael  (n.  pr.  v.).  a.d.  940,  Cadell  ab  Arthfael,  a  noble 
Britain,  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Danes  and  Saxons.  (Caradac, 
p.  51.) 

Arthmael  or  Arthnael  ap  Ehys  ap  ItheL 

Arthne.    lianarthne. 

Arthog,  ursinvs :  hence  Pwll  Arthog,  nomen  loci« 

Arthpoel,  the  father  of  Meuric  who  fought  a  battle  with  Llew- 
elyn ap  Sitsyllt,  a.d.  1019,  for  the  Principality.  {Caradoc,  p.  85.) 

Arthur  (n.  pr.  v.),  commonly  Latinized  Arcturus  and  Artu- 
rius ;  by  Nennius,  Artur ;  the  100th  king  of  Britain,  and  last  of 
Boman  blood  that  held  the  crown ;  son  of  Uthur  Bendragon, 
who  was  brother  of  Aurelius  Ambrosius,  the  sons  of  Constantino 
the  Armorican.  This  great  and  famous  prince,  among  other 
noble  actions,  subdued  and  brought  six  islands  or  countries  tri- 
butary to  Great  Britain;  that  is,  Iwerddon  (Ireland),  Islont 


22  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

(Iceland),  Goilont  (Gothland),  Ore  (Orkney),  liychlyn  (Norway), 
Denmark. 

Akthwys  or  Arthbwys. 

AEvnuLGUS  {Gal/rid),  Gweirydd. 

Arw  (Yr),  sign,  rouigh,  a  river  in  Radnorshire.  Another  in 
Anglesey  Mis  into  Alaw.  The  river  Garonne,  in  France,  is  of  the 
same  origin,  from  garw. 

Abweirtdd,  probably  the  British  name  oiArviragus,  Vid. 
Oweirydd. 

Arwyneddog  :  vid,  Owevrydd, 

Abwystl  Gloff  ap  Owain  Danwyn, 

Arwystli  Uwch  and  Is  Coed,  two  commots  of  Cantref  Ar- 
wystli  [cancelled  by  W.  D.] ;  so  named  from  Arwystli  ap  Cnn- 
edda  Wledig.    (Price's  Descrvpt) 

Aewystli,  a  cantref  or  hundred,  part  of  Powys,  borders  on 
Plymlumon  Mountain ;  one  of  the  three  cantrefs  of  Meirionydd, 
the  other  two  beiiig  Meirion  and  Penllyn. 

Ar  y  Gwtddyl,  that  part  of  Scotland  now  called  Argyle,  and 
Latinized  Argathslia ;  in  Irish,  Ardnan  GaidheeU  {Ogyg.,  p.  323) ; 
so  called  for  the  same  reason  as  Arvon  was  called,  because 
over  against  Mdn.  Vid,  Polychron^  L  i,  c.  58,  p.  209.  Argail, 
Latinized  Margo  Scotorum. 

Asa  (St.)  :  vid.  Hasa, 

Asaph  (St.),  the  patron  saint  of  the  lower  church  of  Llanelwy, 
or  St  Asaph,  in  Flintshire.  The  other  saint  is  Cyndeym ;  Lat. 
Keniigem\u8\,  In  the  British,  Asaph  is  Hassa :  hence  Llanhasa, 
another  church  near  Mostyn. 

Asc:  vid.  Wysg, 

AscAiN  ap  Gruffydd  ap  Gynan ;  perhaps  in  memory  of  Asca- 
nius. 

AscLEPiODOTUS,  the  84th  king  of  Britain,  captain  of  the  Pre- 
torian  bands  {Bede,  L  i) ;  supposed  to  be  Bendigeidvran  ap  Llyr, 
i.  e.,  Bendigaid  Fr&n  ap  liyr. 

AsGWRN.  Gronw  Fyr  Asgwm  ap  Tegerin ;  in  other  places, 
Gronw  Fyr  Asgwm  ap  Tegwared  ap  Griffri  ap  Carwed. 

Asia,  that  quarter  of  the  world  so  called. 

AssER  (n,  pr.  v.),  Archbishop  of  St.  David's.  He  brought  up 
Asserius  Meneveusis,  the  historian,  who  was  his  nephew^  whom 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  23 

King  Alfred  made  Bishop  of  Shirebum  and  tntor  to  himself 
(Selden,  Mar.  Olaus.,  p.  254)  and  to  his  children  (Dr.  Powel,  p. 
44).    Asser  lived  about  A.D.  885. 

Atiscros.  This,  in  Domesday  Book,  is  called  a  himdred  belong- 
ing to  Cheshire,  bnt  lying  over  the  Dee,  and  was  a  part  of  the 
country  now  called  Flintshire,  and  what  the  Britains  called 
Tegeingl  (i.  e.,  Englefield).  Rhuddlan  Castle  was  the  chief  or 
head  of  it,  as  the  words  there  are :  "  Hugo  Comes  tenet  de  rege 
Soelent>  etc.,  modo  habet  in  dominio  medietatem  castelli  quod 
Roelent  vocatur,  &  caput  est  hujus  terrae/'  etc.  Yid.  Ehos  a 
Bhyvomog, 

AvAERWY :  vid.  Afarwy. 

Augusta^  the  Soman  name  once  for  London. 

AuBELiTJS  Ambrosius.  Bede  (1.  i,  c.  16)  says  he  was  the  only 
one,  perhaps,  of  the  Boman  nation  who  had  survived  the  storm 
of  the  Saxons'  and  Picts'  joint  army,  who  had  overrun  the  island 
upon  being  refused  their  own  demands,  all  the  royal  progeny 
having  been  slain  in  the  same.  He  should  have  said  perhaps 
to  that,  too.  But  what  had  the  royal  progeny  of  the  Bomans  to 
do  in  Britain  when,  by  his  own  confession,  Oratian,  Constantino, 
Constans,  and  Yortigem,  had  been  kings  of  Britain  successively, 
who  were  no  Bomans  ?  Why  sO  anxious  about  the  Bomans  ? 
Doth  not  this  shew  he  knew  nothing  of  the  matter,  except  what 
he  got  firom  that  blind  account  given  by  Gildas  ?  who  could  not 
afford  the  Brit&ins  one  good  word ;  who  made  them  rebels  if  they 
fought,  and  cowards  if  they  did  not. 

Tyssilio,  the  British  historian,  owns  that  Constantino,  brother 
to  the  King  of  Armorica,  married  a  lady  of  Roman  extraction, 
brought  up  by  Cyhelyn  the  Bishop ;  and  that  Emrys  was  one  of 
Gwstennin's  sons,  who  had  escaped  from  Yortigem's  hands  to 
Armorica.  Qu.,what  might  be  the  discord  between  Cyhelyn  and 
Emrys,  mentioned  by  Nennius,  which  occasioned  the  battle  of 
Cot  Ouallop  f 

AvAN,  a  lordship  in  Morganwg.  Castell  Aberavan,  taken  by 
Mr.  ap  Gr.,  a.d.  1152  (from  the  river  Avan,  and  not  Avon). 

AvAN  BuELLT  (St.).   Z.  0,  Cothi   Hence  Llanavan.   Yid.  A/an. 

AvANDRED  or  AvANDREG  (n.  f.),  daughter  to  Gweir  ap  Pyll, 
wife  of  lago  ap  Idwal,  Prince  of  North  Wales,  a.d.  1037.  (Powel's 
Caradoc,  p.  89.) 


24  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

AVeKa  or  Afena,  an  island  (mentioned  in  the  Triades)  on  tbe 
.Grecian  coast.  See  Clas.  In  these  islands,  it  is  said,  a  colony 
of  Britains  settled  in  the  time  of  Cadyal  mab  Eiyr,  after  their 
spoiling  Macedon  and  Greece  and  the  Temple  at  Delphos,  when 
one  Urp  Luyddawc,  a  prince  of  Uychlyn  (see  Llychlyn),  got  a 
supply  of  61,000  Britains  to  go  upon  an  expedition  to  the  Medi- 
terranean, the  second  Brennus'  and  Belgius' expedition.  (TV. 40 : 
vid.  (7a&.)  It  is  very  extraordinary  that  this  attempt  of  the 
Northmen,  or  Germans,  is  not  mentioned  by  either  Greek  or 
Eoman  authors,  as  it  must  have  happened  before  the  Boman  in- 
vasion of  Britain :  but  see  Urp  Liiyddawc, 

Avon,  a  river  mentioned  by  Camden  in  Merionethshire,  to  run 
near  Dolgelleu ;  but  there  is  no  such  river.  The  river  he  means 
is  called  Maw,  and  runs  to  Abermaw ;  and  a  river  called  Gelleu 
runs  by  Dolgelleu  into  the  Maw. 

Avon  (fl.),  recA  Avan  :  hence  Aberavan,  ostium  Avonis  (Lat- 
inized, Aberavonium),  Glamorganshire,  a  town  and  harbour. 
Several  rivers  of  this  name  {Camden) ;  but  wrong,  for  this  river 
is  Avan.    Vid,  Avaru 

AwEN.  This  is  the  Celtic  name  of  a  supposed  genius  or  god- 
dess, which,  according  to  the  doctrine  of  the  British  Druids,  on 
the  death  of  any  bard,  immediately  possessed  some  other  living 
I)erson,  who  instantly  commenced  bard.  This  differs  something 
from  their  transmigration  of  souls,  which  were  supposed  to  enter 
into  new-bom  infants  or  into  brutes.  Tliis  ancient  notion  is 
retained  in  some  parts  of  Wales  to  this  day ;  and  the  Musa  of 
the  Greeks  and  Romans  was,  no  doubt,  at  first  founded  on  this 
ground,  though  afterwards  they  made  nine  of  them,  and  perhaps 
foigot  the  transmigration.'  Taliesin,  the  British  poet,  who 
flourished  about  A.D.  570,  in  one  of  his  rhapsodies  called  his 
Wanderings,  says  that  he  remembers  his  Muse  to  have  possessed 
a  vast  number  of  people.  She  was  with  Noah  in  the  ark,  and  in 
abimdance  of  lestmed  men  from  age  to  age,  which  he  enumerates, 

and  he  says, 

Mi  fum  gynt  Wion  Bach, 

Taliessin  wjfi  bellach ; 

i.  «.,  "  I  have  been  once  Gwion  Bach  (the  poet),  and  now  I  am 
Taliesin."  So  Pythagoras  remembered  he  had  been  Hermoti- 
mus,  etc.,  before  lie  was  Pythagoras. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  25 

This  Awen  is  by  our  modems  wrongly  translated  Fv/torPoeti- 
eus,  and  supposed  to  be  an  enthusiastic  fit  that  takes  a  man 
when  he  is  fit  to  write  verses ;  which  is  below  the  dignity  of  our 
ancient  Celtic  goddesses^  who  act  regularly  and  coolly  while  the 
poets  live,  and  afterwards  remove  to  new  furnished  lodgings.  It 
hath  not  been  determined  how  many  of  these  goddesses  there 
are  among  the  Britains  (that  is,  how  many  poets  can  possibly 
exist  at  the  same  time) ;  nor  whether  bad  poets  are  possessed 
by  one  of  these  goddesses  at  all,  or  only  by  some  evil  spirit  that 
takes  pleasure  to  imitate  them,  and  disturb  mankind.  It  is  as 
firmly  believed  in  Wales  that  no  man  can  be  a  poet  without  he 
is  possessed  with  the  Awen,  any  more  than  a  man  can  see  with- 
out eyes ;  and  it  is  said  no  man  is  able  to  disobey  the  impulse 
of  it.  These  are  some  of  the  ancient  notions  handed  down  to  us 
by  the  Druids. 

AwR  (n.  pr.  v.).  Adda  ap  Awr  of  Trevor.  {J.  D.)  In  Jesus 
College  MS.  Aor.    Awr  ap  leuaf  ap  Cyhelyn. 

AwsTYN,  Augustinus.  (  W.  Lleyn.)  Penrhyn  Awstyn,  Corn- 
wall, n.  L     (TV.  30.) 

Ayddan  Fradawg,  a  northern  prince.    Vid.  Aeddan, 


B. 

Bacauda,  vel  Bachauda,  vel  Bagauda,  certain  bands  of  men 
in  Gaul,  in  Diocletian's  time,  that  strove  against  the  Eoman 
power.  From  the  Celtic  word  hagawd  or  hagad,  a  multitude,  and 
not  from  heichiad,  a  coined  word  for  meichiad,  a  swineherd,  as 
some  great  antiquaries  have  ridiculously  brought  it. 

Bach,  little  or  small,  in  the  composition  of  names  of  men  and 
places.  Eglwys  Vach,  a  church  and  parish  in  Denbighshire; 
another  in  Cardiganshire ;  PentreBach;  yWaunFach;  yTraeth 
Bach ;  Gwilym  Bach,  GtU.  Parvus,  called  also  William  of  New- 
borough,  an  historian ;  Gwion  Bach,  a  poet ;  Enudd  Bach. 

Bach  ap  Kakwyd  or  Karwed  was  a  warrior  of  great  note  in 
that  country  called  now  Denbighshire,  in  North  Wales ;  and  the 
church  called  Eglwys  Each,  near  Tal  y  Cefn,  is  said  to  have  been 
erected  by  him,  and  called  after  his  name ;  part  of  whose  house 
they  say  the  present  steeple  (which  is  a  separate  building,  close 

4 


26  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

by  the  churchyard)  was.  Mr.  Edward  Uwyd,  in  his  Itinerary 
of  Wales,  hath  this  account  of  him  : 

"Y  Bach  ap  Karwyd  yma  a  laddodd  ryw  bryf  gwyllt  oedd  yn 
ormes  mawr  yma  gynt  ar  Ian  afon  Karrog  yn  agos  i'r  eglwys 
jrma.  Karrog,  meddynt  hwy,  oedd  enw'r  pryf  yma,  a  math  ar 
faedd  gwyllt,  meddant  hwy,  oedd  ef.  Ac  wythnos  wedi  marw'r 
prjrf  yma  y  trawe  Bach  ap  Karwyd  ben  yr  ormes  yma  &'i  droed ; 
ond  gan  iddo  ei  daro  [ar]  im  o'i  skythr,  y  clwyfodd  ei  droed,  ac 
y  bu  varw  o'r  gwr  o'r  briw/' — E,  Llwyd. 

Bachegrwyd  (n.  L).     Qu.  Bacheogrwyd  ? 

Bachellaeth(ilL).  Uanvihangel  Bachellaeth  Chapel  in  Lleyn. 

Bachelltref. 

Braich  i  windai  Brychandir, 
Bachelltref  garw  hendref  hir. 

Owain  op  Llewelyn  Moeil. 

Bacheu,  a  lordship.  Cadwgan  Seuthydd,  lord  of  Bacheiu  (J,I>.) 

Bachwy  :  vid.  Pennant  Bachwy. 

Bachynbyd,  a  gentleman's  seat.    Salisbury's.     {J.  D.) 

Baddesdown  Hill  {Bede,  1.  i,  c.  16),  a  battle  fought  between 
the  Britains  and  Saxons  the  44th  year  after  their  arrival  in 
Britain,  as  Bede  says.  He  does  not  mention  who  was  the  British 
general,  for  he  could  not  tell,  but  that  they  made  no  small 
slaughter  of  the  invaders.  Vertot  calls  it  the  Battle  of  Bangor. 
He  knew  there  was  Ba  in  it,  and  that  it  was  in  the  year  493 ; 
but  our  British  writers  say  it  was  A.D.  519  or  520. 

Badi  (Y).     Llewelyn  y  Badi  o  Bennant  Edeirnion 

Badd  (Y),  the  Bath,  a  city. 

Baddwn  or  Baddon,  Caerfaddon  (Triad,) ;  another  copy,  Caer- 
vadon ;  the  Bath.  {Th,  Williams,)  Vid.  Owaith  Faddon  and 
Bladvd, 

Bagad,  literally  a  multitude :  hence  the  Bagaudm,  Bagadce^ 
and  Bacaudm,  of  Gaul ;  certain  bands  of  men  in  Diocletian's 
time  that  strove  against  the  Boman  power,  and  had  their  name 
from  hence. 

Bagillt,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Flintshire. 

Baglan  (St.).    Uanfaglan,  Caernarvonshire. 

Bala,  a  town  in  Penllyn  in  Meirion,  where  there  was  once  a 
castle  fortified  by  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth,  a.d.  1203.     Dr.  Thos. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  27 

Williams,  Dr.  Davies,  and  Mr.  Edward  Uwyd,  agree  that  the 
meaning  of  Bala  is  a  place  where  any  river  or  brook  issues  out 
of  a  lake.     (E.  Uwyd,  Notes  upon  Camden  in  Meirion.) 

Bryn  y  Bala  in  Cardiganshire,  near  Aberystwyth.  {Thos.  WU- 
liams.)  Likewise  near  the  outlet  of  the  river  Seiont  out  of  Llyn 
Peris  there  is  a  place  called  Bryn  y  Bala.     {JS.  Llwyd) 

"  Others  say,"  says  Ed.  Uwyd,  "  that  Bala,  in  the  old  British 
as  well  as  Irish,  signifies  a  village." 

Banawc,  Banco,  or  Banog,  n.  pr.  v.  (Tr.  70.)  Ellyll  Banawc  ? 

Baner,  a  banner  or  standard  (Lat.  vexillum),  from  bann,  high  or 
top ;  and  the  German  paner  [panier]  may  be  of  the  same  origin. 

I  roi  i  faner  ar  fynydd. 

Marchog  banerog,  a  knight  banneret.  The  Britains,  on  the  decline 
of  the  Eoman  eagle,  wore  a  golden  dragon  in  their  standards, 
which  the  Danes  and  Scythians  also  in  ancient  times  did.  Wit- 
ness Spelman.  Uthur  Pendragon  had  his  cognomen  given  him 
from  his  being  the  first  British  king  that  carried  a  dragon  in  his 
standard.    (Tyssilio.)    Vid.  Pendragon, 

Bangeibr,  n.  L  (k  ban  and  ceibr,    Dr,  Davies). 

Bangeibr  Dydoch,  the  Inonastery  at  Llandudoch  in  Dyfei 

0  Fangor  hyd  Fangeibr  Dydoch. 

Cynddelw,  i  Twain  Cyfeiliog. 

Bangole  (Caradoc,  p.  34),  a  place  in  Anglesey  (but  it  is  Bagl- 
au  ia  B.  MS.  appendix  to  Tyssilio ;  no  such  name  now  in  An- 
glesey), where  Eoderick  the  Great  had  a  battle  with  the  Danes 
who  landed  there  in  great  numbers  a.d.  873 ;  another  battle  the 
same  year  at  Menegid,  which  see. 

Bangor  Fawr,  a  town  and  bishop's  see  in  Caernarvonshire. 
This  Bangor  is  mentioned  by  Myrddin  Wyllt  in  a  dispute  between 
him  and  the  poet  Taliesin  at  this  town.  Bangor  is  derived  from 
bann  and  c&r^  the  high  or  celebrated  choir  {Dr.  Davies)  \  "chora 
pulchra"  or  "  locus  chori"  {Camden). 

Bangor  is  y  Coed,  on  the  river  Dee,  where  there  was  a  famous 
college  of  monks,  of  whom  a  great  slaughter  was  made  by  Ethel- 
fiid,  the  king  of  the  Angles  of  Northumbria,  at  the  instigation 
of  Augustine,  the  apostle  of  the  Saxons.  This  Bangor  was  not 
inferior  to  either  of  our  Universities  of  Oxford  or  Cambridge,  the 
town  and  colleges  taking  up  about  a  mile  in  diameter.     There 


28  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

was  here  a  dyfal  gyfangan,  i,  e.,  100  monks  singing  every  hour 
of  the  twenty-four ;  in  all,  2,400.     {Tr.  80.)     ViA  AfaUach. 

Here  likewise  was  Gwaith  Perllan  Bangor,  mentioned  in  the 
Triades&&  and  67, a  battle  fought  between  the  Saxons  and  Britains, 
A.D.  617,  where  Adeldred  and  Ethelbert  were  overthrown  by 
Bletius  or  Blederic,  prince  of  Cornwall  and  Devonshire,  and  other 
Britains,  Cadvan,  Morgan,  and  Brochwel.  He  and  his  issue 
governed  North  Wales  from  Cadvan's  time  to  the  time  of  Eodri 
Molwynog,  750 ;  but  in  Caradoc,  p.  23,  he  is  called  Ethelfred, 
king  of  Northumberland.  Tyssilio  hath  it  Edelffled  and  Ethel- 
fled,  and  says  the  other  generals  of  the  Britains  were  Cadvan  ap 
laco,  king  of  Gwynedd ;  Meredydd,  king  of  Dyfet ;  and  their 
chief  general,  Bledrws,  king  of  Cornwall.  Bledrig  was  killed  in 
this  battle,  and  Cadvan  crowned  king  of  all  Britain. 

Bangor,  a  parish  and  church  in  Cardiganshire.  Cefn  Bangor 
and  Maes  Bangor  in  Melindwr. 

Bangob,  in  Bretany. 

Bangor,  a  monastery  in  Ireland. 

Banhadlwedd,  verch  Banhadle,  gordderchwraig  Brychan 
Brycheiniog.     Vid.  Peresgri. 

Banhenic,  in  Powysland,  near  the  river  Havren,  where  Beuno 
Sant  was  bom.     (Beuno's  Life  by  Dr.  Fleetwood.) 

Bann,  used  in  the  composition  of  the  name  of  places,  signifies 
top  or  summit,  chief,  lofty,  high.  Hence  Y  Fann,  a  mountain ; 
Y  Fenni ;  Bangor ;  Bwlch  y  Vann ;  Pen  y  Fann  ;  Bangeibr ; 
Banuwchdenni ;  Mynydd  Bannog ;  Banbury ;  Benna  Boirche,  a 
mountain  in  Ulster  in  Ireland. 

Bannawc.  Mynydd  Bannawc,a  mountain  so  called.  [E.Llwyd.) 

Bannesdownb,  near  Bath  (from  hann). 

Bannog.   Elen  Fannog. 

Bannuchdenni,  n.  L  {J,  D.  Rhys),  a  moimtain  in  Monmouth- 
shire.    [No.     It  is  in  Breconshire.    /.  Jf.] 

Bar.    Bryn  y  Bar  at  Holyhead ;  Bryn  y  Bar  near  Tal  y  Cefn. 

Barbarwr,  i.  e.,  bar-bar- wr,  a  man  of  or  on  mountains.  Greek, 
fiap^apoi; ;  Latin,  barbams;  a  barbarian  or  mountaineer.  So  the 
Greeks  called  the  Phrygians. 

Barbefflwfi,  yn  Uydaw.  {Tyssilio.)  A  harbour  in  Britanny, 
where  Arthur's  rendezvous  was  in  his  expedition  against  the 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  29 

Bomans ;  which  I  take  to  be  the  old  name  of  St.  Malo's,  Barbe 
Fluir ;  unless  Llydaw  included  also  Normandy,  as  probably  it 
did,  and  then  Barflenr  it  should  be. 

Ba£CUN,  a  name  on  a  monument  in  the  parish  of  HenUan 
Amgoed,  Caermarthenshire,  which  Mr.  Edw.  liwyd  thinks  to 
have  given  name  to  Cefh  Varchen.  (Llwyd's  Notes  on  Camden.) 
Vid.  Marchan. 

Babdd  ;  pi.  Beirdd,  bards,  Lat.  bardi.  These  Bdrdd  were  a 
branch  of  the  ancient  druidical  institution  in  Britain  and  Graul ; 
their  business  being  poetry  and  music,  and  singing  the  praises  of 
great  men  (so  Festus),  not  unlike  the  singers  and  musicians 
among  the  Jewish  Levites.  Hence  a  poet  is  to  this  day  in 
Wales  called  hardd ;  and  Penhardd  Cymru  signifies  the  chief 
poet  of  the  Cambriana  The  last  meeting  or  convention  of  the 
Welsh  poets  (called  Eisteddfod)  was  held  by  commission  bom 
Queen  Elizabeth  at in  the  year 

Places  called  from  this  word :  Ilanfihangel  Tre'r  Beirdd,  in 
Anglesey,  where  I  was  bom  in  the  year  1701,0.  S. ;  Tre'r  Beirdd, 
Anglesey ;  Beirdd  river ;  Aberbeirdd. 

Mr.  Baxter's  derivation  of  it  from  har  is  not  worth  notice.  The 
word  har  signifies  indignation  and  wrath,  which  poets  have  no- 
thing to  do  with,  except  it  be  against  such  wretched  etymologists. 

Babdd  Cwsg  (Y),  a  poet  of  an  imcertain  age,  whose  prophecies 
are  extant.     Some  say  he  was  one  of  the  Myrddins. 

Bardd  Du  (Y),  a  poet :  qu.  what  age  ? 

Bakdd  Glas  (T)  o'r  Gadair,  a  poet  in  King  Arthur's  time. 
{J.  D.  Bhys) 

Bardd  Llwyd  (Y),  Urien  Eeged's  poet  in  King  Arthur's  time. 
{J.  D.  Rhys) 

Basf.    Howel  y  Farf. 

Barfawg.     Tryflln  Farfog. 

Babf  Vehinawg  :  vid.  Arf-finiog,    Howel  Varf  Vehinawg. 

Barmouth,  the  English  name  of  Abermaw  or  Abermo,  in 
Merionethshire,  which  see. 

Barry  Island,  on  the  coast  of  Glamorganshire ;  from  St.  Bar- 

uch,  a  Britain.     {Camden) 

Barwn,  a  baron. 

O  farwniaid  i  Vrenin. 

Barwn  honwaed  brenbinol. 


30  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

A  title  of  a  degree  of  nobility  among  the  ancient  Britains  as  well 
as  other  nations ;  probably  from  bar,  a  top  or  eminence.  Ed- 
nyfedVychan,BarwnBrynFfenigl,  in  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth's  time. 

Basaleg  or  Btsaleg,  a  church  and  parish,  suid  a  gentleman's 
seat,  Monmouthshire.  Qu.,  whether  Maesaleg,  the  seat  of  Ifor 
Hael  0  Faesaleg,  whom  David  ap  Gwilym,  the  poet,  often  men- 
tions in  his  works.     Yid.  Basselek,  Bysaleg,  and  Maesaleg. 

Basingwerk,  an  English  name  of  an  abbey  near  Holywell, 
built  in  the  year  1312.     (Edward  Llwyd's  Notes  on  Camdeii.) 

Bassa,  some  great  town  destroyed  by  the  Saxons,  in  Shrop- 
shire or  Staffordshire ;  in  Llywarch  Hen's  time  in  Powysland. 
"Bassa  urbs  aut  oppidum."  (JB.  Llwyd)  "Eglwysau  Bassa'' 
{Llywarch  Henxa  Marwnad  Cynddylan).  One  of  Arthur's  twelve 
battles.    {Nennius) 

Basselek,  a  castle  and  manor  of  Basselek  and  Sutton,  in  Mon- 
mouthshire. {Powel,  p.  139.)  This  is  the  Jfoeso/e^  of  D.  ap  Gwil- 
ym.    Ifor  Hael  o  Faesaleg.     Vid.  Bysaleg, 

Bassiak,  the  81st  king  of  Britain. 

Beaumakis:  y\^,Bonover. 

Beblig  ap  Sulwych  ap  Pebid  Penllyn.    Vii  PMig, 

Bed  (n.  pr.  v.),  brenhin  Cemyw.    (TV.  75.) 

BEDO,a  nickname  forMaredydd;  asBedoBrwynIlys,thepoet,etc. 

Bedo  Aeddrbm,  Aeddren,  or  Aurddren,  a  poet,  ad.  1500,  o 
Aeddren  yn  liangwm.     {MS) 

Bedo  Brwynllys,  a  poet,  ad.  1460. 

Bbdo  Hafbs  or  Hafesp,  a  poet. 

Bedo  ap  Hywel  Bach,  a  poet. 

Bedo  Philip  Bach,  a  poet,  a.d.  1480. 

Bedwas,  a  church  and  parish  in  Monmouthshire. 

Bedwellty,  in  Cwm  Sjrrewi,  Glamorgan  [Monmouthshire]. 

Bedwyr  and  Betwyr  (n.  p.  v.),  PentruUiad  Arthur,  Prince  of 
Normandy  and  Flanders.     {TyssUio.) 

Com  Ynyr  Fedwyr  o  faint. — Bion  Geri, 

Fy  ughalon  dirion  a  dyrr 

Fud-was  fal  Cai  am  Fedwyr. 

Llew.  Mod  y  Pantri. 

Beddcelert,  Bedd  Calert,  or  Berthgelert,  the  name  of  a 
church  in  Eryri  Mountains ;  said  to  have  taken  its  name  from 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  31 

CeUrty  9,  dog  of  some  great  man  buried  there,  and  they  show  his 
grave.  The  common  pronunciation  is  Berthgelart,  which  seems 
to  be  the  genuine  name.  Mr.  Edward  Ilwyd  writes  it  Bethkelert. 
(Notes  on  Camden.)  [See  the  story  of  Cil-hart,  Prince  Ilywelyn's 
greyhound.     /.  M.] 

Bedd  Elen,  Elen's  Grave,  on  Mynydd  Mihangel,  in  Armorica, 
where  Arthur  fought  the  Cawr,  a  Spanish  usurper ;  probably  an 
island  called  Moimt  St.  Michael,  near  St.  Male's,  or,  rather,  near 
Bovillon  and  Granville,  which  some  Spanish  pirate  occupied. 

Beddau  Gwyk  Ardudwy,  remarkable  stone  monuments  on  a 
mountain  called  Micneint,  near  Ehyd  yr  Halen,  within  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  of  Sam  Elen  in  Meirion.  They  are  about  thirty  in 
number,  each  grave  about  two  yards  long ;  and  each  grave  has  a 
square  stone  pillar  in  each  of  its  four  comers,  and  about  three 
feet  high.  Mr.  Ilwyd  (in  Notes  on  Camden)  says  the  tradi- 
tion is  that  they  are  sepulchral  monuments  of  persons  of  note 
slain  in  a  battle  between  the  men  of  Ardudwy  and  some  of  Den- 
bighshire ;  but  when,  or  by  what  persons  slain,  he  says  is  wholly 
uncertain.     Vid.  "  Beddau  Milwyr  Ynys  Prydain",  by  Taliesin. 

Beili  (n.  1.).  The  ruins  of  Eglwys  y  Beili  in  Aberflfraw.  Pen 
y  Beili  Bedw,  in  llandyfriog,  Cardiganshire.  Bryn  y  Beili,  a 
tumulus  near  Wyddgruc. 

Bel  ap  Tudur  ap  Adda.  Bu  iddo  dri  meib :  Geffre  Chwitt- 
ffordd,  Dafydd  ap  Bel,  a  Hoel  ap  BeL 

[Belan.  Belan  Ddu,  Belan  Deg,  Belan  Argae,  in  North  Wales. 
"A  singular  circumstance  is  said  to  have  taken  place  at  Belan, 
in  the  county  of  Kildare." — Tim^  newspaper,  Nov.  3rd,  1798. 

Bele.  Gmflydd  Vele  ap  Madog  ap  Idnerth ;  oddi  wrth  Bre'r 
Bele? 

Beli  ap  Dyfnwal  Moel  Mud,  the  22nd  king  of  Britain.  His 
brother  Bran  (Brennus)  married  a  princess  of  the  Galli  Senones, 
and  was  that  great  Gaulish  commander  that  conquered  Home. 
This  is  very  naturally  Latinized  Belgius,  as  Sir  Jo.  Price  observes, 
and  might  at  first  be  wrote  Beljus ;  and  it  was  wrong  in  our  his- 
torians to  turn  Beli  into  Belinus,  which  occasioned  the  blunders 
of  our  modems,  who,  out  of  this  coined  Belin,  would  make  Melyn, 

Beli,  mab  Benlli  Gawr.     (Arch,  Brit.,  p.  262.) 


32  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Beli  Mawr  ap  Minogan,  the  70th  king  of  Britain,  fj^ther  of 
Lludd  and  Caswallon.  This  Caswallon,  after  he  had  killed  his 
brother  Lludd  in  battle,  was  chosen  chief  king  of  the  Britains,  to 
oppose  Julius  CsBsar's  invasion.  Latin  writers  ignorantly  call 
this  Beli  Belinus. 

Bellovesus,  the  Latin  name  of  a  Celtic  or  Gaulish  prince, 
which  in  the  Gaulish  was  Mel  was.    Vid.  Melwas, 

Belyn  (n.  pr.  v.),  corruptly  wrote  Bdin.  (Powel's  Caradoc.) 
Belyn  o  Leyn  fought  a  battle  with  Edwin,  king  of  the  Saxons, 
at  Bryn  Ceneu'r  Rhos,  where  the  fight  was  so  obstinate  that 
Belyn's  men  fettered  themselves  two  and  two,  being  resolved  to 
die  or  keep  the  field.  About  a.d.  620.  ( JV.49.)  Vid,  Tudor  wpBdyn. 

Belyn  ap  Elphin,  a  nobleman,  a.d.  720.     {CaradoCy  p.  14.) 

Bekbaladr,  i.  e.,  pen  paladr  ach.  Gymru  ben  haladr,  i. «.,  Wales, 
head  or  chief  stock  of  British  nobility. 

Bendew:  yi'A^Q  Pendew. 

Bendigaid.     Cyndeym  Fendigaid  ap  Gwrtheym. 

Bendigaid  Fran  ap  Llyr,  i  «.,  Bran  the  Blessed,  or  St.  Bran, 
son  of  Llyr,  called  by  the  Romans  Asdepiodotus.  This  prince's 
head  was  buried  in  the  Gwynfryn  yn  Llundain,  which  is  literally 
"  the  White  Hill  in  London";  probably  Tower  Hill,  because  in  the 
British  tongue  the  Tower  of  London  is  called  Y  Tibr  Choyn,  or 
the  White  Tower.     {Tr.  45.) 

The  fancy  of  this  valiant  prince  was  such  that  if  his  head  was 
buried  in  that  place,  no  foreign  invaders  would  dare  to  come 
into  this  island  while  it  remained  there ;  but  King  Arthur  hear- 
ing of  it,  dug  it  up  to  show  he  did  not  want  such  helps  to  main- 
tain the  island.     {Tr,  45.) 

Tin  aflonydd  yn  flaenawr 

leuan  Bendigeidfraa  Gawr. — H.  BeinaUt, 

Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  mistook  this  for  one  word,  which  he  Latin- 
izes Bendigeidvranvs ;  and  so  translates  Mabinogi,  "caput  Ben- 
digeidvrani  sepelierint."  {Arch.  Brit.,  p.  262.)  In  some  MSS.  he 
is  called  Bendigeidfran  Gawr.    Vid.  Bran. 

Bengole,  where  Roderick  the  Great  gave  the  Danes  a  battle. 
A  place  in  Llanynghenel,  Anglesey.    Vid.  Bangole. 

Benlli  Gawr,  a  prince  of  great  power  among  the  Cambro- 
Britains  about  the  fifth  century  (a.d,  450),  from  whose  name  the 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  33 

contriver  of  the  legend  of  St.  Cynhafal  made  Enlli  Oavrr  to  give 
name  to  the  Isle  of  Enlli,  or  Bardsey.  Nennius  calk  him  a  very 
wicked  king  or  tyrant  of  I&l,  and  gives  ua  a  monkish  story  how 
St.  Gannon  called  for  fire  from  heaven  to  destroy  him  and  his 
city  because  he  would  not  receive  his  doctrine.  (Nenn%us,c,  xxx.) 
Vid.  Caddl  Deyndlyg. 

Beli  ap  Benlli  in  Arch.  BrU.y  p.  262. 

Benwyn  (n.  pr.  v.).    Ben^yn,  and  not  Benw^n. 

Gwyrda  oedd  W6n  a  Benwyn. — i.  0.  Gothi. 

Ceidwad  llawen  o  Fen^^tryn 

Cor  Mair  yw'r  gwr  cywir  mwyn. 

L,  Potmsj  i  O.  P.,  vicar  Aberyw. 
Vid.  OtD^n  and  Penwyn, 

Bebchi  (n,  pr.  v.),  father  of  CoUawn.     {Trioedd  y  Meirch,  8.) 

Beren,  Beuno's  mother.     (Beuno's  Life,) 

Berfeddwlad  (Y),  Denbighshire  and  part  of  Flintshire,  con- 
taining five  cantrefs,  Ehyfoniog,  Ystrad,  Ehos,  Dyfiryn  Clwyd, 
and  TegengL     (Price's  Description.) 

Berged YN,  in  the  parish  of  Guildsfield^Iontgomery shire.  (J.  D) 

Bergwm,  a  river  in  Glamorgan,  near  Neath.  [Pergwm. — L  M!\ 
Vid.  Alerhergvmi. 

Bwrw  Aber  fal  nyth  eryr, 

Bergwm  wenn  bu'r  gwae  am  w^r, — L.  Morgwn/wg, 

Beris,  Caer  Boris :  vid.  Peris, 
Beriw,  or  Beryw,  or  Berriew  :  vid.  Aberyw. 
Berllan  (Y).     Gwaith  y  Berllan,  the  battle  at  Perllan  Fan- 
gor  is  y  Coed,  where  the  Britains  defeated  the  Saxona 

Ni  fo  gwaeth  no  gwaith  y  Berllan. 

CynddehOy  to  Howel  cup  O.  €rwynedd. 

Berres  or  Berrys  (St.),  said  to  be  St  Brise.  Uanverres,  a 
church  and  parish  in  the  deanery  of  lU  in  Denbighshire. 

Berson  :  vid  Person. 

Berth  :  vid.  Perth. 

Berthyn,  in  Ilanddeidan,  Glamorgan.  [Aherthin,  in  Llan- 
fleiddan. — /.  if.] 

Berwig,  English  Berwick,  a  town :  q.  d.  Aberwic.  So  from 
Abermaw,  Barmouth,  etc.     Vid.  Y  Fermg. 

5 


34  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Bebwyn,  a  mountain  in  Meirion  (i  bar,  top,  and  gwyn^ 
white).  Vid.  Rhyddwyn,  Thus  far  came  Henry  II,  the  King  of 
England,  against  Owain  Gwynedd,  and  narrowly  escaped  with 
life.    Vid.  Corwen. 

Bettws.  Several  places  in  Wales  of  this  name.  These  were 
the  Bede  houses  demolished  by  Henry  VIII.  Bettws  Gweyifyl 
Goch;  Bettws  Abergeleu;  Bettws  y  Coed;  Bettws  Gannon; 
Bettws  y  Glyn.  [Vide  Arch.  Brit,,  p.  214,  voce  "  Bettws",  a 
place  between  hills. — W,  2>.] 

[lenan  Bradford  o  blwyf  Bettws  ym  Morganwg. — W,  P.] 

Bettws  Skebyv,  in  the  Extent  of  Anglesey,  by  Edward  III, 
for  Bettws  Geraint,  which  is  Pentraeth,  or  Llanvair  Bettws  Ger- 
aint. 

Betwyb  (n.  pr.  v.).    Vid.  Btdwyr, 

Bethoun,  son  of  Glam  Hector,  Prince  of  the  Irish  Scots,  whose 
sons  invaded  Britain  about  the  year  440.  Bethoun  took  pos- 
session of  Demetia,  G^yr,  and  Cydweli,  ajid  kept  them  tiU  he 
was  drove  away  by  the  sons  of  Cimedda  Wledig.  Vdhan  in 
Gale's  edition.  In  Flaherty,  p.  431,  Bdozan  or  Baothan  is  men- 
tioned as  King  of  Ireland.     (Price's  Bescript  apud  Nennivs.) 

Beulan  (n.  pr.  v.)  ;  Lat.  Beulanus, — ^falsely  Beularitis  in  Gale's 
edition.  Hence  ULanbeulan  in  Anglesey.  Vid.  Samud  Britan- 
nu8.  Nennius,  the  historian,  mentions  one  Beulanus,  a  presby- 
ter, to  whom  he  had  been  a  scholar ;  but  qu.  ?  See  Gale's  Nen- 
niu8,  c.  Ixiii. 

Beulabius,  falsely  wrote  in  Nennius  for  Beulanus,  Vid. 
Samud  Britannus, 

Beuno  Sant  ap  Hywgi  ap  Gwjmlliw  ap  Glywis  ap  Tegid  ap 
CadeU,  a  prince  or  lord  of  Glewisig.  (Vaughan's  MS.  Notes  on 
Powel's  Hist)  Another  MS.  says  he  was  son  of  Beuvagius  or 
Beugi  ap  CadeU  Deyrnllyg,  and  that  his  mother  was  daughter 
of  Owen  ap  XJrien,  one  of  King  Arthur's  generals.  In  Winifred^s 
Life,  said  to  be  taken  from  Robert  of  Salop's,  and  printed,  it  is 
said  that  Beuno  was  of  noble  parents  in  Montgomery,  at  the  fall 
of  the-  river  Ehyw  into  Severn,  called  Aberhyw.  His  father, 
Binsi,  descended  from  CadeU,  Prince  of  Glewisig;  and  hi^ 
mother  from  Anna,  sister  to  King  Arthur,  who  was  married  to 
a  king  of  the  Picts.  That  his  grandfather  was  Gundeleius  (Gwyn- 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  35 

Uiw),  and  cousin  german  to  St.  Kentigern,  Bishop  of  Glasgow, 
■who,  being  forced  from  Scotland^  founded  the  bishoprick  of 
St  Asaph.  That  he  was  educated  under  St.  Dangesius ;  but  does 
not  say  where.  When  he  had  built  a  church  and  monastery  he 
removed  to  some  other  part.  Then  he  finished  his  monastery  at 
Clynnog  Vawr  in  Caernarvonshire ;  from  thence  went  to  visit 
his  friends  in  Flintshire.  That  one  Trebwith,  or  Thewith,  or 
Tyvid,  a  potent  lord  of  that  coimtry,  had  married  the  noble  lady 
Wenlo,  who  was  Beuno's  sister ;  and  these  were  the  parents  of 
St.  Winifred.  She  was  born  in  the  reign  of  King  Cadwallon ; 
and  Beuno's  journey  to  Flintshire  was  in  the  reign  of  King 
Eluith  the  Second.  But  as  Dr.  Fleetwood  shows  that  the  Jesuit 
misunderstood  Bobert  of  Salop's  words,  who  says  that  this 
Thewith  was  son  of  Eluith,  and  was  the  next  man  to  the  King. 
JBeuno  stayed  so  long  on  this  visit  that  he  built  a  monastery 
there ;  and  Caradoc  ap  Alen,  King  of  that  country,  with  his 
sword  cut  off  the  head  of  Winifred  because  she  refused  to  lie 
with  him.  Beuno  clapt  it  on,  and  she  lived  after  that  about 
fifteen  years ;  and  Holywell  sprung  out  of  the  ground  where  her 
head  fell.  Then  Beuno  returned  to  Clynnog,  and  received  a 
present  of  a  cloak  which  Winifred  sent  him  by  the  river  of  Holy- 
well, which,  watching  the  tides,  coasted  it  along  to  Clynnog  in 
Caernarvonshire,  and  landed  there  dry  at  Forth  y  Gasseg,  which 
he  says  should  be  called  Porth  y  Gassed,  and  a  Cottonian  MS. 
has  it  Porth  y  Saehlen,  This  is  the  sum  of  Eobert's  account  of 
Beuno.  But  this  account  of  Beuno  is  very  different  from  that 
in  the  British  MS.  at  Jesus  College,  Oxon. 

Another  account  of  Beuno  runs  thus.  Beuno  Sant  ap  Bugu, 
of  Banhenic  in  Powys,  near  Hafren.  His  mother  was  Beren 
verch  Ilawdden.  He  was  brought  up  by  Tangusius,  a  holy  man, 
at  Gwent,  and  was  ordained  priest.  Ynyr,  King  of  Gwent, 
became  a  monk  and  disciple  of  Beuno,  and  gave  him  lands,  also 
the  people  and  their  goods.  Beuno's  father  died,  and  he  suc- 
ceeded in  the  estate,  and  built  a  church  there,  and  planted  an 
oak  which  would  kill  every  Saxon  that  would  pass  its  branches. 
From  thence  he  went  to  Mawn,  son  of  Brochwel,  who  gave  him 
lands  for  his  own  and  his  father's  soul.  The  voice  of  a  Saxon 
frightened  him  from  thence,  and  he  left  his  church  to  one  of  his 


36  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

disciples  called  Rithwlint,  and  gave  him  a  cross.  He  went  to 
Meivod  to  Tyssilio ;  thence  to  King  Cynan  ap  Brochwel,  and 
begged  of  him  lands  to  build  a  church ;  and  he  gave  him  Gwydd- 
elwem,  where  Beuno  raised  ian  Irishman  from  the  dead  who 
had  been  killed  by  his  wife.  There  Beuno  cursed  some  of 
Cynan's  nephews  who  affronted  him,  and  they  died.  Thence  he 
walked  along  the  river  Dee,  and  came  to  the  place  called  now 
Holywell,  where  Temic,  son  of  Elwyd,  gave  him  a  town ;  and 
there  he  built  a  church,  and  brought  up  Gwenfrewi,  daughter  of 
Temic.  Caradoc,  King  of  Tegeingl,  watched  an  opportunity  of 
her  father's  being  in  church,  and  attempted  to  lie  with  her.  She 
refusing,  he  cut  off  her  head.  Beuno  clapt  it  on,  and  brought 
her  to  life,  and  turned  him  to  a  pool  of  water ;  and  where  her 
head  fell,  there  sprung  up  a  well  called  now  Holywell,  in  Flint- 
shire. And  so  God  and  Beuno  cured  the  maid,  and  many  were 
converted. 

Cadvan,  King  of  Wales,  gave  Beuno  lands ;  but  Cadwallon, 
his  son,  gave  him  lands  in  Gweredog,  in  Arvon,  which  an  infant 
claimed;  for  which  Beuno  gave  the  King  a  gold  sceptre,  which  the 
King  refused  to  return  when  Beimo  gave  up  the  land  to  the  child. 
Beuno  cursed  him ;  but  Gwyddaint,  the  King's  cousin,  followed 
him,  and  gave  him  the  town  of  Celynnog  for  his  own  soul  and 
Cadwallon's,  where  he  built  a  monastery,  etc.  One  of  the  work- 
men of  Aberffraw  went  to  Gwent,  and  the  Princess Digiw  (Tegiawc), 
daughter  of  Ynyr,  fell  in  love  with  him,  and  they  were  married. 
In  his  way  to  see  his  country,  he  cut  her  head  off  at  Pennardd 
in  Arvon,  and  went  to  Aberffraw,  and  bought  a  place  in  court. 
Beuno  clapt  her  head  on,  and  she  became  a  nun  with  him  ;  and 
where  her  head  fell,  there  sprung  Ffynnon  Digiw.  Idon  ap 
Ynyr  Gwent  came  to  see  his  sister,  and  prevailed  on  Beuno  to 
go  with  him  to  Aberffraw.  There  Idon  cut  off  the  head  of  the 
man  that  had  cut  off  his  sister's  head.  The  King  of  Aberffraw 
seized  upon  Idon,  and  swore  he  would  destroy  him  unless  Beuno 
would  restore  the  other  to  life,  which  he  did  without  hesitation. 
And  the  King  repented  he  had  tempted  Beuno,  and  gave  liim 
his  palace  at  Aberffraw,  where  he  now  lives  in,  called  Beuno. 
{Buchedd  Beuno,  from  Bishop  Fleetwood's.) 

That  there  was  such  a  man  as  Beimo,  that  was  abbot  and 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  37 

founder  of  the  monastery  of  Clynnog,  is  certain.  His  grave  is 
shown  there  to  this  day,  and  his  name  is  found  in  many  of  our 
ancient  British  writers ;  but  the  legends  are  so  full  of  contradic- 
tions that  we  don't  know  what  to  believe  of  them.  The  miracles 
ascribed  to  him  are  beyond  belief.  He  lived  in  the  seventh  cen- 
tury, an  age  of  confusion  and  darkness,  when  the  priests  said 
and  did  what  was  good  in  their  own  eyes. 

In  the  Extent  of  Anglesey,  taken  by  John  de  Deloes  under 
Richard  Earl  of  Arundel,  Justice  of  North  Wales  26  Edward  III, 
in  the  year  1352, 1  find  there  are  lands  in  Anglesey  (Alaw  'r 
Beirdd)  held  of  St.  Beuno,  and  there  the  abbot  of  St.  Beuno  is 
mentioned.  This  was  the  monastery  of  Clynnog  Vawr  ja  Arvon. 
Likewise  in  that  ancient  poem, "  Beddau  Milwyr  Ynys  Prydain", 
by  Taliesin,  Uanveuno  is  mentioned  : 

Bedd  Dylan  yn  Llanveuno,  etc. 

It  is  said  that  all  calves  or  lambs  which  were  brought  forth 
with  a  split  ear  were  the  inheritance  or  right  of  St.  Beuno,  and 
were  offered  to  him  at  his  church ;  and  this  was  called  nodBeuno, 
or  Beuno's  mark. 

BiGEL  (St.)  ;  Lat.  Vigelius ;  not  Bugail.  Llanvigel  in  Anglesey. 
Maen  Bigel,  a  rock  in  the  sea  there ;  another  in  the  Sound  of 
EnlU. 

BissAUD,  in  Doomsday  Booh,  Cheshire ;  corruptly  for  Disert 
or  Disart,  a  village  in  Englefield. 

Black  Mountains,  between  Brycheiniog  and  Tir  G^yr, 
[Mynydd  Du.— /.  Jf.] 

Bladudus  :  vid.  Bhvddud. 

Blaen,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  prefixed  to  the  names  of  places, 
signifying  the  upper  part  of  a  country ;  as  YBlaenau,  the  High- 
lands ;  Gwy-r  y  Blaenati,  Highlanders  or  mountaineers ;  Blaenau 
Lloegr,  the  Marches  {S,  Llwyd)  ;  Blaenau  aforvydd,  the  sources  of 
rivers  {E,  Llwyd). 

Blaen  y  Cwm,  the  upper  part  of  a  valley  where  it  begins,  as 
Blaen  Cwm  Ystwyth;  Blaen  Cwm  Eheidiol;  Blaen  Cwm  Erfin. 

Blaen  Gwent,  a  place  in  Monmouthshire. 

Blaen  Llyfny,  Castell  in  Brecknockshire,  near  Ilyn  Safathan. 

Blaen  Llywel  (or  Lleweny,  as  Camden). 

Blaen  Pokth  Gwithan,  in  Iscoed  in  Cardiganshire ;  a  town 


38  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

and  castle  held  by  Earl  Gilbert  and  the  Flemings,  A.D.  1116, 
where  Gruffudd  ap  Rhys  ap  Tewdwr  fought  them,  and  got  the 
place.  (Powel's  Caradoc,  p.  179.)  Blaen  y  Porth  near  Cardigan  (?). 

Blaen  Tren  (nomen  loci). 

Blaeniau,  a  man's  surname  (k  hlaen  and  iau).  Bees  Blaen- 
iau,  Owen  Blaeniau,  Ifan  Blaeniau,  etc. 

Tri  mab  leuan  term  bywyd 

Blaeniau  pen  gwybodau  byd. — H,  Pennant. 

Blaenllym.    Einion  Flaenllym  ap  Einion. 

Blaidd  (n.  pr.  v),  literally  in  Latin  Lwp\is.  Y  Blaidd  Ehudd 
o'r  Gest,  lord  of  Gest  and  Eifionydd  (J.  D.),  grandfather  of  Haer, 
the  wife  of  Blethyn  ap  Cynfyn.  Also  a  cognomen.  Vid.  Ehiryd 
Flaidd. 

Blathaon  (n.  pr.).  Penrhyn  Blathaon  ym  Mhrydyn,  the  ex- 
treme point  of  Scotland  to  the  north  (JV.  2);  Caithness.  {E.Lhvyd.) 

Blas  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  Norman  or  Norwegian  name  probably.  Bias, 
mab  ty wysog  Llychlyu,  i.  «.,  Bias,  the  son  of  the  Prince  of  liych- 
lyn,  on  the  coast  of  the  Baltic.    {Tr.  84.) 

Bledrws,  Prince  of  Cerny  w,  general  of  the  Britains  in  the 
battle  of  Perllan  Fangor,  a.d.  605,  when  the  Saxons  were  drove 
beyond  the  Humber ;  but  Bledrws  was  killed,  and  Cadvan,  King 
of  North  Wales,  crowned  King  of  Britain.     (Tyssilio.) 

Bleddfach,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Powys,  qu.  ? 

O  Fleddfach  nid  glanach  glain. — L.  P.,  i  0.  P. 

Bleddvach.     Tomos  ap  Roger,  arglwydd  Bleddvach. 

Bleddian.  Ilanfleddian,  Glamorganshire.  [Bleiddan.  lian- 
fleiddan. — /.  M,] 

Bleddyn  ap  Cynfyn. 

Bleddyn  Ddu,  a  poet,  an.  1090.     (»/.  D,  Rhys,) 

Bleddyn  Ddu  Was  y  Cwd,  an  id.  ? 

Bleddyn  Fardd,  a  poet,  an.  1246. 

Bleddyn  Llwyd,  a  poet,  an.  1260. 

Blegored,  a  Doctor  of  Laws  in  Howel  Dda's  time.  {Dr.  Pawd, 
p.  53.) 

Blegywryd,  the  61st  King  of  Britain,  called  the  God  of  music. 
{Tyssilio,) 

BLEIDDLA.U.  Cerrig  y  Bleiddiau,  Anglesey ;  Ffos  y  Bleiddiau, 
Cardiganshire. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  39 

Bleiddig  (n.  pr.  v.),  the  father  of  Hyfeid  or  Hyfaidd,  who, 
firom  a  slave  or  native  tenant,  advanced  himself  to  be  King  of 
Deheuharth,  or  South  Wales.     (Jr.  76.) 

Bleiddtd  ap  Caradog  ap  levanawL 

Bleiddyd  II,  the  57th  King  of  Britain. 

Blenwtdd  (St)     Church  dedicated  at  Coedane,  Anglesey. 

Blettkus  ap  Ceynawc  Mawr. 

Bleuddud,  Bleuddyd,  or  Bleiddyd,  the  9th  King  of  Britain, 
Latinized  Bladtultts,  son  of  Bhun  Baladr  Bras ;  but  by  a  coin  or 
medal  of  his,  mentioned  by  Mr.  Wm.  Morris  of  Cefn  y  Braich, 
his  name  is  Ylatos,  or  Blatos,  which  may  be  a  Greek  termina- 
tion. 

Blenddnd  a  Moel  Mud  Madog  ai  ddymod. — Bedo  Brwynllys. 

Leiand  says  his  great  knowledge  in  natural  philosophy  got 
him  the  name  of  a  magician  among  the  vulgar ;  and  that  by  pro- 
per application  of  sulphur  and  alum  earths  he  contrived  the 
hot  baths  at  the  city  called  by  the  Britains  Caer  Badwae,  mean- 
ing Caer  Badd-dim,  which  he  interprets  the  Mountain  of  Baths. 
And  this  is  the  place  which  Gildas,  in  his  little  History,  men- 
tions by  the  name  of  Mons  Badonicus  (where  the  Britains  and 
the  Saxons  had  a  great  battle  about  the  time  of  his  birth) ;  and 
not  in  the  Black  Mountains  over  Severn,  where  Polyd.  Virgil 
madly  seeks  for  it.  He  says  that  this  town  is  the  ITiermarum 
of  Ptolemy,  so  called  from  the  British  word  Badune ;  and  that 
Badune  doth  not  come  from  Badudus,  the  king ;  for  that  the 
king's  name  was  Bladvdus,  and  not  Badudus ;  and  he  thinks  that 
there  was  a  town  on  the  same  river  Avon,  at  a  place  where 
there  hath  been  a  Benedictine  monastery  (which  the  Saxons,  from 
one  Maildaph,  called  Maildulphshury,  now  Malmesbury).  There 
was  an  ancient  British  city  called  by  the  name  of  Cair  Bladune, 
which  comes  nigher  that  prince's  name,  where  there  are  remedns 
of  great  walls  and  ditches.     (Leiand,  Script  BrU,,  c.  vi.) 

To  a  Cambro-British  antiquary  Cair  Bladune  is  as  distant 
from  the  name  of  the  prince  as  Badvd ;  and  neither  of  them  to 
the  purpose,  for  the  prince's  name  was  Bleuddud,  which,  accord- 
ing to  the  English  pronunciation,  would  sound  something  like 
BleUhid.  So  there  is  very  little  similitude  between  Bladune 
and  Badud  and  this.    Antiquaries  should  always  remember  that 


40  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

anciept  British  letters  do  not  sound  like  English  and  Latin. 
But  as  Mr.  Leland  seldom  fails  of  shooting  near  the  mark,  I  can 
let  his  readers  into  a  secret,  that  the  name  of  the  ancient  cas- 
trum  which  he  caUs  Cair  Bladune  was  Ccier  Bleddyn ;  and  no 
name  more  common  among  the  Britains  than  Bleddjn,  as 
Bleddyn  ap  Cynfyn,  Prince  of  Powys ;  Bleddyn  Fardd,  etc.  Mr. 
Leland  also  defends  the  story  of  his  inventing  wings  to  fly,  and 
shews  it  is  not  all  an  empty  story.     Vid.  Owaith  Faddon. 

Blodwel.  Llan  y  Blodwel,  a  church  and  parish  in  Shropshire, 
qu.  Uanymlodwel  ?  Ehiryd  Voel  of  Blodwel.  (J,  JD.)  Aber- 
tanat  ymlodweL  (i.  G,  Cofhi) 

Blowty  (n,  L)  q.  d.  Ty  Blawd.  Cwm  y  Blowty,  a  gentleman's 
seat.    Morris. 

BoD,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  prefixed  to  the  names  of  houses  or 
habitations  (chiefly  in  Anglesey) ;  some  say  from  hod,  to  be  (but 
qu.  ?) :  as  Bodaeddon ;  BodafoD ;  Bodargolwyn ;  Bodarnabwy  or 
RonabwyjBodeUio  in  Lleyn ;  BodeUiog,  a  gentleman's  seat  (J,D.) ; 
Bodelwy ;  Bodelwyddan,vulg6  Bodolwiddan ;  Bodenwydog  in  lal, 
a  gentleman's  seat ;  Bodeuon ;  Bodewryd,  a  chapel  in  Anglesey, 
and  a  gentleman's  seat ;  Bodfafon ;  Bodfeddan,  a  gentleman's 
seat;  Bodfeirig;  Bodfel,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Lleyn;  Bod- 
frwyn ;  Bodgynda ;  Bodidris  in  ISl ;  Bodlew ;  Bodlith,  a  gentle- 
man's seat  (J.  2>.) ;  Bodnant,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire ; 
Bodneithiar ;  Bodoffwyr ;  Bodegri ;  Bodola,  Anglesey ;  Bodol- 
gadi ;  Bodorgan,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Anglesey ;  Bodowyr,  a 
gentleman's  seat  {J.D),  Denbighshire  (Price) ;  Bodrewyn ;  Bod- 
rhyddan,  Bodtryddan,  or  Botryddan,  a  gentleman's  seat  near 
Ehuddlan  (see  Ekvddlan) ;  Bodronyn ;  Bodlan ;  Bodvach,  a 
gentleman's  seat  in  Llanfyllin ;  Bodhalog;  Bodhenlli;  Bodiar; 
Bodig,  Cefh  y  Bodig  (which  see) ;  Bodedeym,  a  parish  and 
church  in  Anglesey,  from  Edeyrriy  a  man's  name ;  Bodvaen  or 
Bodfan,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Caernarvonshire ;  Bodvari  or  Bot- 
fari,  the  fioman  Varis ;  Boduan  (see  Gam  Boduan) ;  BodfTordd, 
a  township  or  villa  in  the  commot  of  Malltraeth,  Anglesey  (JEso- 
tent  of  Anglesey,  Edw.  III).  This  was  a  free  villa  containing  one 
carucat  and  half  of  land.  No  rent  to  the  prince ;  and  only  suits 
to  the  commots  and  hundreds,  and  to  go  to  the  wars  at  -the 
prince's  expense,  and  pays  no  relief  nor  amobr,  and  has  a  mill 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  41 

of  its  own  called  Melin  Bodffordd.  This  was  right  British  libei-ty. 
Bodwrda,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Lleyn;  Bodwrog  or  Bodfwrog 
(vid.  MiDTog,  St.) ;  Bodychain ;  Bodyddfan,  a  gentleman's  seat 
(•/.  D.) ;  Bodynolwyn  or  Wenolwyn ;  Bodysgallen,  a  gentleman's 
seat ;  Bodwine,  a  hamlet  in  Anglesey  mentioned  in  the  Prince's 
Extent,  Edw.  Ill,  135?.  It  was  a  free  hamlet  in  the  commot 
of  MaUtraeth,  and  yet  was  liable  to  pay  suits  to  commots  and 
hundreds,  relief,  gobr,  and  amobr,  IO5.;  and  the  rent  to  the 
Prince  yeariy  was  16s.,  and  paid  quarteriy,  4*.;  so  that  the 
Prince's  chief  profits  were  those  accidental  ones  of  gobr,  amobr, 
etc. 

BOD  ap  Pasgen  ap  Helic. 

BoDVAN  (St.)     {Br,  Willis.) 

Boni  or  Boer.     Penboir  and  Rhyd  Foir,  Carmarthenshire. 

BoL.  Cora  y  Bol,  a  bog  in  M6n  of  that  name ;  and  Penbol  (n. 
L),  qu.  whether  in  Tal  y  Bolion  ? 

Bol  Haul,  in  Ilangwnnwr,  Caermarthenshire ;  another  in 
Anglesey. 

BoLG  (Y),  Belgica ;  that  is,  Gallia  Belgica,  i.e.,  the  Netheriands. 
Gw^r  y  Bolg,  the  Belgse.  These  were  Germans  that  passed  the 
Bhine  before  Caesar's  time.  (Qsesar,  Comm.,  ii,  4.)  The  Irish 
writers  call  them  Fir  Bolg,  i,  e.,  the  men  of  the  Bolg.    Vide  BoL 

BoNGAM.  Deicws  Fongam  ap  Madog  ap  Llewelyn  ap  lor- 
werth. 

BoNOVER  (q.  d.  Beaunovmr),  one  of  the  ancient  names  of  the 
town  now  called  Beaumaris  or  Beaumarish. 

Castell  gwedi  cael  castiaid 

Bonover  hwnt  ban  fo  rhaid. — loan  Brwynog. 

Camden  (in  Anglesey)  says  the  town  was  called  Bonover  before 
it  was  rebuilt  by  Edward  I,  and  was  called  by  him  Beaumarish. 
It  was  formerly  called  Llanvaes ;  and  it  seems  to  have  been,  in 
very  ancient  times,  called  Pcrr^A  Wygyr,  one  of  the  three  principal 
seaports  in  the  Cambrian  dominions  after  the  Saxon  conquest 
of  Loegria.  {Triad  5.)     Vid.  Caer  Fdn. 

BoNWM  (n.  1.),  Anglesey. 

BoRT  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  German  name.  Bort,  mab  brenin  Bort.  (F 
Greal  apud  Tr.  61.) 

Bosso  (n.  pr.  v.).    Caervosso,  Ehydychen,  Oxenford. 

6 


42  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

BoTEinjARUL,  in  Doomsday  Book  corruptly  for  Bodffari,  a  vil- 
lage in  Englefield,  belonging  to  the  raanor  of  Ehuddlan  when  in 
the  hands  of  Hugh,  Earl  of  Chester,  in  William  the  Conqueror's 
time. 

BowcwN  or  BoccwN,  Caer  Vowewn,  the  ruins  of  an  ancient 
fort  in  the  turning  where  Nant  Ceiliogyn  falls  into  Trennig  river, 
in  the  way  as  you  go  from  Eisteddva  Gurig  along  Llechinwedd 
Hirgoed  in  the  east  end  of  it.  This  fort  kept  not  only  the  pass 
to  Eisteddva  Gurig,  but  also  that  to  Dyf&yn  Merin  by  Pistell 
Ddu.    Vide  Trennig, 

Brachan,  in  Ach  Cynog,    Vide  Brychan, 

BiiADOG.     Aeddan  Fradog. 

ft 

Bradwen  ap  Unwch  ap  TJnarchen.  Ednowain  ap  Bradwen. 
(JPymiheg  Llwyth,)    Penrhos  Bradwen  ymhlwyf  Caer  GybL 

Bradwen.  Llys  Bradwen  (BrcUwen  in  the  Gododin),  near 
Dolgelleu  {J.  D),  the  seat  of  Ednowain  ap  Bradwen  in  the  time 
of  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth. 

Bradwyn  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Moes  rhoi  'n  gof  maes  arian  gwyn 

Mwy  par  wedi  mab  Bradwyn. — M.  LI.  O. 

Braigh  y  Ddinas,  a  lofty  and  impregnable  hill  on  the  top  of 
Penmaen  Mawr,  where  are  the  ruinous  walls  of  a  fortification 
encompassed  with  a  treble  wall;  and  within  each  wall  the 
foundation  of  at  least  a  hundred  towers  all  round,  and  of  about 
six  yards  diameter,  each  within  the  walls.  The  walls  of  tliis 
Dinas  were  about  two  yards  thick,  and  in  some  places  three. 
There  a  himdred  men  might  defend  themselves  against  a  legion; 
and  it  seems  there  were  lodgings  within  the  walls  for  twenty 
thousand  men.  Within  the  innermost  wall  there  is  a  well  which 
gives  water  in  the  driest  summer.  This  was  the  strongest  fort 
in  all  Snowdon.  (E,  Llwyd,  Notes  on  Camden  in  Caernarvon^ 
shire)    Vid.  Meini  Hirion  and  Penmaen  Mawr, 

Braint  (n.  pr.  v.)  signifies  dignity :  hence  Briant  and  Bryan, 
modem  names.    Vide  Braint  Hir, 

Braint  Hir  ap  Nevydd,  King  Cadwallon's  nephew,  and  one 
of  his  council,  and  lord  of  Uwch-Aled ;  bore  vert,  a  cross  flowry 
or,     {Pymtheg  Llwyth)     Qu.,  from  his  name,  Sam  Vraint  and 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  43 

Afon  Vraint  in  Anglesey,  mentioned  by  Llywarch  Hen  in  Marw- 

nad  Gadwallon  ? 

Linesfc  Gadwallon  ar  OeitU 

Uoegr  ardres  armes  ameint 

Llaw  ddillwng  eUwng  oedd  Vreint, 

Ceint  river  is  also  in  Anglesey. 

Braisg.    Twain  Fraisg  ap  Cyndeym  Fendigaid. 

Bran  (n.  pr.  v.).  Bran  ap  Dyfiawal  (Latinized  Brmivu8),Qecond 
son  of  Dyfiiwal  Moelmut,  the  famous  British  lawgiver.  He  mar- 
ried a  princess  of  the  Galli  Senones,  and  by  the  help  of  his 
brother  Beli  {Belinus,  rightly  Belgiua),  King  of  Britain,  overran 
Italy,  and  took  the  city  of  Rome,  and  kept  possession  of  it  seven 
months.  (Tysirilio.)  This  was  about  390  years  before  Ghrist,  and 
364  years  after  the  building  of  Bome.  Strabo  plednly  calls  him 
Breriy  and  Poly  bins  corroborates  the  British  history  in  this  point. 
Vid.  Brennvs  and  Urp. 

Bran,  a  river  that  falls  into  Towi  near  Ilanymddyfri  (from 
Bran,  a  man's  name).  Hence  Aberbran  and  Glanbran.  IfarU 
Bran  falls  into  the  Wysg. 

Bran  ap  Llowarch. 

Bran  ap  Llyr,  called  Bendigaid  Fran.  (Tr,  45.)  Vid.  Ben- 
digaid  Fran. 

Bran  ap  Melhym.  He  is  called  Bran  ab  y  Melhym  iaArch, 
Brit.,  p.  260.  Qu.,  whether  Mellteym  or  Myllteyrn  ?  In  the 
MS.  it  is  Mdsym.  Vide  Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Urien  Beged 

Bran  ap  Gwerydd.   (Arck.  Brit.,  p.  261.) 

Bran.  Dinas  Bran,  a  castle  on  the  top  of  a  hill  near  Llan- 
gollen, which  it  is  said  belonged  to  Brennus.  There  is  a  lord- 
ship adjoining  there  caUed  to  this  day  Dinbran  or  Dinbren.  It 
was  in  repair  and  inhabited  by  Gruffy  dd  ap  Madog  in  Edward  I's 
time,  who  was  lord  of  Dinas  Bran. 

Camden  says  the  tradition  was  that  it  was  built  and  so  named 
by  Brennus,  general  of  the  Gauls ;  and  he  says  some  interpret 
the  name  "  the  king's  palace";  for  that  Bren,  says  he,  in  British 
signifies  a  king.  Mr.  Camden  was  here  sadly  out,  as  he  is  gener- 
ally when  he  meddles  with  British  etymologies.  Bren  was  never 
the  word  in  the  British  for  a  king,  but  brenhin  and  breyenJiyn. 
Others,  he  says,  would  have  the  name  derived  from  bryn,  a  hilL 


44  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Poor  guessing !  for  most  British  castles  were  upon  hills.  And 
how  comes  king  to  be  a  proper  name  of  a  king  ?  An  odd  fanc7 
indeed ! 

Bran  Galed  o'r  Gogledd,  a  prince  or  great  man  of  North 
Britain,  famous  for  his  generosity.  Corn  Bran  Galed  oW  Oogledd 
was  one  of  the  thirteen  rarities  of  Britain  kept  at  Caerllion  ar 
Wysg  in  Arthur's  time;  Bran  Galed  of  the  North's  horn.  Desire 
any  kind  of  liquor,  and  that  horn  would  produce  it.  That  is,  I 
suppose,  you  were  to  drink  in  that  house  what  liquor  you 
desired ;  unless  there  was  a  contrivance  to  convey  liquors  through 
secret  pipes  into  it.    Vid.  Elurted, 

Bran,  father  of  Caradawc.     {Tr.  19.) 

Branes,  a  gentleman's  seat, — Wynne's.  {J,  B)  Also  a  sur- 
name :  Hwmffre  Branes  of  Branes  Uchaf.    (J.  D) 

Brangor  (n.  pr.  v.).  Y  Gfreal,  quoted  Triad  61.  Brangor's 
daughter  was  Empress  at  Consiiridbl,  i.  e.,  Constantinople. 

Braniarth,  part  of  Powys. 

Branwen,  merch  Uyv  o  Harlech,  gwraig  Matholwch  WyddeL 
(See  the  Tr.  51.)  Ti&r  Branwen  oedd  Harlech  gynt.  Hi 
gladdwyd  ar  Ian  afon  Alaw  ym  Mon,  medd  Mabinogi  Bendigeid- 
fran.  Palfod  Branwen  verch  Uyr  Llediaith.  (Arch.  Brit.,  p.  258.) 
[Capel  Bronwen  in  Anglesey. —  W.  D.] 

Bras,  thick  or  big.  Caradog  Freichfras;  Madog  Benfras; 
Gruffydd  Fraslwyd,  tad  Gruffydd  Lwyd  o  Lanbrynmair. 

Bre,  monSj  collis,  a  mountain,  a  hill :  hence  Moelfre  ;  and  the 
Bre  (Bray)  of  Athol  in  Scotland ;  Peribre  in  Carmarthenshire. 

Brecon.  DinUe  Vrecon,  mentioned  by  Llowarch  Hen  in  Mar- 
wnad  Cynddylan.  Mr.  Edward  liwyd  guesses  this  to  be  Urico- 
nium  or  Wroxeter,  near  Salop.  If  it  is,  it  should  be  wrote  Ureeon, 
and  not  Brecon;  for  the  British  name  of  Uriconium  is  Caer 
Wrygion  \  in  the  ancient  orthography  Chirigion;  and  it  is  found 
Ghiirigon  in  Nennius. 

Sylles  o  Dinlle  Vrecon. — Llowarch  Hen. 

Brechdwn.     Gwem  y  Brechdwn,  which  see. 
Brecheiniog.    (Price's  Descript).     Vid.  Brycheiniog. 
Breiddin,  Craig  Freiddin  in  Montgomeryshire,  a  mountain ; 
corruptly, Craig  Wreiddyn.  Bre  Freiddin.  (Gwalchmai  ap  Meilir.) 

O  Freiddin  freenhin  freiddgar. — Qwalchmai  ap  Meilir. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  45 

Breigh  Mons,  corruptly  in  John  Major  (Hist  Scot,  I.  ii,  c.  4) 
for  Eryri,  where  Gwrtheyrn  built  his  castle.  [Qu.  if  not  Craig 
y  Ddinas  (q.  v.)  on  Penmeien  Mawr  ? —  W,  JO.] 

Breint  (fl.)  :  hence  Aberbreint,  afon  Praint  in  Anglesey,  an  J 
the  rivers  Brent  in  Devon  and  Middlesex,  and  the  river  Brent 
in  the  Venetian  territory.  All  have  their  names  from  Braint, 
which  see. 

Brenhin  or  Brenhyn,  pL  Brenhynoedd  {k  hraint  and  Jien), 

Dybu  Brenhin  Lloegr  yn  Unyddawc. — MeUir  Brydydd. 

Breinioly  Breiniau. 

Breenhin  na  frenhin  brithfyd  dybi. — Myrddin^  Hoianaa. 

Breyenhin,  Breienh^,  q.  d.  brainh^,  the  honourable  elder. 

BRENHiNLLWtTH.  Y  Pum  Brenhinllwyth,i.  e.,  the  five  princely 
tribes. 

Brevi,  a  river  at  Uanddewi  Brevi  in  Cardiganshire.  {BrU. 
Sanct,  March  1.)  Qu.  wh.  from  Gwenfrewi  (see  Owdl  Dewi);  or 
qu.  wh.  Brewi,  from  Gwenvrewi  ?  Leland  is  mistaken  in  the 
derivation  from  brefu,    Vid.  Byfrig  and  Dfnjoi. 

Bricgnau  Mere,  in  Marianus,  means  the  pool  or  mere  by 
Brecknock  called  Uyn  Safathan,  and  Castell  Dinas  by  that  lake. 

Briganted,  in  Armorica,  thieves  (qu.  wh.  k  BrigarUes).  [Sic 
in  Glamorgan. — /.  if.] 

Bristol,  a  city  on  the  river  Avon,  part  in  Somersetshire  and 
part  in  Gloucestershire.  It  had  once  the  name  of  Caerodomant, 
and  perhaps  Bath  was  called  Caerodor  Uchaf.  Odor  then  seems  to 
have  been  the  name  of  the  river  Avon ;  and  I  should  be  apt  to 
think  that  a  smaller  river  runs  into  the  Odor  at  Bristol,  of  such 
a  name  as  Ysto,  from  whence  Aberysto,  and  thence  Bristow. 
[No  river  Ysto  there. — L  M,]     Vid.  Brittou. 

Britain,  the  English  name  of  the  island  containing  England, 
Wales,  and  Scotland.     Vid.  Prydain. 

Britannia,  the  Latin  name  of  Britain.    Vid.  BrtU  Ynys. 

Britenhuis,  or  THuiste  Briten,  the  ruins  of  a  tower  in  the  sea, 
to  be  seen  at  low  water,  near  Cattwiick  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Ehine.  Thus  called  by  the  Hollanders  that  dwell  near  it.  Sue- 
tonius says  that  Caligula  built  a  tower  in   that  place ;  and 


40  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Hadrian  Junius,  Camden,  and  Vitus,  say  that  this  is  the  ruins 
of  the  same  tower ;  but  Ortelius,  Groetzius,  and  Cluverius,  deny 
it.    (Selden,  Mar.  Clans,,  p.  203.) 
'  Brithdir,  in  GOsfield,  a  gentleman's  seat. 

Brithdib,  in  Llangollen  parish. 

Brithon.  Co^jBri^A^m, Bristol  {U8her)yOT  perhaps  Dunbritton. 

Brithwch.  Caer  Brithwch  {Ystori  KUhwch  ap  Kilydd),  per- 
haps Caer  Brython. 

Brittou.  Caer  Brittou  (Nen7iiu8) :  qu.  whether  the  Caer 
Brithon  of  Usher's,  which  he  interprets  Bristol  ?  As  Bristol  lies 
on  a  very  commodious  spot  for  trade,  it  must  be  supposed  there 
was  a  town  built  there  in  the  infancy  of  the  British  government ; 
and  though  I  have  no  authority  for  it  from  either  Boman  or 
British  writers  (neither  Anton's  Itinerary  nor  the  Triades  men- 
tioning it),  yet  I  cannot  help  thinking  that  this  town  had  a 
British  name  formerly,  whence  the  name  Bi-istow  or  Bristaw 
was  formed.  It  is  now  pronounced  by  the  Welsh  Brustaw  or 
Brusto;  as  the  British  name  of  the  river  is  now  lost,  and  nothing 
remains  but  Avon,  which  is  the  common  British  name  for  all 
rivers ;  and  who  can  doubt  that  Bristow  was  by  the  Britains 
called  Aberysto,  or  some  such  name,  as  Aberystwyth  is  called 
from  the  river  Ystwy th.     Vide  Bristol 

[Briw  (n,  1.).  Cefn  y  Briw;  Uyn  y  Briw;  Ehyd  y  Briw.  Vid. 
Caer.—  W.  J9.] 

Bro,  country,  region ;  different  from  Gwlad. 

A*ch  gw^  oil  wlad  Fro  Ghidell. — Rhys  Nanmor. 
Henw  'ngwlad  yw  Bro  Gadell. — D.  ap  Qwihjm, 
Swyddan  yngwlad  Bro  Gadell. — D.  ff.  H, 

Bro  Alun,  where  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth  fought  with  the  Nor- 
mans, about  the  river  Alun. 

Un  am  Fro  Alun  elfydd  Cann  a  Ffrainc. 

Frydydd  y  Moch;  i  LI.  ap  lorwerth. 

Brochuael  Hir  (Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cynddylan). 

Brochwel,  Bbychwel,  or  Brychfael  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Brochwel,  sumamed  Ysgythrog  (from  a  place  of  that  name  in 
Brecknockshire),  ap  Cyngan  ap  Cadell  Deyrnlluc,  Prince  of 
Powys  and  Earl  of  Chester,  was  one  of  the  generals  of  the  Britains 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  47 

in  the  great  battle  fought  a.d.  617  between  the  Britains  and 
Ethelfrid  and  his  Saxons  near  the  City  of  Legions  (West  Chester). 
Brochwel  was  stationed  with  a  party  of  men  to  cover  the  monks 
of  Bangor  is  y  Coed,  who  were  there  in  great  numbers  praying 
for  the  battle ;  but  Ethelfrid  prevailed,  and  destroyed  some  hun- 
dreds of  the  monks.  Several  of  them  fled  to  Ynys  Enlli  (Isle  of 
Bardsey);  but  the  college  or  university  was  not  touched,  for 
Ethelfrid  was  defeated  at  Bangor.  See  Gwaith  Ferllan  Fan- 
gar;  and  also  see  Nennius.  Camden,  in  his  Remains,  p.  108, 
writes  this  name  BrochvaU  Schiirauc,  and  explains  it  "gagg- 
toothed",  but  without  reason  or  skill  in  the  language ;  and  Price 
(Descript.)  calls  him  Brochwel  Ysgithrog,  that  is,  "  long-toothed". 
He  had  three  sons,  viz.,  Mawn,  Tyssilio  Sant  at  Meivod,  and 
Cynan  the  Prince.    {Biichedd  Be^cno.) 

Brig  gw;^dd  Syr  Gruffydd  a'i  sel 
Breichiaa  Gwenwys  a  Brochwel. — Sion  Geri. 

Ni  bo  dyn  y'  myw  y  M6n 

0*r  Brychfaeliaid  Brychfoelion. 

Englynion  Saith  Mob  Cadifor,  a.d.  11?0  \M.  A.  i,  418]. 
Brodir. 

M6r  yw,  tu  hwnt  y  maeV  tir, 

Meredydd  tros  fy  mrodir. — J.  Bafydd  Ddu. 
Vid.  Owlad, 

Bbodorddyn,  Brodorddin,  or  Brordorddun  (q.  d.  Bro  Dorddy  n, 

tarn  quaere).  Syr  EogerVychan,  arglwydd  Brodorddyn  a'r  Cwm. 

Mawr  o  dwrdd  ym  Mrodorddun 
Mawr  poen  cant  marw  pen  can. 

letmn  wp  Hywel  Swrdwdl,  i  W.  Vychan  o  Hergest. 

Ni  bu  drwoh  wyneb  y  drin 

Heb  wrid  nrddas  Brodorddin. 

leucM  ap  Stbw  Oae  Llwyd, 
Brodoryn,  qu,  Brodorddyn  ? 

Cyfrwng  Brodoryn  brad  o  Wynedd. 

Hoiancm  Myrddin. 
Bro  Dtwi.    (Z.  0.  Cothl) 

Bro  Gapell,  Dafydd  ap  Gwilym's  country. 

Brogior  wrth  Wenni,  a  village  in  Glamorgansliire.    Fairs  are 

kept  here.     [Aberogiar  (never  called  otherwise)  has  an  ancient 


48  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

castle,  and  is  a  seaport  in  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster,  like  other 
places  in  Glamorgan. — I,  Jf.] 

Broginin  or  Brogynin,  a  valley  and  some  houses  above  Gog- 
erthan  in  Cardiganshire,  where  the  common  report  is  that  Davydd 
ap  Gwilym,  the  poet,  was  bom ;  but  quaere. 

Bro  Gwent. 

Brogeintun  and  Broguntun,  the  name  of  a  place.  Ywain 
Brogeintyn  was  a  base  son  of  Madog  ap  Meredydd  ap  Bleddyn. 

Bron,  a  breast;  also  fem.  of  ftryw,  a  hill  (from  6re,  6ry,  ot  fry, 
above).  Brongarth ;  Bronheilin  ;  Y  Fronwen ;  Y  Fronfraith ; 
Bron  y  Mwyn ;  Bron  Danwg ;  Bron  Feirig ;  Broniarth ;  Bron 
Heulog ;  Brongwyn,  a  parish  in  Cardiganshire.  Bron  Gain,  a 
gentleman's  seat.    {J,  D.) 

Bron  yr  Erw,  a  place  in  Arfon,  North  Wales,  where  a  battle 
was  fought  by  Gruffydd  ap  Cynan  and  Trahaearn  ap  Caradoc, 
the  reigning  Prince  of  North  Wales ;  but  Gruffydd  was  defeated, 
and  fled  into  Anglesey,  a.d.  1073.     {Caradoc  in  Trahaearn.) 

Bromfield,  part  of  Powys  Vadog. 

Bron  y  Voel. 

Brothen  (St.).    Uanfrothen,  Meirion. 

Brotre,  a  town,  a  village,  or  place  belonging  to  Cynddylan 
Powys ;  perhaps  an  appellative  to  Pengwern, 

Owae  ieaaingc  a  eiddaant  Brotre. — Llowarch  Hen. 

Vid.  Brodir  and  Bro. 

Bro  Wyr.    {Lewis  Glynn  Cothi.) 

Brulhai  (n.  1.).    {L.  G,  Cothi.) 

Brun  Alb  an,  the  same  with  Braid  Alban  in  Scotland  (Fla- 
herty, Ogygia,  p.  323) ;  called  also  Brunhere,  perhaps  Bryn  Hir, 
i.  e.,  Long  Hill.     Vid.  Drum  Alban. 

Brut  or  Brutus,  son  of  Silius  (Julius),  not  Silvius,  founder  of 
the  British  empire,  who  is  said  by  our  ancient  traditions  and  his- 
torians to  have  been  the  first  King  of  Britain  of  the  Trojan  race, 
who  conquered  this  island,  or  settled  a  colony  of  Trojans  in  it, 
about  1200  years  after  the  Flood,  and  1100  before  the  birth  of 
Christ,  and  to  have  given  it  the  name  of  Tnys  BnU,  and  by 
foreigners,  called  Britannia,  q.  d.  Brut  Ynys.  But  the  British 
Triades  say  that  the  island  of  Britain  had  its  name  from  Prydain 
ap  Aedd  Mawr,  who  conquered  it.     Both  might  give  it  their 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  49 

names  at  different  times.  Camden  says  that  the  greatest  part 
of  learned  authors,  as  Boccetins,  Vives,  Hadrianus  Junius,  Poly- 
dore,  Buchanan,  Vignier,  Grenebrardus,  Molinseus,  Bodinus,  and 
other  persons  of  great  judgment,  do  unanimously  affirm  that 
there  never  was  such  a  person  as  Brutus ;  and  that  many  of  our 
learned  countiymen  reject  him  as  a  mere  impostor,  as  John  of 
Wheathampsted,  abbot  of  St.  Alban's,  a  man  of  excellent  judg- 
ment; and  William  of  Newborough,  a  much  more  ancient 
writer,  who  fixed  the  charge  of  forgery  upon  Geofirey,  the  com- 
piler of  the  British  History,  as  soon  as  ever  he  had  published 
it ;  and  that  Giraldus  Cambrensis,  who  wrote  in  the  same  age, 
calls  it  the  fabulous  history  of  Geoffrey ;  that  the  author  who 
takes  upon  him  the  name  and  title  of  Gildas,  and  briefly  glosseth 
upon  Nennius,  in  the  first  place  imagineth  this  our  Brutus  to 
have  been  a  Soman  consul ;  secondly,  a  son  of  one  Silvius ;  at 
last,  of  one  Hessicion.  Here  are  all  Mr.  Camden's  learned  men's 
objections  against  Brutus. 

Gorpo  teymfawr  tywysogaeth  Brut 
Ar  Brydain  diriogaeth. 

Cynddelw,  i  Twain  Cyfeiliog. 

Vid.  Prydain,  Britannia,  Brut  y  Brenhinoedd, 
Brutan  and  Brytaen,  the  isle  of  Britain. 

O  Frutan  Fawr  ei  attun. — L.  Morganwg, 
Brytaen  fal  og&en  i  lawr. — lar.  Fynglwyd. 

Brutaniaid,  Britains.    Not  of  the  same  origin  with  Brython. 

Brutus  Darianlas,  or  Brutus  with  the  blue  shield,  the  sixth 
King  of  Britain. 

Brutwn,  a  Britain. 

Brut  y  Brenionoedd,  the  title  of  the  British  history  which 
goes  by  the  name  of  Tyssilio,  a  bishop,  son  of  Brochwel  Ysgithrog, 
Prince  of  Powys,  who  was  either  the  author  or  continuer  of 
it  from  the  Koman  conquest  to  his  own  time,  which  was  about 
the  year  660,  and  was  continued  by  another  hand  to  the  end  of 
the  reign  of  Cadwaladr.  It  was  translated  out  of  British  into 
Latin  by  Galfridus,  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph,  who,  by  adding  some 
things  of  his  own,  to  please  the  taste  of  the  age,  hath  hurt  the 
credit  of  the  history  among  the  modern  critics.     But  as  the 

7 


50  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

translation  of  any  author  should  not,  among  people  of  common 
sense,  be  the  standard  to  commend  it  or  condiemn  it,  such  critics 
would  do  well,  before  they  too  hastily  condemn  the  authority  of 
the  British  history,  to  learn  to  read  it  in  the  original  The  trans- 
lator, Galfrid,  hath  not  done  the  author  justice,  as  abundance  of 
British  copies  all  over  Wales  and  England  will  make  appear. 
Vid.  Galfridus  and  Tyssilio, 

Brwyn  (n.  pr.  v.).  Brwyn,  father  of  Madog,  one  of  the  "  tair 
aurgelein'\    Brwyn  mab  Cynadaf.     (Tr.  y  Meirch,  No.  7.) 

Bkwyneu  Hen  ap  CorthL 

Brwynllys,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Canol  in 
Brecknockshire  (Price's  Description) ;  called  also  Eglwys  Yail. 
Hence  Bedo  Brwynllys,  a  smooth  poet  of  the  15th  century. 

Bkwynog  (n.  1.),  in  Anglesey,  signifying  a  place  of  rushes : 
hence  Sion  Brwynog,  a  poet. 

Brych.    Heilyn  Frych. 

Brychan  Brycheiniog,  son  of  Anllech  Corunawc,  Xing  of  Ire- 
land, according  to  the  Triades;  but  in  Ach  Cynog  it  is  read  by 
Mr.  Edward  Ilwyd,  "  Cynog  sant  ap  Brychan  ap  Cormur  ab 
Eurbe  Wyddel."  Cormur  is  a  corruption  of  Corunawc.  He 
settled  in  that  part  of  Wales  which  after  him  is  called  Brych- 
einiauc  or  Brecheiniog,  in  English  Brecknockshire.  He  made 
himself  master  of  this  country  either  by  marriage  or  conquest 
(when  all  the  kingdom  went  to  wreck  and  ruin)  in  the  very 
beginning  of  the  5th  century,  and  was  cotemporary  with  Uthur 
Bendragon.  His  daughter  Nefjoi  was  wife  of  Cynfarch  Hen, 
and  mother  of  Urien  and  Ilew  ap  C3mfarch.  He  is  by  the  poets 
called  Brychan  Yrlh. 

Brychan  Yrth  breichian  nerthawg. — B,  ap  OwUym. 

He  had  30  sons  and  30  daughters  (Camden  says  but  24 daughters), 
all  saints  (Camden  in  Brecknockshire),  most  of  whom  were 
sainted.    His  sons  are :  Cynog  Sant,  Drem  Dremrudd,  Alychini, 

Clydawc  Sant, Uan,  Pan,  Kynodi,  Euvan  yn  Manaw, 

Marcharuchun  yn  Nghyfeiliog,  Dingad  yn  Ilanymddyfri,  Berwin 
yn  Nghemiw,  Eeidoc  yn  Ffrainc,  yn  Cwmbreidoc,  &c.     His 
daughters:  Arianwen,  Ceindrych,  Clotvaith,  Cenedlon,  Clydai 
Ceinwen,  lleian,  Meichell,  Nevyn,  Nefydd,  Gwawr,  Gwi^n, 
Goleuddydd  yn  Llanhasgin,  Gwanddydd  or  Gwawrddydd   yn 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  51 

Nhowyn  Meirionydd,  Dwynwen  yn  Llanddwyn  ym  Mon,  &c. 
Yid.  Anllech  Gomnawe,Cormur;  and  Giraldus  CambrensiSj/rtn., 
L  i,  c.  2. 

Brychan  {Bracanus,  Flaherty,  Offygia,^,  372),  about  the  year 
357,  is  said  to  be  son  of  Coelbad  and  one  Cathan,  who  was  son 
of  Muedan  (vid.  Llangathan) ;  and  about  A.D.  327  another  Brecan 
and  Comech,  Boman  saints. 

Brych  Cadarn  (Y),a  elwid  Einion  ap  Meredydd  Hen  ap  Uew- 
elyn.     (Llyifir  Achau,  fol.  117.) 

Brychgoch.  Angharad  verch  Dafydd  Frychgoch  ;  in  another 
MS.  verch  Dafydd  Fyrgoch. 

Brycheiniog,  Brecknockshire ;  called  in  Price's  Description 
Brecheinoc.    Vid.  Brychan, 

Brychtyr,  son  of  Howel  ap  leuaf. 

Brymbo  or  Brynbo,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Most)m's.    («/.  D.) 

Bryn,  in  the  composition  of  places,  as  Bryn  Hafod  (i.  O.  Cothi) ; 
Bryn  Gwyn,  a  gentleman's  seat  («/".  D) ;  y  Bryn  Glas ;  y  Bryn 
Du  ;  Bryn  Llwyd ;  Bryn  Euryn ;  Bryn  y  Vuches ;  Bryn  y  Bar ; 
Bryn  Bras ;  Biyn  Dreiniog ;  y  Bryn  Mawr ;  Bryn  y  Moelddu ;  y 
Bryn  Moel;  Bryn  Brenin  (n.  1.);  Bryn  Buga,  one  of  the  com- 
mots  of  Cantref  Iscoed  in  Gwent ;  also  a  town  and  castle,  by 
Latin  writers  called  corruptly  Buren  Begi,  now  XJsk,  on  the  river 
Wysc,  about  the  midway  between  Caerllion  and  Abeigavenni ; 
Bryn  Caredig(n.l.);  Bryn  Caw;  Bryn  Cain  Caw (GV. aft  Jfr.);  Bryn 
Ceneu'nBhos(vid.Be/y?i);  Bryn Cunallt, a  gentleman's  seat, Trevor 
(J.D.);  Bryn  Cur,vulgoBrynkir,aplace  in  Caernarvonshire;  Bryn- 
kir  of  Brynkir,  a  family ;  Brynddin,  Lat.  Brannodunum ;  but  I 
should  rather  take  Brannodunum  to  be  Branddin,  or  Dinbran,  or 
Dinas  Bran ;  Bryndewyn,  Dafydd  ap  Gronwy  ap  Bryndewyn ; 
Bryn  Eglwys,  a  church  and  parish  in  I&l,  Denbighshire ;  Bryn 
Ffanogl  near  Menai,  Anglesey ;  Bryn  Ffenigl,  a  gentleman's  seat 
in  Denbighshire  (J.D.).  Ednyfed  Vychan,  baron  of  Bryn  Ffenigl. 
Bryn  lorcyn,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire  {J,  D,) ;  Brjm 
Lluarth,  a  gentleman's  seat  {J.D.),  Iloyd ;  Brynllys  (n.  L) ;  Bryn- 
llysg^  the  name  of  a  tumulus  or  barrow  about  half  a  mile  from 
Bala.  The  name  seems  to  me  to  imply  the  original  use  of  it, — 
the  burning  mount,  where  they  burnt  the  bodies  of  their  dead, 
and  consequently  a  place  of  urn  burial,  though  Mr.  Edward  Llwyd 


52  CELTIC  BEMAINS. 

{Notes  on  Camden)  thought  it  was  one  of  the  Bomaii  watch-mounts. 
There  is  another  of  them  at  the  outlet  of  liyn  Tegid :  vid  Towr- 
men  y  Bala,  Bryn  Tangor,  a  gentleman's  seat  {J,  2>.).  Bryn  y  Bala, 
near  Aberystwyth  in  Cardiganshire,  signifies  the  outlet  of  a  lake 
(Th.  Williams).  Bryn  y  Beili,  a  tumulus  near  Wyddgruc ;  Bryn 
y  Pin,  a  camp  and  entrenchment  of  Owen  Gwynedd,  A.D.  1157. 

Brynach  (n.  pr.  v.).  Brynach  Wyddel  o'r  Gogledd  (Jr.  30) ; 
i.  e.,  Brynach,  the  Scot,  from  the  North. 

Brtnaich  and  BunnYCEyBemicii,  the  people  of  Bemicia,  north 
of  Britain,  to  the  north  of  the  Tweed  (TV.  16).  Dei/r  a  Brynaich, 
Deira  and  Bemicia. 

Pan  dyffont  g^wyr  Brynaich  ir  gwarth  laydd. 

jBbumau  Myrddin, 
Rhag  gelyn  Brynaich  branhes  dychre. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Gr.  ap  Gyuan  ap  O.  Gwynedd. 

Brynaich  (from  brynniau,  hills),  Hill-men.  Dei/r  (from  dwfr, 
water),  men  of  the  watery  country. 

Bryt,  a  contraction  of  Brutus.  Ynys  Bryt,  one  of  the  three 
ancient  names  of  Britain  in  some  copies  of  the  Triades. 

Bbython,  Britons  or  Britains,  q.  d.  Brithion,  painted  men.  So 
the  Armoricans  bslj Breton ;  li.Breathruich,  Mjrddin  Wyllt, who 
was  himself  a  Pictish  Briton,  gives  this  derivation  of  it  firom  hrOh: 

Brython  dros  Saeson, 

Brithwyr  ai  medh.^-Hauinai«  Myrddin, 

Perhaps  the  northern  Britains  were  at  first  only  called  Brython, 

from  the  colony  of  Picts  among  them,  and  the  southern  called 

Brutaniaid, 

Fy  nhafawd  yn  frawd  ar  Frython, 

O  Fdr  Udd  hyd  F6r  Iwerddon. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Bodii  ap  O,  Gwynedd. 

Brythoneg,  lingua  Britannica. 
Brythwn  or  Bbytwn,  a  Britain. 

Gorea  Brytwn  hwn  a  henwir. — W,  Lhyn. 

Brythyn  or  Brithyn,  a  Britain ;  q.  d.  brUh-ddyn  (JR  Lhwyd)  ; 

Ir.  Breathnach,   The  plural  is  Brithon  or  Brython,  Vid.  Brython, 

Bbyttaen. 

£i  henw  ymlaen  Fryttaen  fry, 

Un  o'th  hynaif  wnaeth  hyQny. — H.  SuordwaU 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  53 

Brttbus.  Ednywain  ap  Bleddjm  ap  Brytrus.  In  another 
place  Brutus. 

BuARTH  Arthur,  or  Meini  Gw^r,  on  the  mountain  near  Kil  y 
Maen  Llwyd;  a  circular  monument  of  stones,  such  as  those 
ascribed  to  the  Danes.     {E.  Llwyd) 

BuARTH  Gadvan  (n.  L).    Vid.  Oadvan. 

Buccus,  in  the  Salique  Law,  is  a  Celtic  word  (bwch)  signify- 
ing a  he-goat  and  a  buck,  which  hath  puzzled  our  glossaries. 

BuDDAi  or  BUDDEI.     Cacr  Fuddai  (Triades),    Vid.  Fuddei. 

BuDDUGRE  (n.  1.).  Bach  Buddugre.  Ilys  Buddugre.  (Prydydd 
y  Mochf  i  Gr.  ap  C.  ap  0.  Gwynedd.) 

BuELLT  or  BuALLT  {k  hi  and  dUt),  Ooceliff  {E.  Llwyd),  a  town 
and  castle  in  Brecknockshire,  on  the  river  Gwy.  This  is  the 
Bvilasum  SUurwm  of  Ptolomy,  says  Mr.  Camden ;  and  he  says 
the  neighbouring  rocky  country  is  from  this  town  called  Buallt, 
where  Yortigem  retired  from  the  incursions  of  the  Saxons. 
But  he  retired  to  Gwrtheymion,  which  is  not  in  Buallt.  Near 
tins  place  likewJBe  Llewelyn  ap  Grufifydd  was  betrayed  by  Madog 
Min,  and  kiUed  a.d.  1282,  in  the  reign  of  Edward  I.  Here  Pas- 
centius,  son  of  Yortigem,  by  permission  of  Aurelius  Ambrosius, 
governed,  as  Nennius  says ;  and  in  his  chapter  of  wonders  he 
has  an  odd  story  about  the  print  of  the  feet  of  King  Arthur's 
hound  in  the  stones  to  be  found  here. 

Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  questions  whether  Bullmum  was  not  at  a 
place  called  Caerau^  hard  by  BueUt,  if  at  all  in  this  country ; 
and  there  is  a  place  called  Castellan  hard  by,  and  Buellt  was  the 
name  of  a  small  country  here,  from  whence  the  ancient  Bullaeum 
might  be  denominated.     {E,  Llwyd) 

Rhys  ap  Grufiyth  demolished  the  old  castle  of  Buellt,  and  the 
Breoses  and  Mortimers  built  there  a  castle  since.  {Camden)  Gil- 
bert Earl  of  Gloucester  fortified  this  castle  a.d.  1210.   {Caradoc) 

It  contains  Swydd  y  Fam,  Y  Drevlys,  and  Isyrwon.  (Price's 
Descr)    Yid.  Caer  FJUi. 

BuGU,  the  nsmie  of  Beuno's  father.  Yid.  Byvyi  and  BiTid. 
{Bewru>'8  Life) 

BuiLKE,  one  of  the  sons  of  Glam  Hector^  who  took  the  Isle  of 
Man  from  Tibion,  son  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  and  killed  him  there. 
(Nennius  apud  Price.)    Yid.  Glam  Hector, 


54  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Bun  (n.  pr.  f.).  Bun,*  the  daughter  of  Culfynawyd  Prydain, 
wife  of  Fflamddwyn,  notorious  for  her  lasciviousness.  (TV.  56.) 
Vid.  Fflamddwyn  in  Nennius  and  in  the  Grododin.) 

BuRGEDiNG,  ymhlwy  Cegidfa.     ( Yat  March.) 

BuRGWYN,  or  Byrgwyn,  or  Byrgwin,  Burgundy  in  France. 
ByrgwynioTiy  Burgundians. 

Ar  win  Byrgwin  bob  ergyd. — Hywel  Da/ydd. 

Burn  (fl.) :  viA  Y  Fumwy. 

BwA,  a  bow  to  shoot  with,  or  a  bending.  Several  places  take 
their  names  from  this  word,  as  T  Bwa  Drain,  Cwm  Bwa,  PentreV 
BwAau.    [Rhos  Bryn  Bwa.—  W.  2>.] 

BwcH,  a  buck.  Places  named  from  it ;  as  Hafod  y  Bwch,  a 
gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire,  Boberts ;  Dinbych,  i.  e,,  Dinas 
y  Bychod ;  Castell  Bwch  in  Henllys,  Monmouthshire ;  Bychryd. 

BwLAN  (n.  L),  k  bw  and  llan. 

BwLGH,  literally  a  gap,  passage,  or  strait.  This  word  is  pre- 
fixed to  several  names  of  places  in  Wales  that  are  passes  through 
mountains.  Bulgium  in  Antoninus'  Itinerary  {Blatum  BtUgium) 
is,  I  doubt  not,  one  of  these  bwlchs  or  passages  in  the  Great  Wall. 
Bwlch  y  Groes;  Bwlch  Tresame;  Bwlch  Meibion  Dafydd; 
Bwlch  Caneinog ;  Bwlch  y  Rhiwfelen ;  Bwlch  Ffrainc ;  Bwlch 
y  Caleb ;  Bwlch  Coed  y  Mynydd ;  Bwlch  Rosser ;  Bwlch  yr 
Adwy  Wynt ;  Y  Bwlch  Glas ;  Bwlch  Carreg  y  Fran ;  Bwlch  yr 
Esgair  Hir ;  Bwlch  Ilorien  (Llyivarch  Hen),  qu.  whether  Iloren, 
Montgomeryshire  [Denbighshire,  W,  2>.] ;  Bwlch  y  Ddinas,  a 
castle  in  South  Wales ;  Bwlch  y  Saeth  Lydan,  a  place  on  Wyddfa 
Mountain.     [Bwlch  y  Cibau ;  Bwlch  y  Ddar. —  W.  D.] 

BwLEN,  Bulloign  in  France. 

Y  mae  wylaw  ym  Mwlen 
Yn  ol  ei  wyr  a'i  law  wen. 

Dafydd  Ejppynt^  i  Wm.  Herbert. 

BwRDD  Arthur  :  vid.  Owal  y  Viliast, 

BwYDEG  ap  Khun  Rhuddbaladr. 

Bychan,  little  or  small ;  a  surname  of  men.  Cantref  Bychan, 
one  of  the  four  cantrefSs  of  Carmarthenshire,  signifying  the  Little 
Cantref,  there  being  another  called  Cantref  Mawr,  the  Great 
Cantref.  And  who  is  so  blind  as  not  to  see  that  the  division  of 
the  shire  of  Aberdeen,  in  Scotland,  into  Buchen,  Mar,  and  Strath- 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  55 

bogy,  is  the  ancient  British  division  of  Bychan,  Mawr,  and  Ystrad 
Bogwy  ? 

Byddar.  Llan  y  Byddar,  Caermarthenshire.  Fairs  kept  here. 
Vid.   Byddavr, 

Btddaib.   llan  y  Byddair,  a  church  in  Carmarthenshire,  near 

the  Teifi. 

Bwyd  a  gwin  i'r  byd  a  gair 

Heb  weddn'n  Llan  y  Byddair. — QuUoW  Olyn, 

Byddig  (n.  pr.  f.).     Lat.  Boadicea.     {K  Lhoyd) 

Bydno,  a  river  which  runs  fi*oin  the  North  to  Uangurig :  hence 
Aberbydno. 

Bybddin,  a  river  which  falls  into  Wysc  at  Bryn  Buga,  the  Bur- 
rium  of  Antoninus ;  named,  no  doubt,  from  that  river.  In  Mor- 
den's  map  Brithin,     Vid.  Bryn  Btiga  [s.  v.  Bryn], 

Bysaleg  :  vid.  Basmlech 

Bywyn  ap  Gorddwfyn  or  lorddwfn. 

C. 

Cadafael  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  hostage.  Cadavael  mab  Cjoifedw  yng- 
wynedd  (Tr.76),one  who  advanced  himself  from  a  native  tenant 
or  slave,  to  a  king  in  Gwynedd.    (Tr) 

Cadafael  Ynfyd  (n.  pr.  v.).  [Cadafael  is  still  a  name  of  oppro- 
brium ;  but  why  I  know  not.  It  cannot  be  from  the  Lat.  coda- 
ver.—  W.B.] 

Cadaib.    Tudur  ap  Gronw  ap  Howel  y  Gadair. 

Cadair  Arthur,  on  the  southern  hills  in  Brecknockshire,  men- 
tioned by  Giraldus  Cambrensis  in  his  Itinerary,  From  the 
puissant  King  Arthur.  [Also  a  clifT  near  Edinburgh :  vide  His- 
tory of  the  Rebellion  in  1745. —  W,  jD.] 

Cadarn,  strong.  Ynys  Gadam,  an  island  near  Anglesey.  It 
is  likewise  the  surname  of  several  persons,  as  Efroc  Gadam,  Der- 
fel  Gadam,  Hawys  Gadarn,  etc.,  etc. 

Cadawc,  Cadoc,  or  Cadog  (n.  pr.  v.) :  hence  Ilangadog,  Car- 
marthenshire ;  Hendre  Gadog,  Anglesey. 

Cadawc,  mab  Gwynlliw  Filwr,  un  o'r  tri  chyfion  farchog. 
(TV.  84.)     Vid.  Cattwg  Sant. 

Cadog  ap  Gwlyddien. 

Cad  Coed  Llwyfain  :  vid.  Llwyfain. 


56  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Cadean  (n.  pr.  v.),  father  of  Stradweul. 

Cadeir,  a  poet,  father  of  Elmur.  (TV.  13.) 

Cadell  (n.  pr.  v.).  Cadellns  {Dr,  Davies).  Bra  Oadell,  Dafydd 
ap  Gwilym's  country. 

Henw  'ngwlad  yw  Bro  Gadell. — D.  ap  Owihfm. 

Cadell,  one  of  the  sons  of  Bodri,  among  whom  he  foolishly 
divided  the  government  of  Wales,  a.d.  877. 

Cadell  Deyrnllyg,  a  poor  man  in  I&l,  who  entertained  St. 
Grannon  ((rermanus)  when  Benlli  Gawr,  the  Prince,  refused  to 
let  him  enter  his  city  to  preach  against  the  Pelagian  heresy  about 
the  year  450.    Vid.  Benlli  Gawr. 

St.  Grarmon  went  to  this  poor  man's  cottage  with  all  his  fol- 
lowers, who  had  nothing  to  entertain  them  but  one  calf  which 
followed  Ids  cow.  This  calf  he  killed  and  dressed,  and  they  eat 
it  up ;  but  Garmon  ordered  that  not  one  bone  of  it  should  be 
broke  or  lost ;  and  next  morning  the  calf  was  by  a  miracle  re- 
turned alive  to  the  cow  again.  So  Cadell  and  all  the  region 
came  to  be  baptized  by  St.  Garmon,  and  to  receive  his  doctrine ; 
and  as  a  recompense  for  the  calf,  St.  Garmon  gave  Cadell  his 
blessing ;  and  that  day  made  him  King  of  Powys,  and  promised 
that  of  his  progeny  there  should  be  a  prince  {du£)  there  for  ever; 
and  Kennius  says  the  kings  of  Powys  in  his  days  were  of  his 
seed.  {NenmuBy  c.  xxx-xxxiv.)  I  think  this  was  no  extraordi- 
nary compliment  to  the  kings  of  Powys ;  but  Nennius  delivered 
it  as  he  found  it  in  some  author  of  the  life  of  St.  Germanus, 
perhaps  Constantine. 

Cadell  ap  Geraint,  the  44th  King  of  Britain.  This  is  he 
whom  the  Triades  call  Gaydyal  ab  Eryn,  in  whose  time  an  army 
of  65,000  were  hired  here  to  assist  the  Gauls  and  Germans 
against  the  Romans.    This  was  about  the  time  of 

Cadelling,  the  country  of  Cadell. — Cynddelw. 

Cader  and  Mynydd  Cader  signify  a  fortified  mountain.  Cader 
Idris;  Cader  Dinmael;  Cader  Ferwyn ;  Cader  yr  Ychen;  Cader 
Arthur ;  Cader  Sidi ;  y  Gader  Ynghomwy.  In  the  Irish,  eathair 
is  a  fort  (from  eau,  to  enclose ;  and  hence  cadam,  strong). 

Cader  Arthur,  a  fort  on  a  mountain  near  Edinborough, 
Arthur's  northern  palace  being  kept  at  Edinborough.  (Jo.  Major, 
HUt.  Scot,  L  ii,  c.  6.     So  say  the  Triades  also.) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  57 

Cader  Benllyn,  Gader  Ddinmael,  etc.,  were  ancient  British 
forte. 

Cadeb  Facsen,  on  Frenni  Vawr  mountain,  Pembrokeshire. 

Gader  Idris,  near  Dolgelleu. 

Gader  Vyrddin,  i,  e.,  Myrddin's  Fort  or  Gastle.  Hence  a  cock 
which  has  a  double  comb  is  called  ceUiog  cader  Fyrddin,  from 
the  comb's  resemblance  to  a  castle. 

Nennius  says  that  Gwrtheym  gave  Myrddin  Emrys  a  castle 
and  all  the  provinces  of  the  west  of  Britain.  "  Time  rex  dedit  iUi 
arcem  cum  omnibus  provinciis  plagse  Occidentalis  Britanniae": 
i.  e.,  he  made  him  chief  bard  in  those  countries. 

Gadfach  :  qu.  an  id.  Cadfarch  ? 

Gadfael  ap  Gadell. 

Gadvael  :  see  Dincadvael,  an  ancient  strong  fort. 

Gadvan  (n.  pr.  v.),  Latinized  Catamamis.  Gadvan,  the  106tli 
King  of  Britain,  father  of  Gadwallon,  who  was  father  of  Gad- 
waladr,  the  last  King  of  the  Britains.  This  Gadvan  was  Prince 
of  North  Wales,  and  lived  in  Anglesey,  when  the  famous  battle 
was  fought  at  Bangor  is  y  Goed  between  the  Saxons  and  Britains, 
after  the  massacre  of  the  monks  of  Bangor  at  Gaerlleon  (West 
Chester)  by  Ethelfrid,  King  of  Northumbria.  This  battle  is 
called,  in  the  Triades,  Gwaith  Perllan  Fangor.  On  the  side  of 
the  Britains  there  were  Bledrws,  Prince  of  Gornwall  and  Devon, 
their  chief  leader ;  Brychwel,  Prince  of  Powys ;  Gadvan,  King  of 
North  Wales ;  and  Meredydd,  King  of  Dyfet.  On  the  Saxons' 
side  were  Ethelfrid,  King  of  Northumbria ;  and  Ethelbert,  King 
of  Kent ;  with  all  the  other  petty  princes  of  the  Saxons.  This 
being  a  religious  war  made  them  all  mad ;  for  the  Britains  refus- 
ing to  agree  with  the  tenets  of  the  Ghurch  of  Borne,  brought 
over  with  Austin,  were  cursed  by  him ;  and  the  enthusiastic 
Saxon  kings  thought  it  was  a  meritorious  act  to  destroy  such 
obstinate  heretics.  But  the  issue  of  this  battle  was  that  the 
Saxons  EtheMrid  and  Ethelbert  were  overthrown  with  a  great 
loss,  as  Tyssilio  (who  was  son  of  Brychwel,  one  of  the  generals) 
says,  of  about  ten  thousand  men.  (Tyssilio;  Caradoc*8  Chronicle; 
Triades,)  Gadvan,  upon  this  defeat  of  the  Saxons,  for  his  be- 
haviour in  this  battle,  was  by  general  consent,  at  West  Ghester, 
created  King  of  the  Britains  ;  Bledrws,  their  chief,  being  killed 

8 


58  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

in  the  field.  From  hence  the  Britains  followed  their  conquest, 
and  drove  Ethelfrid  over  the  Humber ;  and,  coming  to  an  agree- 
ment to  let  the  Humber  be  the  boundary,  peace  was  made,  and 
great  friendship  ensued.  Ethelfrid's  queen  being  iU  used  by 
him,  she,  big  with  child,  ran  for  shelter  to  Cadvan's  court  in 
Anglesey^  and  there  her  son  Edwin  was  bom  and  brought  up, 
who  was  afterwards  King  of  the  Korthiunbrians  and  of  the 
Britains  for  some  time.  Vid.  Edvrm.  The  Saxon  Anncds  place 
this  battle  in  A.D.  607;  the  Ulster  Annals  in  613;  Dr.  Powel, 
from  Castor,  in  617.  Cadvan  was  buried  at  the  church  of  Eg- 
Iwysael  in  Anglesey,  now  called  Uangadwaladr,  and  his  grave- 
stone is  there  with  an  inscription. 

Ilangadvan  in  the  deanery  of  Pool ;  Buarth  Gadvan ;  Dol- 
gadvan. 

Cadvan  Sant  o  Lydaw.    Uangadvan. 

Cadvan,  Abbot  of  Bardsey. 

Cadfarch  (St.).    Church  at  Penegoes. 

Cad  Gamlan,  the  great  battle  fought  at  Camlan  in  Cornwall, 
in  the  civil  war  between  King  Arthur  and  Medrawd  his  nephew, 
which  ruined  the  Britains.    Vid.  Medrod. 

Cad  Goddeu  :  vid.  Goddeu, 

Cadgyffro  (n.  pr.  v.),  the  father  of  Gilbert.     {Tr,  29.) 

Cadhayarn  ap  Gwerydd  ap  Ehys  Goch. 

Cadivor  (n.  pr.  v.).  Cadivor  Wyddel,  or  the  Irishman,  lived  at 
the  Pant  uch  Pentraeth  in  Anglesey,  and  was  cotemporary  with 
Owain  Gwynedd  about  the  year  1160,  and  probably  one  of 
Gruffudd  ap  Cynan's  followers  from  Dublin,  and  a  relation.  It 
seems,  by  the  dark  accounts  we  have  of  this  affair,  that  Ffinog, 
by  whom  Owain  Gwynedd  got  Hywel  ap  Ywain  Gwynedd,  was 
a  sister  of  Cadivor  Wyddel ;  for  it  is  certain  that  he  was  brought 
up  in  Cadivor's  family,  and  that  four  of  the  seven  valiant  sons 
of  Cadivor  died  in  defending  his  cause,  and  in  following  his  wars. 

Baant  brwysgion  braisg  arfaetb, 
Bnant  briw  ger  ei  brawd  faeth. 

See  "Englynion  i  Saith  Mab  Cadifor  Wyddel." 

Tra  fnam  yn  saith,  tri  saith  ni'n  beiddiai, 
Ni'n  ciliai  cyn  an  llaith. 

Cadifor  ap  Gwaithfoedd. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  59 

Cadlys,  a  king's  temporaiy  canip  or  palace. 

Gras  Arthur  a'i  groes  wrihyd 
A'i  lys  a'i  gadlys  i  gyd. 

Cadlys  drain.  Y  Gadlys,  near  Dulas,  Anglesey.  Y  Gadlys  in 
Aberdar,  Glamorgan.     Vid.  Y  Gadlys. 

Cadmor  :  qu.  whether  it  is  a  family;  or  name  of  a  place  ? 

Cado,  tad  Gwrei ;  q.  d.  Cato  (?)  and  Cattw. 

Cadretth,  son  of  Porthfawr  Gadw ;  one  of  tri  unben  IJys 
Arthur.     (Tr.  15.) 

Cadrod  (n.  pr.  v.).  Cadrod  Calchfynydd,  son  of  Cynwyd  Cyn- 
wydion. 

Cadw  (n.  pr.  v.) :  qu.  whether  Cato.  Cadw  gadr  Swysson,  un 
o'r  tair  colofn  celfyddodion  (one  of  the  three  pillars  of  arts  and 
sciences).     Prydydd  y  Moch,  i  Eodri  ap  Owain  Gwynedd. 

Cadwal  Gryshalawg. 

Cadwaladr  (n.  pr.  v.,  k  cad  and  gwaladr,  q.  d.  a  lord  of  the 
battle).  Cadwaladr,  the  108th  and  last  Loegrian  King  of  the 
Britains,  son  of  Cadwallon.  There  are  several  churches  in  Wales 
dedicated  to  him,  which  is  a  strong  proof  of  his  being  sainted 
by  the  Church  of  Eome,  as  our  British  history  mentions.  But 
Bede's  Catwalda  wants  this  authority  of  being  sainted.  Uan- 
gadwaladr  in  Anglesey ;  Llangadwaladr  Chapel  in  the  parish  of 
Uanrhaiadr,  Denbighshire.     Vid.  Cadvan, 

Cadwallon  (n.  pr.  v.,  a  cad  and  gwallaw, — Dr,  Barnes),  Cad- 
wallon ap  Cadvan,  the  107th  King  of  Britain.  He  was  father 
of  Cadwaladr,  the  last  King  of  the  Britains.  This  is  he  that 
Bede,  L  ii,  c.  20  (in  the  English  translation  from  Dr.  Smith),  calls 
Ca^dwal  and  Ceadwall ;  and  in  the  Heidelberg  Latin  edition 
(L  iii,c.  l),Carduella  and  GeduaUa;  and  by  WiUiam  of  Malmes- 
bury,  Cadwallin, 

Teulu  Cadwallawn  ap  Cadvan,  un  o'r  tri  diwair  deulu,  followed 
him  in  Ireland  seven  years,  and  never  asked  a  recompense,  for 
fear  of  being  obliged  to  leave  him.     (Triades,  34.) 

Cadwgawn  (n.  pr.  v.,  k  cad  and  gwgavni, — Dr,  Dames),  Cadw- 
gan  Buffudd,  a  Demetian  poet  of  the  14th  century,  author  of 
Araith  Wgon. 

Da  o  Ddyfed  ced  Cadwgawn  Bnffudd, 
Da  o'r  iaith  ddigadd  Araith  Wgawn. 

Marwnad  Trahaeam. 


GO  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Cadwk  Wenwyn  ap  Idnerth. 

Cadwynfan  (Y),  enw  lie. 

Cadyal,  mab  Eryn.  (TV.  40.)  This  was  Cadell  mab  Geraint, 
the  43rd  Bang  after  Brutus,  who  gave  that  great  supply  of  men 
to  Urp  Luyddog.     Vid.  Urp. 

Cad  y  Coedanau,  a  battle  fought  by  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth : 
qu.  whether  against  Davydd  ap  Owen  Gwynedd,  or  Rhodri,  and 
the  Manks  men. 

Gad  y  Coedanau  cadr  anant  borthi 
Bnrthiaist  wyr  yn  ddifant. — Prydydd  y  Moeh. 

Brwydr  y  Coettaneu.     {Aer:  Camb.  a.d.  1195.) 
Cadyr  Urdden.     (Breiniau  Powys.) 

Cadyryeith  Saidi  (n.  pr.  v.),  or  Cadeirj'-eith  Saidi  {Tr.  89), 
one  of  King  Arthur's  hospitable  knights. 
Caeawc  or  Caeog  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Cadwyr  foddawg 
Elfan,  Cynddylan,  Caeawg. — Llywarch  Hen. 

Cae  Du,  in  Llansannan,  Denbighshire.  William  Salisbury, 
gentleman,  author  of  a  12mo  Gram.  Brit.,  1593  (published,  I  sup- 
pose, after  his  death),  was  of  this  place.  What  W.  Salisbury  was 
author  of  the  Welsh-English  Dictionary,  4to,  1547  ?  Sometime 
member  of  Lincoln's  Inn.     (Nicolson's  £ngl.  Hist,  Libr.) 

Caenan  Hal,  enw  lie  yn  Sir  Henfifordd. 

Caeo.     Dafydd  Fongam  o  Gaeo. 

Caer.  This  is  a  most  ancient  Celtic  word  from  the  beginning 
of  times,  and  signifies  an  enclosed  town,  or  fort,  or  stronghold.  It 
is  derived  from  cau,to  shut  orenclose;  firom  hence  also  comes  (rosier, 
a  fort ;  as  Cader  Idris,  Cader  Benlljm,  Cader  Facsen,  Cader  Arthur, 
Cader  Vyrddin,  etc.,  etc. ;  and  the  word  cadam,  strong ;  cademid, 
strength.  Other  ancient  nations  had  words  of  the  same  or  like 
sounds,  to  signify  the  same  thing,  as  Kir,  Kiriah,  Kiriath,  a 
town  ;  Ca7ia  and  Carthago ;  and  Grand  Cairo  in  Egypt.  In  the 
Sarmatic  or  Scythian,  car  and  carm ;  in  the  Parthian,  certa,  as 
Badocerta,  Tigranocerta,  etc.,  signify  a  town. 

Caer  is  prefixed,  in  the  British,  to  the  names  of  most  of  the 
ancient  British  cities,  as  Ca^r  Ludd,  London ;  CaerUion,  the  City 
of  Legions,  etc. ;  and  very  often,  where  the  British  hath  caer,  the 


CELTIC  KEMAINS.  61 

Saxons  have  put  Oeter,  Oaster,  Gester,  or  Ohester ;  as  for  Oaer  Esc, 
Exeter  or  Exceter ;  for  Goer  Davm,  Doncaster ;  Gaerwynt,  Win- 
chester, recti  Windcheater ;  Goer  Loyw,  Gloucester.  Therefore, 
for  GaerLvdd  in  this  Dictionary,  see  the  letter  L ;  and  so  of  the 
rest 

Caer  Adanau  or  Adanaw  {Lli^warch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cyn- 
ddylan),  perhaps  a  fort  belonging  to  one  Aedenau.  See  Aedenau 
febGleisiar.    (Tr,) 

Caeb  Akdreb. 

Caek  Akderydd  :  vid.  Arderydd. 

Caer  Ardudwy,  Harlech  in  Meirion.    See  Llech  Ardvdwy, 

Caer  tn  Arpon,  a  town  from  which  the  county  of  Caernarvon 
or  Caernarvonshire  (so  called  in  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth's  time, 
1200)  takes  its  name.  The  county  is  called  by  the  natives  Sir 
Gaer*7iaTfon.  Before  the  division  of  Wales  into  counties  it  was 
called,  says  Camden,  Snaiodon  Forest ;  and  in  Latin  historians  it 
is  called  Snattdonia,  as  also  Arvonia, 

Camden,  out  of  Matthew  of  Westminster,  says  that  the  body 
of  Constantius,  father  of  Constantino  the  Great,  was  found  here 
in  the  year  1283,  and  buried  in  the  church  of  the  new  town  by 
command  of  Edward  I,  who  at  that  time  built  the  town  of 
Caernarvon  at  the  sea-side,  out  of  the  ruins  of  the  old  city, 
which  lies  higher.  In  Nennius  it  is  called  Caer  Gtcstenit;  by 
Camden,  out  of  Nennius,  corruptly  Cystenydd ;  in  the  Triades, 
Goer  Arfon, 

In  the  Life  of  Gruflfydd  ap  Cynan  it  is  said  that  Hu,  Earl  of 

Chester,  built  a  castle  at  Hen  Gaer  Cystennin.     Vid.  Arfon  and 

Gnsteint, 

A  Chaer  yn  Arfon  a  charant  yngnif 

YngnaWB  coll  am  peidiant. 

Prydydd  y  Mochy  i  Lew.  ap  lorwerth. 

Caer  Baladin,  Shaftsbuiy. 

Caer  Biblin. 

Caer  BLADDON,Mabnesbury.  (Humph.  Llwyd,BnV.i>e5cr.,p.24.) 

Caer  Bro. 

Caer  Caradoc,  Salisbury  {Th.  Williams) ;  in  Nennius,  Gair 
Ga/radauc;  in  the  Triades,  Gaer  Garadoc  and  Garadawc  (tm  o'r 
tri  dyfal  gyfangan). 


62  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Mr.  Camden  (in  Shropshire)  says :  "  Where  the  river  Colunwy 
meets  the  river  Teme  ariseth  a  hill  of  great  antiquity,  called 
Cojer  CaradocJiy  because  about  the  year  of  our  Lord  53,  Carata- 
cus,  a  renowned  British  king,  environed  it  with  a  bulwark  of 
stone,  and  defended  it  gallantly  against  Ostorius  and  the  Eoman 
legions  till  they^  by  making  a  breach  in  so  sUght  a  stone  work 
(some  ruins  of  which  are  yet  to  be  seen),  forced  the  disarmed 
Britains  to  betake  themselves  to  the  tops  of  the  mountains." 
And  so  he  proceeds  with  a  story  out  of  Tacitus,  how  Garatacus 
behaved  at  Bome,  etc. 

A  story  thus  confidently  told  by  an  author  so  admired  as 
Camden,  and  in  so  pompous  a  book  as  the  Britannia^  one  would 
have  expected  to  be  unexceptionably  true,  especially  when  such 
authors  as  Tacitus  and  that  excellent  antiquaiy,  Humphrey 
Iloyd,  are  quoted  in  the  margin ;  but  if  you  please  to  look  into 
H.  Lloyd's  Breviary  of  Britain,  you  will  find  Mr.  Camden  gives 
the  Britains  no  fair  play.  H.  Llwyd  says  that  he,  travelling  in 
Shropshire  about  the  Earl  of  Arunders  affairs,  saw  an  ancient 
fort  which  answers  the  description  of  that  passage  in  Tacitus 
about  Caratacus,  which  he  doth  not  doubt  is  the  real  place  where 
Caradoc  fought,  and  fortified  by  art  and  nature.  Mr.  Camden's 
environing  this  hill  (of  great  antiquity)  about  the  year  53,  and 
his  slight  stone  work,  and  the  ruins  to  be  yet  seen,  don't  come 
up  to  H.  Llwyd's  description.  And  the  ancient  book  of  Triades 
will  teU  you  that  at  Caer  Caradoc  there  was  a  monastery  con- 
taining 2,400  monks  ;  which  will  not  very  weU  agree  with  this 
fortified  hill ;  and  yet  Mr.  Camden  hath  quoted  these  l^riades 
twice  in  his  Britannia.  After  this  grand  description  of  the 
battle  he  says :  "  Tho'  our  sorry  historian"  [meaning  Galfrid] 
''hath  omitted  both  this  battle  and  this  gallant  Britain,  the 
country  people  tell  us  that  a  king  was  beaten  ux)on  this  hilL" 
This  last  is  out  of  H.  Llwyd. 

Caer  Cori  or  Ceri,  Cicester  in  Gloucestershire ;  i.  e.,  Ciren- 
cester.    (H.  Llwyd,  Brit.  Descr.,  p.  24.) 

Caer  Chyrnwy,  Corinium  (B,  Llwyd) ;  probably  Ohwymwy, 
rapid  water.  But  there  is  a  place  in  Anglesey  called  Comwy 
(a  river  runs  by  Caere),  which  sounds  more  like  Corinium.  Also 
Llanvair  Ynghomwy,  and  Y  Gam  Ynghomwy. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  63 

Caer  Dathal. 

Am  ardal  Caer  Dathal  doethant. 

Cynddelwy  i  Owain  Owynedd. 
Caeb  Degog,  Mod. 

Caer  Drewin  [near  Corwen]  in  Meirion ;  from  the  Druids, 
as  E.  Llwyd  thinks.     See  Tre'r  Driw, 

Caer  Dro  :  see  Tro. 

Caer  Dyf  (wrote  also  Caerdydd),  Cardiff,  a  town  and  castle 
in  the  east  of  Morganwg.  {Pawd,  123.)     See  JDyf. 

Ni  chair  y  dwr  uwch  Caerdyf 
Eisian  arian  i'r  siryf. — letcan  Tew, 

Sir  a  gawn  sy  aer  gennyf 

Eisiau  'r  gwr  daeth  sir  Gaerdyf. — Lewya  Morganwg, 

Caer  Dduwarbawl. 

Caer  Eillion,  in  Powys  {Owdygorddau  Powys),   See  EiUion. 

Caer  Ennarawd  (Triades,)    Another  copy,  Caer  Guarad. 

Caereneon  or  Caereinion  Yrth,  in  Montgomeryshire ;  part 
of  Powys  Wenwynwyn,  near  Cymmer ;  one  of  the  two  commots 
of  Cantref  Llyswynaf.     (Price's  Rescript) 

Caer  Fallwch,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J.  D) 

Caer  Ferwig,  Berwick. 

Curo  k  blif  ddylif  ddelw 

Cerrig  Caerferwig  fyrwelw. — lolo  GocJi,  i  Edward  III. 

Vid.  Y  Ferwig  and  Aberung. 

Caer  Fon,  qu.  whether  Beaumaris.  (Jeuan  ap  Huw  Oae  Lhtyyd) 

Caervyrddin,  now  called  in  English  Caermarthen,  a  seaport 

town  and  chief  of  the  county  of  Caermarthen  in  South  Wales. 

Jo.  Major  {HisL  Scot,  1.  ii)  calls  it  Oarmadyne  and  Oarmaiin, 

Since  a  neighbouring  author  of  no  greater  antiquity  than  a.d. 

1521  can  thus  blunder^  and  murder  names  of  places,  what  can 

we  expect  in  Ptolomy,  Antoninus,  etc.  ?    What  are  we  to  trust 

I  to,  then,  but  our  own  ancient  authors,  poets,  etc.  ?    In  one  copy 

I  of  the  Triadea,  Goer  Verdin. 

Caer  Gai,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Meirion,  not  far  from  liyn 
Tegid.  Camden  calls  it  Cuius*  Castle,  built  by  one  Caius,  a 
Roman ;  but  he  doth  not  say  when,  and  only  says  the  common 
people  of  that  neighbourhood  report  great  things  of  him,  and 
scarce   credible.     {Camden  in  Merionetlishire.)     The  common 


64  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

people  never  heard  of  "  Caius,  a  Roman",  nor  any  other  "Roman" 
there ;  but  the  ancient  tradition  is,  as  well  as  the  written  his- 
tory  and  works  of  the  poets,  that  Cai  Hir,  penswyddwr  yn  Ilys 
Arthur  (i  e.,  Cai  the  Long,  chief  officer  in  "Arthur's  palace),  had 
a  seat  here ;  probably  his  family  seat. 

Caer  Gangen,  Canterbiuy. 

Caer  Gidwm,  yn  Eryri,  uwch  ben  Ilyn  Tarddenni. 

Caer  Gleddyf,  Tenby.     {Th,  Williams) 

Caer  Golink.    P,  V. 

Caergreig,  a  castle  on  an  island  in  Scotland  (Flaherty,  p.  1), 
which  he  takes  to  be  the  Urhs  Guidi  of  Bede  ;  in  Lat.,  Victoria. 
(Bede,  L  i,  c.  12,  p.  36,  EngL)  This  island  is  in  the  middle  of 
the  arm  of  the  sea  called  Edenborough  Frith  or  Forth  Frith. 

Caergreu.   {Tr,  35.)     See  Greu. 

Caergwrleu  or  Gwrle,  a  village  in  Flintshire. 

Caergyffin,  Conwy.     (Price's  Description.) 

Caer  Hawystl. 

Caer  Hen  {Oamden  in  Carnarvonshire) ;  corruptly  for  Caer 
Bhun,  i.  e,y  Rhun's  Castle,  and  not  old  city,  as  Mr.  Camden 
would  have  it;  and  after  him  E.  Llwyd,  who  was  not  well  enough 
versed  in  our  history  to  know  that  Rhun  ap  Maelgwn  lived  at 
this  place ;  which,  notwithstanding,  might  have  been  before  a 
Roman  station  by  the  name  of  Conovium,  as  it  is  plain  it  was 
by  a  Roman  hypocaust  discovered  near  the  church  of  Caer  Rhun ; 
imless  we  allow  that  Rhim,  who  was  near  the  time  of  the 
Romans,  might  make  a  hypocaust  there.  Mr.  Llwyd  imagines 
this  place  was  called  by  the  Britains  Ca£r  Lleion  ar  Gynwi/y 
because  a  hill  near  it  is  called  Mynydd  Caer  Lleion.  Tliis  shews 
a  fertile  fancy,  but  we  have  no  authority  of  writers  for  it. 

Caerleil:  see  Carlisle, 

Caerlleon  Gawr,  a  city  now  called  Westchester  and  Chester. 
It  was  called  by  the  Saxons  Legeacester;  by  Antoninus,  in  his 
Itinerary,  called  Deva;  by  Ptolomy,  Deunana;  Bede  (1.  ii,  c.  2) 
says  the  Britains  called  it  Carlegion,  meaning  some  Britain  that 
had  wrote  in  Latin ;  by  the  Triades,  Caer  Lleon ;  by  Tyssilio, 
Goer  Ueon,  because  built  by  Ileon,  King  of  Britain ;  by  Nen- 
nius,  Oair  Legion  Gaur  vsvr,  which  by  the  blundering  of  tran- 
scribers is  unintelligible  ;  in  the  Saxon  Annals,  Legerciestere  and 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  65 

Legncetirt ;  by  the  British  poets  and  native  Britains,  CaerUean 
Oawr. 

Gaerlleon  Oawr  i  fawr  i  faoh.-^2i.  0.  Ooihi, 

But  sometimes,  when  it  is  to  be  distinguished  from  Caerllion  ar 
Wysg,  it  is  called  Gaerlleon  arDdyfrdun/,  i.  e.,  Caerlleon  on  the  river 
Dee;  and  not  Oaer  Leon  ar  dujyrlhvy,  as  Mr.  Camden  is  pleased 
to  name  it.  The  Britains  never  call  it  Caer  Legion ;  nor  is  such 
a  name  to  be  found  in  any  of  their  writings,  except  in  that  ill 
wrote  Latin  catalogue  of  cities  in  Nennius,  done  by  ignorant 
transcribers,  who  trimmed  it  to  agree  with  Bede.  Mr.  Camden 
hath  taken  a  good  deal  of  pains  to  deprive  the  Britains  of  the 
honour  of  being  the  first  founders  of  this  city ;  as  if  his  own 
honour  had  been  at  stake  if  he  could  not  give  it  the  Bomans,  to 
whom  he  is  very  liberal  at  the  cost  of  the  poor  Britains.  These 
are  his  words :  "  Tho'  I  know  some  do  aver  it  to  be  older  than 
the  moon;  to  have  been  built  many  thousands  of  years  ago  by 
the  Giant  Leon  Vaur/'  According  to  Mr.  Camden,  the  Giant 
Leon  Yaur  was  older  than  the  moon.  But  who  are  these  some 
that  aver  so  ?  No  British  author  hath  any  such  words,  though 
Mr.  Burton,  in  his  Notes  on  ArUoninus,  makes  use  of  the  very 
same  phrase  with  Mr.  Camden,  pointing  at  the  British  history  and 
tradition.  Galfrid,  who  was  as  ignorant  ajs  Camden  of  this  aficdr, 
hath  in  his  Latin  translation  turned  the  name  Leon  into  LeU; 
and  this  because  he  found  a  city  called  OaerleU  in  the  north  of 
the  island,  which  he  thought  agreed  better  with  his  author's 
description.  But  these  are  the  words  of  Tyssilio,  the  original 
British  author,  which  Galfrid  maimed  in  the  translation  :  "  £f  a 
adeilawdd  ddinas  yngogledd  yn  ynys  hon  ac  ai  gelwis  oi  enw  ei 
hun  Caerlleon";  {.  «.,  he  built  a  city  on  the  north  side  of  this 
island,  and  called  after  his  own  name,  Caerlleon. 

Mr.  Camden  says ''  the  Britains  called  this  city  Caerlegion, 
Caer  Leon  Vaur,  and  Caer  Leon  ar  dufyr  Dwy."  No  writers 
among  the  Britains,  except  the  maimed  Nennius,  call  it  Caer 
Legion,  nor  did  the  native  Britains  ever  make  use  of  such  a 
name  in  their  own  tongue.  And  as  for  "  Caer  Leon  Vaur",  it  is 
a  fictitious  name  of  Mr.  Camden's  own  creation ;  either  confound- 
ing Oawr  and  Vavrr  through  his  ignorance  of  the  language,  or 
else  setting  up  a  shadow  of  a  king  or  a  giant  to  be  demolished 

9 


66  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

"by  himself  The  Britains  never  heard  of  Lleon  VauTy  1. 1,  Leon 
the  Great,  in  the  writings  of  their  nation,  or  anywhere  else  but  in 
Camden ;  and  they  do  Tiot  deny  but  that  the  words  "lleon  Vawr" 
in  the  British  may  signify  a  great  legion,  as  Mr.  Camden  would 
have  it,  by  only  changing  the  letter  e  into  i,  and  so  make  it  Llion, 
which  is  the  way  they  write  Caerllion  ar  Wysg,  which  they 
allow  might  take  its  name  from  a  legion  quartered  there,  the  old 
name  being  Caerwysg. 

A  mi  ynliref  Ghierllion. — L.  0.  ColJvL 
Mawr  yw'r  cri  ynghaerllion. 

But  why  should  letters  be  changed  to  please  the  fancy  of  a 
modem  writer,  against  the  ancient  national  history  and  universal 
consent  of  the  people,  who  always  called  it  Caerlleon  Gawr,  and 
not  Vawr.  Mr.  Camden  had  some  notion  that  there  was  a  Caivr 
(which  he  translates  a  giant)  in  some  part  of  the  story;  for,  says 
he,  "  whether  it  is  not  more  natural  to  derive  the  name  of  this 
city  from  a  great  legion,  or  the  Giant  Leon,  let  the  world  judge." 
But  whether  he  did  not,  on  purpose,  confound  Cawr  and  Vawr^ 
let  the  world  again  judga 

"There  are  young  antiquaries",  says  Mr.  Camden  in  great 
triumph,  "who  make  this  city  older  than  the  moon,  and  to  have 
been  built  by  the  Giant  Leon  Vaur ;  and  the  name  itself  may 
convince  them  of  the  greatness  of  this  error."  After  all  this 
flourish  of  the  moon  and  of  the  "Giant  Leon  Vaur'^  a  creature 
of  his  own  head,  the  character  of  a  young  antiquary  will  fall 
upon  Mr.  Camden  himself  when  the  world  (who,  according  to 
his  own  proposal,  is  to  be  judge)  sees  that  Lleon  Gawr  in  the 
British  doth  not  signify  Leon  the  Giant,  but  lleon  the  Prince  or 
King ;  and  in  that  sense  all  the  ancient  writers  understood  the 
word  cavrr;  and  he  was  never  by  the  Britains  called  Lleon 
Vaior,  nor  by  any  writer  but  Mr.  Camden^  that  I  have  met  with. 
Cawr,  in  the  dialect  of  the  Cambrians,  was  an  epithet  given  to 
the  most  warlike  of  their  princes,  as  was  Gwledig  among  the  Loe- 
grian  Britains,  and  Priodawr  among  the  Albanian  Britains. 

Gamp  cawr  yw  cwympo  caerydd, 

says  lorwerth  Fynglwyd ;  i,  e.,  the  quality  of  a  caipr  is  to  over- 
throw walls  of  cities.    Benlli  Gawr,  Phili  Gawr,  Idris  Gawr, 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  67 

Othrwm  Gawr,  Ehitta  Gawr,  Ehuddlwm  Gawr,  Ileon  Gawr,  etc., 
were  valiant  princes  who  got  their  surnames  for  their  valour  and 
wisdom ;  and  Nimrod  is  called  *'  Nemrwth  Gawr"  {Sion  Cert) ; 
so  Henry  VIII  is  called  by  one  of  our  poets, 

Oator  pann  M6n  carw  Pen  Mynydd. — Sion  Brwynog. 

Tman  fu'r  cyfrdan  ddwyn  Cator  y  Gedyrn 
A'a  ceidwad  a'u  blaenawr. — Bhys  Brychan, 

"  Cawr  y  Cedym"  is  the  prince  of  the  strong  men. 

But  to  close  this  argument.  I  have  seen  in  Hengwrt  Library 
a  MS.  in  the  handwriting  of  Dr.  Thomas  Willianis,  author  of  the 
Latin-British  part  of  Dr.  Davies'  Dictionary,  which  gave  an 
account  of  all  the  ancient  forts  on  the  mountains  of  Wales,  with 
the  names  of  the  princes  that  bmlt  them :  such  as  Cawr  Idris, 
Cawr  Othrwm,etc.,  etc.,  who  were  no  more  giants  than  Mr.  Camden 
was ;  and  in  the  ancient  book  called  the  British  Triades  (which 
I  copied  in  that  library,  A.D.  1738,  out  of  the  handwriting  of  the 
great  antiquary  Mr.  Robert  Vaughan,  compared  with  four  ancient 
MSS.  on  vellum),  I  find  King  Arthur's  third  wife  was  Gwen- 
hwyvar,  the  daughter  of  Ogyrfan  Gawr;  the  same  Queen  that 
was  dethroned  by  his  nephew,  Medrawd,  when  Arthur  followed 
hia  wars  in  GauL 

Now  I  ask,  in  my  turn,  as  Mr.  Camden  did  about  Caerlleon, 
whether  it  is  more  natural  to  say  that  Arthur,  a  King  of  Britain, 
married  the  daughter  of  Pririce  Ogyrfan,  or  of  the  Oiant  Ogy^-fan^ 
and  let  the  world  judge.    See  Leonis  Castnim,  Holt,  and  Lleon. 

Caerlewon  :  see  Llewon. 

Caebuweltdd  :  see  Lliwelydd. 

Caer  Lyn  (^Triades)  :  see  Llyn, 

Caeemalet,  or  Camalet,  or  Camalot,  lAys  Camalot  {Llyfr  y 
Great,  apud  Arch.  Brit,  p.  262), one  of  the  palaces  of  King  Arthur 
in  Somersetshire  (Humphrey  Uwyd,  Brit,  Descr,,  p.  24,  ed.  1731) ; 
rightly  Cwm  Aled.  See  Aled,  Gamalodunum,  and  Oambodunum, 
in  Antoninus'  Itinerary,  of  the  same  original 

Caeb  Mblwr,  a  place  near  Llanrwst ;  not  Cae'r  Milwr,  as  some 
think. 

Caernbddog,  ym  Mon.  {MS)  Maethlu  Sant  ynghaerneddog 
ym  Mon. 


68  CELTIC  BKMAINS. 

Gaer  Offa.    Offa's  Ditch^  between  England  and  Walea 

Geidwad  ar  j  ddwywlad  dda 

Tw  Qraffadd  dan  Ghier  Offa.— fiyweZ  OUan. 

Q.  d.  Oflfa's  Fortification,    See  OlaiDdd  Offa. 

Caer  Phily:  vid  FJUi  The  Bulkeum  SUurum  of  the  Eomans, 
as  Mr.  Ed.  Ilwyd  thinks.  (Notes  on  Glamorgan.)   See  Oaer  VwL 

Caeb  Eeged,  the  old  name  of  AberystwytL 

A  chastell  cafell  y  cawn 

Caer  Beged  nwch  owrr  eigiawn. 

Moths  Llwyd  WiLianiy  i  yrraV  Oleisiad  i  Aberystwyth. 

Caer  Sallawc. 

Pan  fon  gorforyon  meibion  Eidawc 
Y  bydd  bore  taer  awch  Caer  Sallawc. 

Hoianau  Myrddin. 

Caer  Segont,  Caernarvon.    (Price's  Descr.) 
Caer  Swys,  a  town  once  in  Montgomeryshire ;  destroyed  in 
war,  now  in  ruins. 

Dwy  Bowys  a  Chaer  Swys  wen.— L.  0.  GoOU, 

So  it  was  distinct  from  the  two  Powyses.    See  Sivy9. 
Caer  Tre  Baris,  Paris  in  FrancQ. 

Tor  a  bwrw  Gaer  Tre  Baris 

Trwy  warr  Ffrainc  fal  torri  ffris. — lorwerth  Fynghoyd. 

Caervarchell,  Pembrokeshire  (from  Marchell,  n.  p,  v.). 

Caer  Vorran,  a  place  on  the  Boman  WaU,  near  Kirkwall  and 
Ashler ;  of  which  Mr.  Camden  could  give  no  account.  (Camden 
in  Northumberland.)  The  Wall  is  here  thicker  than  elsewhere. 
See  Warburton. 

Caervwl,  Caervul,Caervyl,  and  Caervyli;  Mr.  Edward  Ilwyd's 
guesses  at  the  British  name  of  Caer  Phili,  which  he  makes  to  be 
the  BtUlcevm  Silurvmi  of  the  Bomans,  and  not  Buallt^  which 
Mr.  Camden  guessed  to  be  the  BtUlcmm ;  and  yet  Mr.  Llwyd 
owns,  in  his  Notes  on  Oamden,  that  no  Boman  coins,  inscriptions, 
statues,  bricks,  or  arms,  have  been  found  at  Caer  Phili. 

Caerwedros,  a  castle  mentioned  by  Cynddelw  to  Howel  ap 
Owain  Gwynedd,  a.d.  1150.     Qu.  Gwaedros  ? 

Caerwedros  cafas  y  ganthaw 

Cadarn  dan  gwan  try  wan  trwy  dda  w. — Cynddelw. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  69 

Also  a  lordship  in  Cardiganshire,  one  of  the  three  conmiots  of 
Cantref  GasteU. 

Agos  7 w  GaerwedroB  ym.  ^^Deio  ap  leuan  Du, 

Caer  Went,  the  Venta  Silurum  of  Antoninus,-  a  village  four 
miles  from  Chepstow.  {Camden)  See  Owent ;  not  so  called  from 
Venta  {E,  Llwyd),  but  Venta  from  Gwent. 

Caer  Werydd,  Lancaster;  made  by  Gwrgan  Farfdrwch.  {MS), 
Caerwys,  a  town  and  castle  in  Englefield,  now  Flintshire, 
called  by  Camden  "  Caerwysk". 

Rhwyfwyr  cad  rhyfawr  en  c^ys 

Rhychorion  Bhiw  a  Ghaer^ys. — B,  wp  EdmwnJt, 

Caerwysg,  the  Castrum  Oskee  of  Giraldus ;  the  Burrium  of 
Antoninus ;  and  Bryn  Buga,  from  Burem  hegi,  (Oamden  in  Man- 
mwUhshire) 

Caeb  Wythelin,  Vitellinus. 

Caer  t  Berllan,  Meirion ;  a  gentleman's  seat,  and  an  old  fort 
in  ruins,  whose  lime  was  made  with  cockle-shells  burnt  There 
were  no  limestones  till  of  late  discovered  in  Merionethshire. 

Caer  Ynwch,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Meirion. 

Caer  Ystwyth,  the  garrison  town  of  Aberystwyth. 

Caer  Ystwyth  oil  Grist  a'tibi  ad. — C  I.  Llwyd* 

Caeth:  qu.  a  river?  Uwch  Caeth  and  Is  Caeth,two  commots 
in  Cantref  Brenhinol,  Morganwg. 

Caffo  (St.).  UangafiFo  Chapel,  Anglesey.  They  used  to  offer 
young  cocks  to  St.  Caffo. 

Cai  (n.  pr.  v.);  Lat.  Cains  f  Cai  mab  Cynyr,  tywysog  Amgyw 
neu  Angyw,  xmo'r  tri  thaleithiog  Cad  Ynys  Prydain.  {Tr,  26.) 
Cai,  penswyddwr  Arthur;  to  him  he  gave  Peitw  and  Angyw. 
{TyssfUio) 

Cai  ap  Ithel,  in  King  Arthur's  time. 

Cai  Hir  ap  Edwyn. 

Cai  Hir  ap  Sefin  (Ymddiddan  Arthur  a  Gwenhwyvair),  See 
Oa^ergai. 

Caian  (St.) :  hence  Tregaian,  a  church  and  parish,  Anglesey.  See 
Gibyr,  This  and  several  other  churches  in  Anglesey  are  called 
chapels,  though  they  have  parishes  belonging  to  them.  But  they 
are  called  chapels  because  there  are  two  or  three  of  them  included 


70  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

in  a  rectoiy,  being  singly  too  poor  to  maintain  a  minister, which 
seems  to  be  the  original  reason  of  joining  two  or  three  parishes 
in  one  cure.    See  Geiamts, 

Cain,  fl.  (hence  Abercain),  faUs  into  the  Maw  below  Dolgelleu. 

Cain  ach  Evrog  Gadam. 

Cainradh  ach  Evrog  Gadam. 

Caint  (fl.),  mentioned  in  Uywarch  Hen  (Marwnad  Cadwallon 

ap  Cadvan) : 

Llnest  Cadwallon  ar  Ghiint. 

Caint,  Kent,  the  county  of  Kent ;  called  also  Ceint,  Cent,  or 
Cynt ;  derived  of  cyntaf,  or  the  first  inhabited  part  of  Britain. 

Oder  GairU,  Canterbury ;  q.  d.  the  City  of  Kent. 

Kentish  men,  Cyntiaid  or  Oynniaid.    See  OeirU, 

Caio  or  Caeo,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Bychan, 
Caermarthenshire.     (Price's  Description,) 

Caioros,  in  Doomsday  Book  (Cheshire) ;  corruptly  for  Caerwys, 
a  village  in  Englefield,  now  Flintshire. 

Caissar,  Caessar,  and  Caisar,  Julius  Caesar. 

Caled.    Iddon  Galed  ap  Trehayam. 

Calatyr,  Caledonia.     (JE,  Llwyd) 

Calchfynydd  (n.  L),  q.  d.  the  chalky  mountain ;  perhaps  the 
Boman  Calcaria.  Cadrod  Calchfynydd,  Earl  of  Dunstable,  about 
AJD.  560. 

Caldecote  (Doomsday  Boole),  Calcoed,  in  Flintshire. 

Caledfwlch,  Anglic^  Hardnotch,  the  name  of  King  Arthur's 
sword  in  TyBsilio's  British  History.  This  word  old  English 
writers,  after  their  usual  ignorance  or  negligence,  have  turned 
into  Oalibum,  which  hath  very  little  affinity  with  the  original 
See  Spelman's  Glossary  in  the  word  OalUbwrn;  and  Hoveden  in 
Bichard  I,  in  whose  time  this  famous  sword  of  King  Arthur  was 
in  being,  and  surrendered  or  delivered  by  Richard  I  to  Tancred. 

It  was  the  custom  among  other  warlike  nations  to  give  names 
to  their  swords ;  but  the  ancient  Britains  took  a  particular  pride 
in  adorning  their  swords,  and  making  them  polished  handles  of 
the  teeth  of  sea-animals  (see  Solinus,  Polyhistor^  c.  xxv) ;  and 
their  warlike  disposition  and  love  of  the  sword  was  such,  that  it 
was  the  custom  for  the  mother  of  every  male  child  to  put  the 
first  victuals  into  the  child's  mouth  on  the  point  of  his  father's 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  71 

Bword,  and  with  the  food  to  give  her  first  blessing  or  wish  to 
him,  that  he  might  die  no  other  death  but  in  war  and  arms. 
(Solinus,  Polyhistor;  Selden,  Mar,  Claus.,  1.  ii,  3,  2.)  Nay,  this 
nation,  by  long  struggling  in  defence  of  their  country,  had  got 
to  such  an  enthusiastic  pitch  of  warlike  madness,  that  I  have 
read  in  an  ancient  British  MS.  now  at  Hengwrt,  that  it  was  cus- 
tomary, when  a  man  grew  old  and  infirm  among  them,  to  desire 
his  children  or  next  relations  to  pull  him  out  of  bed  and  kiU 
him,  lest  the  enemy  might  have  the  pleasure  of  that  office,  or 
that  he  should  die  cowardly  and  sordidly,  and  not  by  the  sword. 
See  Prydwen. 

Caletwr,  a  river  in  Cardiganshire,  q.  d.  dwr  caled.  Hence 
Dol  y  Clettwr,  near  Tre'r  Ddol ;  i.  e.,  Tre  Dol  y  Clettwr.  Castell 
Humphrey,  in  the  valley  of  Calettwr,  fortified  A.D.  1150  by 
Howel  ap  Owain  Gwynedd. 

Callestr.  Caer  y  Gallestr,  Flint.  {Tho8,  Williams.)  See  Fflint. 

Cam.  Llwyth  y  Cam,  a  family  in  Anglesey,  anciently  in  great 
note.  Elian,  the  founder  of  Llan  Elian  Church  about  A.D.  500  or 
sooner,  had  the  surname  of  Cdmiad.  Elian  was  the  son  of  All- 
tud  Eedegog,  and  the  expression  in  Mabinogi  favours  this. 

Cvmmorth  g^n  Elian  Ceimiad. 

Y  Prydydd  Bychan,  in  the  13th  century,  mentions  Llwyth  y 
Cam  and  Ceimiad.  EHan  Ceimiad,  Beimo  Geimiad,  etc.  Some 
think  they  had  this  appellative  because  they  were  swift  of  foot, 
or  great  travellers. 

See  Marwnad  Madog  Mon;  also  Prydydd  y  Moch  to  Eodri 
ap  Ywain  Gwynedd,  lord  of  Anglesey. 

Ef  gogawn  glyw  Gammawn  Ceimiad. 

See  0am  and  Elian  (St.). 

Camafan  (n.  L) ;  perhaps  Cwmavan. 

Camalac,  a  British  Bishop  carried  away  captive  by  the  Danes 
from  Irchenfeld  (Erging),  which  they  laid  waste  with  fire  and 
sword,  A.D.  715.  {Oamden  in  Herefordshire,)  Probably  Cyfelach 
(Ilangyfelach). 

Camber  ap  Brutus,  neu  Camber  ap  Prydain. 

Camddin,  Lat.  Cambodunum.     (E,  Llvjyd) 

Camddwr  and  Camdwr  (fl.)  in  Cardiganshire.    Y  Camddwr 


72  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Mawr,  Camdwr  Bach,  rivers  that  run  into  RheidioL  Aber  Cam- 
ddwr.  Ehyd  y  Camddwr,  Pont  ar  Qamddwr,  the  ford  and  bridge 
on  a  river  Camddwr,  which  falls  into  Teivi  in  Cardiganshire. 
Here  a  battle  was  fought  between  Gronwy  and  Llewelyn,  sons 
of  Cadwgan  ab  Bleddyn,  etc.,  against  Ehys  ap  Owen,  to  revenge 
their  grandfather's  death,  where  Bhys  and  Bhjrtherch  ap  Caradog 
were  defeated,  a.d,  1072. 

Camelon  (pronounced  Camlan),  near  Falkirk  in  Scotland,  on 
the  river  Alaun,  hath  its  name  from  hence,  t.  e.,  Cwm  Alawn. 

Camlas  (fl.)  falls  into  the  Wysg  in  Brecknockshire :  hence 
Aber  Camlas. 

CiiHMARCH,  a  river  that  falls  into  the  Irwon.  Llangammarch 
in  the  diocese  of  St.  David's. 

Camryd  ;  Lat.  Camboritum.  {K  Llwyd)  Hence  Camryd  near 
Conwy,  vulgo  Cymryd.    The  river  fordable  there. 

Canawl,  one  of  the  four  cantrefe  of  Ceredigion.  (Price's  De- 
script^ 

Cangellwb,  a  chancellor ;  Lat  cancdlarius,  Cangel,  a  chancel 
(from  ccm  and  cell),  originally  the  singing-room  in  a  monastery, 
etc.    But  see  about  twenty  derivations  of  this  word  in  Spelman. 

Canologion,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Lleyn. 
(Price's  Deseript.) 

Canon  CvNLLArrH.  Gwenddydd,  in  Cyfoesau  Myrddin,  caDs 
her  brother  Merddin  "Cydymaith  a  Chanon  Cynllaith."  See 
Machynlleth  and  Cynllaith.  Qu.,  whether  he  was  a  canon  of  Some 
cathedral  of  that  name  ? 

Gan  wyt  Cydymaith  a  Chanon  Cynllaith. — Kyf,  M.  a  G, 

Cantref,  a  cantred  or  hundred,  from  carU  and  tref,  a  himdred 
townships  or  villas. 

Cantref  a  chan  Eidionydd. — Llywarch  Hen, 

Spelman,  therefore,  is  mistaken  when  he  supposes  the  Cambro- 
Britains  had  not  this  division  of  countries  from  their  ancestors, 
but  &om  Alfred  and  the  Saxons.  If  Llywarch  Hen  had  not  said 
it,  the  very  word  carUref,  being  British  and  Irish,  shews  it. 

Cantref  Bychan  :  see  Bychan. 

Cantref  Castell,  one  of  the  four  cantrefs  of  Cardiganshire, 
anciently  contained  Mabwynion  and  Caerwedros.  (Price's  De- 
script,) 


OELTIO  REMAINS.  73 

Cantref  Cemhaks,  one  of  the  three  cantrefs  of  Anglesey,  con- 
taming  the  commots  of  Talybolion  and  Twrcelyn. 

Cantref  Coch  (Y),  th^  Forest  of  Dean. 

Cantref  CYNAN,one  of  the  five  cantrefs  of  Powys  Wenwynwyn, 
containing  anciently  the  commots  of  Cyfeiliog  and  Mowddwy. 
(Price's  Bescr.) 

Cantref  Gwaelod.  The  great  bay  between  Ueyn  and  Aber- 
ystwyth, called  by  sailors  Cardigan  Bay,  was  a  tract  of  level 
ground  belonging  to  Gwyddno  Garanhir.  It  was  overflowed  by 
the  sea  about  the  year  500.  There  is  some  account  of  this  acci- 
dent in  Llyfr  Du  Caerjyrddin, — "  Caniad  pan  aeth  y  M6r  dros 
Gantref  Gwaelod."    [A.  B.,  ii,  59.] 

Ardal  dwfyn  boewal  Dinmilwy, 
Eissytyn  gwylein. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Lew.  ap  lorwerih. 

The  boundary  to  the  north  seems  to  have  been  Sam  Badrig, 
Tradition  has  it  that  there  were  several  towns  there  which  were 
swallowed  up  or  overflowed.  It  seems  there  were  dams  between 
it  and  the  sea,  and  that  by  drunkenness  the  floodgates  were  left 
oi)en,  as  that  ancient  poem  hints.  Moms  Uwyd  Wiliam,  A.D. 
1560  (i'r  Gleisiad)  sajrs : 

Oyfeiria  acw  foroedd 

Lie  bu'r  tir,  Uwybr  it'  oedd. 

Mr.  Vaughan,  in  his  British  Antiquities  Revived,  mentions  it. — 
Trees  in  the  bay ;  a  stone  with  an  inscription. 

Caper  ap  Puder. 

Caph,  the  58th  King  of  Britain, 

Capoir,  the  68th  King  of  Britain,  which  one  copy  calls  Pabo. 

Cappel  Coch  in  Brecknockshire.    Fairs  kept  here. 

Caractacus,  Caradog ;  but  doth  not  signify  warrior,  as  Ains- 
worth  makes  him. 

Caradoc  (n.  pr.  v.),  also  Caradog,  beloved  {k  car) ;  latinized 

Caradoeus  and  Oaractacus.   Hence  Caer  Caradoc  in  the  catalogue 

of  cities  in  the  Triades;  in  Nennius'  catalogue,  Caer  Garada^iic; 

and  in  a  MS.,  Caer  Qradaiic,     (Tr.  19,  23.)     "  Un  o'r  tri  dyfal 

gyfangan."    A  prince  of  Gwynedd  of  this  name  was  taken  by 

the  Bomans,  whose  behaviour  was  admired  by  them ;  and  as  out 

countryman  hath  described  it, 

10 


74  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Boma  catenatum  tremait 
Spectare  Britannum. — E,  W, 

[Nage,  Tywysog  y  Gwenhwyson  (Siltires)  ydoedd  Caradoc  ab 
Bran.     Gwel  Achau  lestin  ab  Gwrgan. — L  M.] 

Gakadoc  o  Langarvan,  Caradocus  Lancarovanenais  (Zeland), 
author  of  the  Histoiy  of  the  Kings  and  Princes  of  Wales  from  Cad- 
waladr,  the  last  King  of  Britain,  to  A.D.  1157.  He  was  a  monk  of 
the  Abbey  of  Llangarvan,  and  was  cotemporary  with  Galfrid  the 
translator  of  the  British  History  from  Brutus  to  Cadwaladr.  Le- 
land  says  he  could  not  find  whether  the  History  was  first  wrote  in 
British  or  Latin ;  but  that  he  beUeved  Caradoc  first  wrote  it  in 
Latin,  and  not  in  Cambro-British.  (Leland,  Script  Brit,  c.  162.) 
If  so,  how  happens  it  that  no  Latin  copy  of  it  can  be  met  with, 
and  that  Humphrey  Llwyd  made  his  English  translation  from  the 
Cambro-British,  which  Dr.  Powel  afterwards  published  with  his 
learned  annotations  ?  The  name  of  that  history  among  the 
Canibro-Britains  is  BnU  y  Tyivysogion.  There  are  several  British 
copies  in  Wales,  and  one  in  Llyfr  Coch  o  Eergest  in  Jesus  Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

CAEADOC  (St.).  Llangradog.  His  life  was  written  by  Giral- 
dus  Cambrensis,  who  lived  near  his  time,  and  is  in  Capgrave.  He 
was  first  in  great  favour  with  Rhys,  Prince  of  South  Wales ;  but 
falling  out  with  the  Prince,  he  entered  himself  monk  in  the 
church  of  St.  Teilo  in  Llandaf ;  from  thence  retired  to  the  deso- 
late church  of  St.  Kined ;  thence  to  St.  David's,  and  there  was 
made  priest ;  from  thence  to  the  isle  of  Ary.  Here  he  was  car- 
ried off  by  Norway  pirates,  and  released,  and  had  the  Monastery 
of  St.  Hismael,  in  Boss,  assigned  him.  {Brit.  Sanct,)  Died  A.D. 
1124. 

Caradawc  Fbeichfras  was  penhynaif  in  Cemyw  when  Arthur 
was  chief  king  there  (TV.  7) ;  father  of  Cawrdaf  (IV.  19);  Cad- 
farchog  {Tr.  23).     See  Bedwyr, 

Caradawc  ap  Bran  (TV.  19),  one  of  the  Cynweisiaid. 

Caradok,  an  id.  Caradoc  ? 

Caranir,  q.  d.  Garan  hir  vel  Corun  hir.     Gwyddno  Garanir. 

Caranval,  son  of  Cynddylan.  (Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad 
Cynddylan.) 

Carcludwys  ap  Cyngen  ap  Ysbwys  ap  Cadrod  Calchfynydd 
ap  Cynwyd  Cynwydion. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  75 

Caredio,  the  105th  King  [of  the  Britons] ;  Lat.  Oareticus,  kind, 
loving. 

Caredigion,  Cardiganshire ;  so  named  from  Caredig,  son  of 
Cunedda  "Wledig,  about  the  year  440. 

Carentius  (Jo.  Major,  ffist,  Scot,  L  i,  c.  15).  This  is  the 
Caravm  of  Tyssilio,  and  the  Carausius  of  the  coins.  He  made 
peace  between  the  Scots  and  Picts  about  the  battle  of  the  Dog,  and 
they  all  turned  their  arms  against  the  Bomans.  See  Cad  Chddau 
[s.  V.  Ooddau\ 

Carfan.    Ilangarfan  (from  carw  in  the  Life  of  Dewi). 

Carlegion.  Bede  says  the  Britains  in  his  time  called  Lega- 
cester  by  the  name  of  Carlegion.  Some  Britains  might,  but  a 
Saxon  could  know  nothing  of  that.     See  Caerlleon  Gator. 

Carlisle,  the  English  name  of  a  city  in  the  north  of  Britain, 
about  the  ancient  name  of  which  there  is  great  contention  among 
antiquaries.  Camden,  in  his  BrUannia,  who  treats  the  rest  with 
contempt,  says  that  the  Bomans  and  Britains  called  it  Lugvhal- 
lum  and  Luguvallium  or  Lagybalia ;  that  the  Saxons  called  it 
(as  Bede  witnesses)  Liial;  Ptolomy  (as  some  think),  ZeiwJopiWa; 
Nennius,  Oaerlualid ;  the  ridiculous  "Welsh  prophecies,  the  city 
oiBvballus;  we,0aa'li8le ;  and  the  Latin,  from  the  more  modem 
name,  OaerUolum ;  and  that  Luguballia  and  Carlisle  are  the 
same,  is  universally  agreed  upon ;  and  that  Leland  had  taken 
pains  to  no  purpose  about  it.  Afterwards  he  says  he  will  pro- 
duce his  "own  conjecture  that  the  Military  WaU  of  the  Bomans 
gave  it  the  name,  for  that  Antoninus  calls  it ''  Luguvallum  ad 
Vallum".  Is  not  this  "Vallum  ad  Vallum"  tautology,  if  that  be 
the  case  ?  Further  on  he  says  that  Pomponius  Mela  has  told  us 
that  *^lAigvA  or  lAiCiis  signified  in  the  Celtic  a  tower ;  for  that 
what  Antoninus  calls  iMgo  Atigusti,  Pomponius  calls  Turris 
Augvsti ;  so  that  Luguvallum  is  really  a  tower  or  fort  upon  the 
waU  or  vallum".  But  take  notice,  that  if  Lugus  is  a  tower,  and 
vallum  a  wall,  the  "  Luguvallum  ad  Vallum"  of  Antoninus  is  a 
Fort  on  the  Wall  at  the  WalL  Qu.  whether  this  is  common 
sense? 

As  the  antiquities  of  the  Britains  are  concerned  in  these  asser- 
tions of  Mr.  Camden,  give  us  leave  to  examine  them.  First,  he 
says  the  Bomans  and  Britains  called  it  Lugu-ballum.   The  latter 


76  OELTTO  REMAINS. 

we  deny,  for  such  a  name  is  not  to  be  found  in  all  the  writings 
of  the  Britains.  That  the  Cambridge  copy  of  Nennius  calls  some 
city,  the  17th  in  his  catalogue,  Lualid,  we  allow ;  but  Mr.  Cam- 
den ought  to  have  been  so  candid  as  to  let  the  worid  know  that 
the  Cottonian  copy  has  no  Caer  Lualid,  but  hath  Zigualid,  the 
third  city  in  the  catalogue  ;  though  neither  of  the  copies  says  it 
is  either  Lugu-ballium,  Carlisle,  or  anything  else.  As  for  the 
ridiculous  Welsh  prophecies,  Mr.  Camden  should  not  have  made 
a  general  charge  against  them  aU,  but  have  told  us  in  what 
authors  he  had  found  the  city  Carlisle  called  the  city  of  Duballus. 
But  this  we  may  gather  from  Mr.  Camden's  extensive  knowledge  in 
the  affairs  of  the  ancient  Britains,  that  he  never  saw  any  of  their 
prophecies  except  that  Latin  translation  of  Prophwydoliaeth 
Myrddin  Emrys  in  Galfrid,  where  I  find  this  passage :  "  The  fox 
of  Caerdvhalum  shall  take  revenge  on  the  Hon,  and  destroy  him 
entirely  with  her  teeth."  This  is  all  that  is  said  in  any  "Welsh 
prophecies  of  Caerdvhalum ;  and  this,  too,  in  Latin.  And  is  not 
he  a  very  ridiculous  antiquary  that  positively  makes  this  Caer- 
dubalum  to  be  Carlisle  ?  A  prophet,  indeed !  Is  not  this  more 
likely  to  be  Cjter  Dubai,  i.  e,,  Tubal's  Castrum, — some  feigned 
name  made  use  of  in  that  pretended  prophecy,  if  Galfrid  dealt 
fair  in  his  translation  ?  This  prophecy  is  not  in  the  British  copy 
of  Tyssilio,  it  being  added  to  the  history  by  Gralfrid  when  he 
turned  it  into  Latin. 

It  doth  not  follow  that  Lucus  in  the  Gaulish  and  British  sig- 
nifies a  tower,  because  P.  Mela  calls  Antoninus'  Lugo  Augusti 
by  the  name  of  Turris  Augusti,  Lucus  was  a  Latin  word  signi- 
fying a  chapel  or  temple,  which  might  give  name  to  places  as 
well  as  the  supposed  Lucus  or  Lugus  of  the  Gauls.  As  for  the 
Britains,  they  have  no  name  for  this  city  as  ever  I  could  meet 
with ;  so  that  I  suspect  it  to  be  entirely  of  Roman  original,  and 
of  the  same  age  with  the  Roman  Wall,  unless  it  be  Caer  Ewer- 
ydd,  which  is  mentioned  in  an  ancient  MS.  to  have  been  the 
place  where  Rhun  ap  Maelgwn  landed  when  he  carried  the  war 
to  Scotland.     See  Rhun  and  Morwerydd, 

Carn  and  Carnedd,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  signifying  a  heap 
of  stones,  prefixed  to  the  names  of  several  places,  as, 

Gam  Aret  in  Medrigia  in  Ireland. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  77 

Y  0am  in  Flintshire. 

\Y  Oam,  a  high  hiU  near  KstyU  Khaiadr.— fT.  2>.] 

Y  0am  Wen,  in  Trefeirig,  Cardiganshire,  South  Wales. 
YOam  ynghom/wy,  Mon. 

Hence  also  Gamau  or  Oameddau  PlymJymon,  etc.  Prodigious 
heaps  of  stones  on  the  tops  of  mountains ;  sometimes  as  tombs ; 
sometimes,!  apprehend,  to  make  fires  on  their  tops,  to  give  notice 
of  the  approach  of  an  enemy. 

Cabn  Boduak,  a  moimtain  in  IIe3m,  Caernarvonshire ;  from 
Bodftan,  a  gentleman's  seat,  just  by. 

Carn  Ddyddgu,  Cardiganshire. 

Carn  Fyitydd. 

Men  yd  las  Trahaeam  yngham  Fynydd. 

Meilir  Brydydd,  in  Marwnad  Gr.  ap  Cynan. 

Called  by  Caradoc  Mynydd  Camo,  and  by  Marwnad  Trahaeam 
Mynydd  Cam. 

Carn  Hendwll,  Cardiganshire. 

Carn  Llechart  [Cam  Zlecharth. — J.  Jf.],  in  the  parish  of 
Uangyfelach,  a  monument  on  a  mountain-top  of  that  name  in 
Glamorganshire.     (K  Zlwyd.) 

Carn  Madrin,  in  Ueyn,  a  high  mountain  on  the  top  of  which 
there  are  the  ruins  of  a  British  fort.  Qu.  whether  mentioned  by 
Giraldus  Cambrensis  in  his  Itinerary  t 

Carn  t  Naid,  in  Momomia,  Ireland. 

Carn  y  Bhod,  in  the  county  of  Wexford. 

Carnedd  Ddaftdd,  a  mountain  in  Eryri.     {E,  Llwyd) 

Carnedd  Elidir,  a  mountain  near  Llanberis. 

Carnedd  EEigin,  in  Caernarvonshire. 

Carnedd  Llewelyn,  a  mountain  near  Llanberis.    {E,  Llwyd.) 

Carnbwillon,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Eginog, 
Caermarthenshire. 

Carnguwch,  a  parish  in  Caernarvonshire. 

Carno  (n.  1.),  near  Abergavenny.  On  the  mountains  called 
Mynydd  Camo  a  battle  was  fought,  in  the  year  728,  between 
Ethelbald  Bling  of  Mercia  and  the  Britains.  {Caradoc,  p.  15.) 
On  Camo  mountains  was  also  fought  that  memorable  battle 
between  Grufiludd  ap  Cynan  and  Trahaeam  ap  Caradoc,  the 
reigning  Prince  of  North  Wales  in  the  year  1079.    Gruflfydd  ap 


78  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Cynan  (being  half-brother  to  Encumalhon^  King  of  Ulster  in 
Ireland)  had  a  strong  power  of  Irishmen,  which  he  landed  at 
St.  David's  Head,  and  joining  with  Rhys  ap  Tewdwr  Mawr, 
Prince  of  South  Wales,  who  claimed  the  crown  of  South  Wales, 
they  encamped  on  Mynydd  Camo,  where  they  were  met  by 
Trahaeam  ap  Caradog  and  his  cousins  of  Powys,  the  sons  of 
Ehiwallon  ap  Gwyn  ap  Bleddyn,  viz.,  Caradog,  Grufifudd,  and 
Meilyr,  who  were  aU  slain  in  battle,  and  Gruff,  ap  Cynan  had 
the  government  of  Wales.  See  Meilir  Brydydd's  poem,  who 
calls  it  Mynydd  Cam.     See  Cam, 

Cabok  and  Cabawn,  Lai.  Oarausiua,  a  king  of  the  Britains, 
who  about  the  year  [300]  threw  off  the  Roman  yoke,  and  kept 
the  island  from  them  for  about  seven  years,  being  an  entire 
master  of  the  sea. 

Caron,  in  Ceretica. 

Caron,  a  river  in  Scotland.     {Nennius,) 

Carnwennan,  the  name  of  Arthur's  dagger.    (Dr.  Davies.) 

Carreg  (pL  Cerbig),  a  stone,  in  the  composition  of  several 
names  of  places,  as  Carreg  Hova,  Carreg  Fergus  in  Ireland,  Car- 
reg  Tstum  Ilaeth,  CasteU  Carreg  near  Caerfyrddin,  Cerrig  y 
Drudion,  Cerrig  y  Gwyddyl  ym  Mon  {Tr,  49),  Carreg  Cynnen 
Castle,  about  ad.  1240.     (Caradoc) 

Carreg  Ddiwin,  in  the  parish  of  Beddcelert,  where  about  50 
brass  spear-heads  of  the  ancient  Britains  were  found  in  the  year 
1688  by  removing  a  great  stone.  They  were  sdmost  in  sight. 
(E.  Ilwyd,  Notes  on  Camden,) 

Carreg  Hova,  a  castle  by  Oswestry,  taken  by  Owen  Cyfeiliog 
AD.  1162. 

Carreg  Hudwtdd,  which  Mr.  Edward  Uwyd  thinks  to  be 
Berry,  which  is  not  far  from  Wroxeter  in  Shropshire,  where  he 
imagines  Cynddylan's  seat  was. 

Carrog  or  Carrawg,  a  place  in  Cardiganshire. 

Gh)rea  ceraint  gw^  Carrawg, 
Cyttyn  fydd  rhyngtbyn*  y  rhawg; 

Dew  cUf  leuan  Du, 

Carrog,  in  Mon,  q.  d.  Carregog,  stony  ;  and  I  suppose  a  river 
in  Dol  Garrog,  Caernarvonshire. 
Carthan  :  vid.  Ammivyn  Carthan, 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  79 

Cabun^  a  river  in  Scotland  (hence  Abercaron,  contracted  Aber- 
com),  is  called  after  the  name  of  Garausius,  King  of  Britain. 
(Flaherty,  Ogygia,  p.  343.)  Jo.  Major  (L  i,  f.  19)  calls  it  Oaron. 
See  Oaron,  Oaravm,  and  Abercv/mig. 

Carwed  Fynydd,  in  Isaled,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (J,  D.) 

Garwed,  near  Beaumaris. 

Gaseg  Falltraeth,  a  rock  in  the  entrance  of  Malltraeth  har- 
bour. It  bears  the  name  to  this  day.  {Moras  Llvryd  WUiam, 
AD.  1560.) 

Gasgwent  or  Gastell  Gwent,  Ghepstow;  anciently  Gaer 
Went.    [N"ag6,  lie  arall  yw  Gaerwent. — I,  M.] 

Gabnab  Wledig  ap  Iludd  ap  Beli  Mawr,  father  of  Pwyll  Pen- 
defig  Dyfed.     (Maiinoffion.) 

Gasnodyn  Fardd,  a  poet  a.d.  1240.  [lived  at  Llangyfelach 
in  Morganwg. — /.  Jf.] 

Gasswallawn  and  Gaswallon  (n,  p.  v.).  Gaswallon  ap  Beli 
Mawr  was  the  Prince  that  headed  the  Britains  when  Julius 
Gaesar  invaded  Britain,  He  had  killed  his  brother  Iludd  in  a 
battle  fought  for  the  dominion  of  Britain^  which  caused  Afarwy, 
the  son  of  Ludd,  to  go  over  to  Gaul  to  Gaesar  to  desire  his  assist- 
ance. Gaesar  calls  him  Oaasibellatmus  or  Gassivellaunus  in  the 
Latin ;  and  it  is  probable  the  Oassii,  a  people  of  Britain  (Gas- 
walliait),  were  his  own  patrimony.  He  went  to  Bome  for  Fflur, 
the  daughter  of  Mugnach  Gorr  (Tr.  77) ;  so  that  it  seems  he  was 
in  peace  with  the  Bomans  then,  and  took  pride  in  their  alliance, 
or  else  he  went  incognito, 

Gasswallon  Law  Hir,  or  the  generous,  a  Prince  in  the  Isle 
of  Anglesey,  and  was  one  of  the  northern  Britains  that  took 
refuge  there.  He  was  son  of  Einion  Yrth  ap  Gunedda  Wledig, 
and  was  the  &ther  of  Maelgwn  Gwynedd,  wbo  was-  afterwards 
King  of  Britain.  The  legend  of  St.  Elian,  who  hath  a  church  in 
Anglesey,  says  that  the  man  of  God  struck  Gasswallon,  lord  of 
Anglesey,  blind  for  some  misdemeanors  against  the  Ghurch. 
Some  call  him  GatwaUon  Law  Hir,  un  o'r  tri  eurgryd,  as  in 
Triad  49. 

Gastell,  properly  a  caBtle,castellum.  Perhaps  an  ancient  Geltic 
word  from  ca/n  and  astdl,  to  inclose  with  boards  or  piles. 

Gastell,  a  river  between  Greuddyn  and  Perfedd,Gardiganshire. 


80  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Castell  Bwch,  Monmouthshire. 

Oastell  Caissar,  Salisbury. 

Castell  Carbeg,  in  Cantref  Bychan  near  Caerfyrddin^  a  castle 
on  the  top  of  an  inaccessible  rock  with  vast  caverns.  {Carnden 
in  CaermartheTisJi/ire.) 

Castell  Coch  ym  Mhowys,  or  Castell  Gwenwynwyn  at  the 
Pool,  A.D.  1195,  taken  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  (Oar- 
adog  in  Un.  ap  lorwerth.) 

Castell  Crogen,  the  old  name  of  Chirk  Castle.    See  Chirk. 

Castell  Cynfel.    Huw  Ilwyd  Cynfel,  a  poet. 

Castell  Dinas  Bran,  Biennus'  Castle,  a  castle  on  the  top  of 
a  round  hill  near  Llangollen,  anciently  called  Dinas  Bran,  Llys 
Bran,  Brenhinblas  Bran,  EurUys  Yran,  Ucheldir  Bran;  and 
Howel  ap  Einion  calls  it  Dinbrain. 

Ym  nend  glyd  dy  hnd  hydr  riain 

Wanlledd  or  wenllys  ger  Dinbrain.— 'J7.  ap  Eimon* 

It  is  in  the  commot  of  Nanheudwy. 

Castell  (tOLLWYN  is  between  Wysg  and  Gwy  in  Brecknock- 
shire: 

Pan  eistedo  Saeson  yn  ei  sarffryn 

A  chjrchu  o  bell  Gkistell  GoU^yn. — Hoianau  Myrddm. 

Castell  Gwalchmai,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Bhos  (now 
Boose)  in  Pembrokeshire.  See  OwalcJimai  ap  Gwyar^  nai  Arthur. 

Castell  Gwys,  Guise  Castle.    See  Owys. 

Castell  Maen,  a  village  in  Badnorshire,  where  fairs  are  kept ; 
in  English,  Huntington  Castle.    (Price's  Deacript) 

Castell  Mai  Mannor,  Caernarvonshire. 

Castell  March  (n.  L).    See  March  Amheirehion. 

Castell  Moch  ym  Mochnant. 

Castell  Moel.  (i.  0,  Cothi,)  [An  old  castle  and  village  in 
the  parish  of  Ilangarfan  in  Glamorgan. — I,  M,] 

Castell  Newydd  Bach  yng  Nghemmaes,  Pembrokeshire. 
There  are  fairs  kept  here. 

Castell  Newydd  yn  Emlyn,  Caermarthenshire.  Fairs  kept 
here.     See  Emlyn. 

Castell  Newydd  yn  Rhos,  Caermarthenshire.  There  are  fairs 
kept  here. 

Castell  Paun  (from  Pain,  a  Norman)  a  village  in  Radnor- 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  81 

shire,  where  fairs  are  kept ;  also  a  commot  there.   Near  this  was 
the  fight  of  Machawy. 

Caswennan.  Gorffrydau  CanoenTian  (i.  e.,  the  streams  of  Cas- 
wennan),  a  great  overfall  of  the  sea  near  the  Isle  of  EnUi,  where 
King  Arthur's  favourite  ship,  Gwennan,  was  cast  away.  This, 
it  seems,  was  a  ship  of  war  called  after  the  name  of  his  daughter, 
Ann.     The  place  bears  the  name  to  tliis  day. 

Os  anodd  ar  Gaswennan 

Droi  ar  lif  o'r  dwfr  i'r  Ian. — Boheri  Leiaf, 

Deuliw  berw  Caswennan, 
Golwg  dedd  amlwg  diddan. — Hywel  a/p  EiniotL 
See  Gwennan. 

Cathen  or  Cathan.  Llangathen  parish  in  Caermarthenshire. 
See  Caiheiniog, 

CA.TENEYS,  corruptly  for  Caithness.     See  Caiheiniog, 
Catguallon,  wrote  anciently  for  Cadwallon.     {E,  Llwyd.) 
Catguogan,  wrote  anciently  for  Cadwgan.     {E,  Llwyd) 
Catgwaladyr,  wrote  anciently  for  Cadwaladr.     {E.  Llwyd) 
Cathgoed  ym  M6n.     Dona  ynghathgoed  ym  Mon.    Hence 
Uangoed,  a  parish  there. 

Cathness,  the  most  N".  E.  comer  of  Scotland ;  probably  from 
an  island  of  that  name  formerly  called  Gathynys,  i.  e..  Cat  Island; 
or  OaethynySy  the  Prison  Island.  The  ancient  Britains  wrote 
enes  for  what  we  now  write  ynys,  an  island  ;  and  this  makes  me 
suspect  that  Totness  in  Devonshire  (which  is  said  in  Tyssilio  to 
be  the  place  where  Brutus  first  landed,  and  wrote  in  the  British 
copy  Totenys)  was  anciently  an  island  of  the  name  of  Tot  Ynys; 
and  that  all  other  places  of  the  same  termination  in  Britain, 
such  as  Dungness,  Sheerness,  Eastonness,  Inverness,  etc.,  do  not 
signify  n^se,  as  oui'  English  antiquaries  imagine,  but  are  the 
same  with  British  names  of  islands  of  the  like  sounds  in  Wales 
used  to  this  day,  as  Mon  Ynys,  Anglesey ;  Y  Voel  Ynys ;  Y  Las 
Ynys ;  Y  Wen  Ynys  and  Y  Fel  Ynys,  the  ancient  names  of 
Britain ;  and  every  island,  in  the  British,  is  to  this  day  called 
ynys,    Weik  of  Cathness.    (Major,  Hist  Scot) 

Cattbaeth,  or  Cad  Traeth,  some  place  in  Scotland  where  a 
battle  was  fought  by  Mynyddawc  Eydyn.   "  Gosgordd  Mynydd- 

11 


82  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

awe  Eiddun  yn  Nghadtraeth".  (Tr.  86.)     One  of  the  3  gosgordd 
adwy  Ynys  Prydain. 

Kiglen  am  dal  medd  mjned  draig  Cattraeth 
Gy  wir  i  harfaeth  arfan  llifaid. — Eirlas  Owain. 

See  the  Gododin. 

Cattw  ap  Geraint  ap  Erbin  ;  q.  d.  Cato, 

Cajtwg  (Sant  Llangattwg),or  CADOC,or  Cadawc,  son  of  Gund- 
Iseufl  (Gwynlliw  Filwr) ;  and  his  mother  was  Gwladus,  daughter 
of  Brychan  Brycheiniog.  (Oapgrave,)  He  was  instructed  by 
St.  Tathai,  who  was  an  Irish  doctor  at  Gwent  in  Monmouthshire, 
brought  there  by  Garadog  ab  Ynjrr  the  King.  From  thence 
Gadog  went  to  Uangarvan,  where  he  built  a  church  and  monas- 
tery, and  there  opened  a  school,  where  Illdud  and  Gildas  were 
his  disciples  (at  Gwenllwg  near  Pontvaen).  He  was  succeeded 
at  Uangarvan  by  his  disciple  Ellenius.  {Brit.  Sanct)  [catvc 
inscribed  on  a  monumental  stone  in  the  parish  of  Llandeveiliog, 
two  miles  north  of  Brecknock. —  W.  D,] 

Gattwn  Hen  o  Eufain,  Gato  the  elder. 

Gaw  (n.  pr.  v.).     Gaw  o  Dwrcelyn. 

Gaw,  a  poet  mentioned  by  Gynddelw. 

Gathlau  clan  cerddan  Gaw. 

Gaw,  father  of  GUdas,  Huail,  &c.  (Triades,)     See  Glides. 

Gaw  :  see  Bryn  Caw. 

Gaw  ap  Gowrda,  lord  of  Gwm  Gowlwyd  in  Arthur's  time. 

Gawr  was  an  appellative  or  title  given  some  warlike  princes, 
especially  in  Gambria,  signifying  a  warlike  prince,  which  an- 
swered to  Wledig  in  Loegria,  and  Priodawr  in  North  Britain. 
Gogyrfan  Gawr  was  father-in-law  of  King  Arthur ;  Ysbyddadden 
Pen  Gawr  o'r  Gogledd ;  Benlli  Gawr ;  BeU  Gawr ;  Albion  Gawr ; 
Idris  Gawr;  Othrwm  Gawr;  Rhitta  Gawr;  Nemrwth  Gawr; 
Llocrin  Gawr. 

Gamp  Gawr  yw  cwympo  caerydd.— lor.  Fynglwyd, 

Truan  fa*r  cyfrdan  ddwyn  Gawr  y  Cedym 
A*n  ceidwad  a'a  blaenawr. — Rhys  Brychcm, 

Gawr  pen  Mon  carw  Pen  Mynydd. 

Sion  Brwynog^  i  Harri  viii. 

Mr.  Baxter  will  have  the  word  to  come  from  cau  and  ur,  which 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  83 

he  makes  to  be  a  cave-man,  or  a  wild  man  living  in  caves ;  but 
cav,  is  not  a  cave  in  the  British :  and  this  derivation  is  whimsi- 
cal, and  a  mere  conceit,  like  too  many  of  his.   See  Caerlleon  Gawr, 

Cawrdaf,  son  of  Cariadog  Freichfras.     {Tr.  19.) 

Cawknwy,  a  place. 

O  Wy  hyd  Ghiwmwy. — Mar.  Trahaem, 

Qu.  whether  Oomwy  in  Anglesey  ? 

Cat  AN. .  Llangayan.    Tregaian. 

Ceccye,  river.    Aber  y  Ceccyr. 

Cecil,  a  modem  name  in  England  from  SeiaylU  or  Seidll,  an 
old  British  name  of  the  16th  King  of  Britain.   Seisyll  ap  Grwat. 

Cbdewain  or  Cydbwen,  a  cantref  of  Powys  Wenwynwyn.  Y 
Drefnewydd  ynghedewain.     See  Cydewain. 

Cedic  ap  Caredic  ap  Cunedda. 

Cedol  Sant  (n.  pr.  v.).    Cappel  Pentir.     Cors  y  GedoL 

Cedweli  (n.  L).    Z.  O.  Cothi,    See  Cydweli 

Cedwyn  (St.)  Uangedwyn,  a  chapel  in  the  parish  of  lian- 
rhaiadr,  Denbighshire.  Also  Uangedwyn  in  Meirion.  [Ynya 
Cechvyn  in  the  Vale  of  Tawy,  on  the  confines  of  Glamorgan  and 
Brecknockshire. —  W,  D.] 

Cedyrn  (Y).  Ynys  y  CedyrUy  the  isle  of  strong  men  or  heroes. 
Great  Britain. 

Cefenni  ;  Lat.  Oobanhium.     (E,  Llwyd  in  Monmouthshire) 

Cefn  and  Cefen,  anciently  wrote  GebheUy  is  a  Celtic  word  used 
in  the  composition  of  names  of  places  in  Britain  and  Gaul,  sig- 
nifying the  back  of  anything,  and  applied  to  mountains  and 
high  lands ;  hence  the  Gehenna  and  Gebennae,  a  mountain  in 
Gfiul,  which  should  be  wrote  Cebhenna. 

Cefn  yr  Aelwyd  (n.  1.),  where  a  battle  was  fought  by  Cadwallon 
ap  Madog.     {Cynddelw,  in  Marwnad  Cad.  ap  Madog.) 

Cefn  yr  Ais  (n.  1.). 

Cefn  Ammwlch  (n.  ].). 

Cefn  Bodig,  a  gentleman's  seat.    {J.  D,)     Vaughan's. 

Cefn  Bryn,  the  most  noted  hill  in  Gower  Land.  Here  is  a 
vast  cromlech  called  Arthur's  Stone.  (Ed.  Llwyd,  Notes  on  Cam- 
den.)    See  Gijbyr. 

Cefn  Cerwyni,  wrote  by  Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  Cefn  Gonoyni. 

Cefn  Cocu  (Y),  uomen  loci. 


84  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Pen  y  Cefn. 

Cefn  Cribwr,  in  Llandugwg,  Glamorganshire.  Qu.  whether 
Cibwr  ?  [NeLgBfCrihor.  Y  mae  Cibwr  yn  agos  i  30  milltir  tua'r 
dwyrain  oddiyno.— J.  M.] 

Cefn  Cynwarchen,  a  place  in  Dyfed,  where  the  Flemings 
sent  to  Ileweljna  ap  lorwerth  for  peace.     [Garadoc) 

Cefn  Deuddwr,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J.  D,)    Nanney. 

Cefn  Digoll,  the  Long  Mountain  between  Newtown  and 
Salop,  where  Cadwallon  fought  Edwin.  Here  a  battle  was  fought, 
after  the  death  of  Llewelyn  ap  Grufiydd,  between  Ehys  Am- 
redydd  and  the  Marchers,  1284  (qu.  ?). 

Cefn  Du  (Y),  nomen  loci     [Gefn  Du  in  lal. —  W.  2>.] 

Cefnffigen,  or,  in  English,  Kynfigs,  a  town  and  castle  in  Mor- 
ganwg  near  Aberavan.  {PmoeL)  CynflSg.  {Mr.  E,  Llwyd)  In 
the  highway  between  Margam  and  Cynffig  is  a  stone  with  the 
inscription,  Pompeius  Carantgrius.  {E.  Llwyd,)  [Cynffig  is  the 
Welsh  name.  It  is  not  found  anywhere  but  in  Powel  written 
Cefnffigen. — I.  Jf.] 

Cefn  y  Garlleg,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J,  D.) 

Cefn  Gwyn,  nomen  loci. 

Cefn  Hafod,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (J.  D.) 

Cefn  Hir,  a  gentleman's  seat.    {J,  D) 

Cefn  Llwyd,  nomen  loci. 

Cefn  Llys,  a  castle  in  Maelienydd.  (Camden's  Britannia) 
Castell  Cefn  llys. 

Cefn  y  Maes,  nomen  loci  [in  Glamorgan. — /.  2f.]. 

Cefn  Mabli,  nomen  loci. 

Cefn  Melgoed  (n.  1.),  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Cardiganshire. 

Cefn  Nithgroen,  nomen  loci. 

Cefn  yr  Odfa,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J.  D,) 

Cefn  Rester,  mountains  not  far  from  Caermarthen,  where 
Rhys,  Prince  of  Wales,  encamped,  1160. 

Cefn  Trefehsi,  nomen  loci. 

Cefn  Trefeilir,  nomen  loci. 

Cefni  or  Cefenni,  a  river  in  Anglesey.  Nant  Cefni,  the  valley 
of  the  river  Cefni,  in  Anglesey,  is  mentioned  in  ^Qnmvi^^ History 
of  the  Britons,  where  there  was  one  of  the  wonders  of  Anglesey, 
a  stone  which  wandered  about  in  the  night,  and  always  returned 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  85 

home  by  morning.  {Nennins,  c  Ixxxiv.)  Here  is  a  church  called 
Llangefni,  dedicated  to  St.  Cyngor.     See  Chenin. 

Cegid  (qu.  a  river  ?)  Ystum  Cegid,  a  gentleman's  seat.  (J.  D) 

Cechdfa,  a  parish  in  Montgomeryshire.    Y  Garth  ynghegidfa. 

Cegidog,  a  church  and  parish  (rectory)  in  the  deanery  of  Ehos, 
Denbighshire. 

Cei  or  Cai.  Caergei  in  the  Triades,  i,  e.,  Caergai.  There  is  a 
place  in  Meirion  called  Caergai ;  but  I  think  it  cannot  be  that 
meant  in  the  Triades  for  one  of  the  28  cities,  but  the  house  of 
Cai  Hir.    (Price's  DescHpt),    See  Cai  Hit, 

Ceianus  or  Keianus,  a  Scot  mentioned  by  Camden  out  of 
Nennius,  in  Glamorgan  and  Caermarthenshire,  whose  sons  are 
said  to  have  possessed  Kydweli  and  G^yr  till  drove  out  by 
Cunedda.     Not  in  Gale's  NenniiLS, 

Ceidiaw,  tad  Gwenddolau.    (Tr.  12.) 

Ceidio  (n.  L)  in  Anglesey.  Cappel  Ceidio,  Anglesey.  Ehod 
y  Geidio.     Ceidio,  a  church  in  Lleyn. 

Ceidio  Sant  ap  Coryf  ap  Caynawc  Mawr. 

Ceindrech  Penasgell,  daughter  of  EliferGosgorddfawr.  (rr.52.) 

Ceindkych  Santes  verch  Brychan  ynghaer  Godolawr. 

Ceinmeirgh,  a  gentleman's  seat.  {J.  D)  Ceinmyrch  and  DyflF- 
rjTi  Clwyd  were  two  cantrefs  belonging  to  Davydd  ap  Gruffydd, 
A.D.  1256. 

Ceint,  a  river  in  Anglesey. 

Ceint,  the  ancient  British  name  of  Kent,  as  if  wrote  in  Eng- 
lish Keint  or  Kynt ;  by  the  Eomans,  Cantium ;  the  people,  Oan- 
tii.  Caergeint  is  one  of  the  28  cities  in  the  Triades ;  in  another 
copy  it  is  Caergent;  by  Thomas  Williams,  C^oergfam^,  and  by  him 
Englished  Canterbury,  Usher  has  it  Caer  Cent  The  name 
seems  to  have  been  formed  from  cyntaf,  first  or  primitive  inha^ 
bitants.  The  Iceni  also  were  the  same  people,  but  were  distin- 
guished by  the  name  of  Uwchcyniaid,  or  upper  Cyniaid,  i.e., 
the  upper  first  men.  They  inhabited  the  land  called  now  Suffolk, 
Norfolk,  Cambridge,  and  Huntingdonshire.  The  Trinobantes 
were  the  same  primitive  inhabitants,  called  so  horn  their  town 
.Tro  Newydd. 

Ceinwen  Santes,  daughter  of  Brychan.  Her  churches  in 
Anglesey,  Llangeinwen,  and  Cerrig  Ceinwen.  She  is  called  by 
the  Latin  legendaries  Keina,     See  Brit.  Sanct,  Oct.  8. 


86  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Ceinydr  Sant  o  Feilionydd  ap  Rhiengar  Santes. 

Cp:iuchiog,  a  chapel  and  parish  in  Anglesey. 

Ceiriog,  a  river.  Hence  Glyn  Ceiriog  or  Dyffryn  Ceiriog  in 
Denbighshire.  Here  is  a  pass  through  the  mountains,  where 
Henry  II  with  his  vast  army  had  warm  work  with  the  Britains 
in  the  year  1165 ;  pan  dalwyd  y  gwystlon.     (Caradoc,  p.  169.) 

Ceirionnydd  (n.  1.).     Llyn  Ceirionnydd.     {Taliesin,) 

Ceirit.    Caer  Ceirit  (Nennucs)  ;  qu.  Ceiut  ?     See  Seri. 

Ceirw,  a  river  in  Wales  (E.Llwyd),  in  Llywarch  Hen's  Marw- 
nad  Cynddylan.  Ceiro,  or  perhaps  Ceirw,  is  a  river  near  Plym- 
lumon,  that  falls  into  Kheidiol  at  Aberceiro.  \Geirwy  falls  into 
Alwen  near  Bettws  Gwerful  Goch. —  W.  D.] 

Ceiswyn,  a  gentleman's  seat.  (/.  D)    Lloyd. 

Celemon.     Caer  Celemon.  {Nennius)    See  Sdemion. 

Celer.  liangeler,  a  parish  in  Carmarthenshire.  Qu.,  the  same 
with  Celert?    See  Bedd  Celert, 

Cellan  Sant. 

Cellan,  a  parish  church  in  Cardiganshire.  Also  Rhos  Cellan, 
Cardiganshire. 

Cellan  y  Gog,  in  Brecknockshire  (qu.  ?) 

Celleu:  see  Gelleu, 

Celli,  a  hazle  wood ;  Lat  coryletum.  Hence  the  names  of 
places  in  Wales,  etc.  Y  Gelli  Gandryll ;  Celli'r  Ffrydau  ;  GeUi 
Fadog ;  Celli'r  Eirin ;  Gelli  Gogau ;  Gelli  Fabwen ;  Gelli  Lyfdy ; 
y  Gelli  Dywyll ;  Gelli  Goch ;  Pen  y  Gelli :  hence  a  surname, 
PengeUy. 

Celliwig  (n.  1.),  King  Arthur's  palace  in  Cornwall.  {Tr.  46.) 
Here  King  Arthur  was  chief  king,  Betwini  head  of  bishops  (i  c, 
penesgyb),  and  Caradawc  Vreichfras  chief  elder  (i.e.,  prince). 
See  Dexci, 

Celyddon.  Coed  Celyddon,  the  Forest  of  Caledonia  in  Scot- 
land.    {Hoianau  Myrddin),     See  Myrddin  WylU. 

Celynin  Sant.     Llangelynin  in  Meirion. 

Celynnog  or  Clynnog  Fawr  yn  Arfon  (from  celyn,  i,  e.,  a  place 
of  holly),  a  village  with  a  large  church,  where  was  an  abbey 
which  had  formerly  great  privileges.  It  was  foimded  by  the 
famous  Beuno,who  is  said  to  have  i*eplaced  the  head  of  St.  Wini- 
fred, which  Caradog  had  cut  off.     See  Bcioio. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  87 

Cemlyn  ap  Meirion  Goch  o  L^. 

Oemmaes,  a  church  and  parish  in  the  deanery  of  Cyfeiliog, 
Powys.  Oemmaes  comes  from  ce/n  and  metes.  It  is  wrote  also 
Cemmes  and  Cemais. 

LI  an  dwr  yw  a  llanw  di  wres 

Llewjg  ami  drwy  hoU  Gemmes. — 8xon  Mawddwy, 

Oemmaes,  a  lordship  and  sea-port  in  Anglesey. 

Cemais,  one  of  the  eight  cantrefs  of  Dyfed.  (Price's  Descript) 
Gwrwared  ap  GwUym  o  Gemais. 

Cemoyth,  King  of  the  Picts.  (Caradoc,  A.D.  856,  p.  29.)  In 
Irish  Cionaod,    {Ogygia,  p.  481.) 

Cenaf  or  Cynau,  verch  Tewdwr  Mawr. 

Cenakth,  a  parish  in  Carmarthenshire. 

Cenau  ap  Coel  Godebog  ap  Tegfan  ap  Deheufraint  ap  Did- 

bwyll  ap ap  Grudd  ap  Buadel  Frych  ap  Eydeym  ap  En- 

digaid  ap  Endeym  ap  Enid  ap  Endos  ap  Endolau  ap  Afallach 
ap  Aflech  ap  Beli  Mawr  ap  Manogan. 

Cenedlon  verch  Brychan. 

CENHENFA,enw  lie.  [Cynhinfa,  nom.  loci,  in  Ilangyniw  parish. 
—  W.R] 

Cenin,  a  river :  hence  Cwm  Cenin  in  Llandeilo  Fawr,  Carmar- 
thenshire. 

Cennant  (fl.),  Cardiganshire. 

Cennen,  a  river  in  Carmarthenshire. 

Dwy  wlad  a  Chedweli  wenn 
Dwy  oes  cwyned  Is  Cennen. 

L.  Morganwg,  i  H.  Penri. 

Cynnydd  y  Drefoewydd  nenn 

Gynnor  gw;^  deutn  Cennen. — Bedo  Thylip  Bach. 

In  Morden's  Map  Cunrum, 

Ceneig  {k  een  and  rig,  rex.     See  Baxter). 
Cerdieselment  :  see  Blved. 
Ceedin,  a  river. 

Ucha'  cardod  nwch  Cerdin 
Isa'r  fost  sy  ar  ei  fin. 

leuan  Detdwynj  i  Dafydd  Llwyd  ap  Llewelyn  o  Gastell  Hy wel. 
[Cerdiny  a  rivulet  in  Ilandyssnl  on  the  Teivy.    Uwch  Cerdin  and 


88  CELTIC  EEMAINS. 

Is  Gerdin,  two  divisions  of  the  parish.  It  is  in  Cwmwd  Gwin- 
ionydd.—  W.  2>.] 

Ceredic  ap  Cunedda  Wledig  ap  Edeyrn. 

Ceredigion,  Ceretica,  the  county  of  Cardigan ;  from  Ceredig 
ap  Cunedda  Wledig,  about  the  year  440  drove  out,  with  his 
father,  from  North  Britain  by  the  Irish  Scots. 

Ceretica,  Ceredigion. 

Ceri,  a  commot  in  Cantref  Melienydd ;  now  a  village  and 
church  near  Newtown,  Montgomeryshire. 

Hawdd  imi  'ugwlad  Geri  gael. — leuan  Tew. 

Ceris,  Keris.  Hence  Pwll  Ceris,  the  name  of  a  spot  of  foul 
ground,  or  whirlpool,  in  the  Straits  of  Menai  channel,  very  dan- 
gerous for  shipping :  such  another  place,  in  name  and  nature,  as 
Charybdis  in  the  Straits  of  Sicily.  Nennius,  the  British  histo- 
rian, calls  it  Fwll  Kervtt 

Cernyw,  Cornwall,  Corinnia.  The  country  opposite  to  this 
was  anciently  called  Cernyw  or  Corrumailles;  and  afterwards, 
by  Cynan  Meriadoc, Pi^dain  Vechan^oi  Little  Britain.  See  Vertot. 

Cernyw  (Llan),  a  parish  and  church  in  the  deanery  of  Rhos, 
Denbighshire.     Church  dedicated  to  St.  Digain.     {Br,  Willis.) 

Cernyweg,  lingua  Corinmce. 

Cerrig,  stones,  in  the  names  of  places.  Hence  the  county  of 
Kerry  in  Ireland ;  in  Irish,  Kiemg ;  and  the  Isle  of  Skerries, 
q.  d.  ys  cerrig. 

Cerrig  y  Drudion,  or  the  Druids*  Stones,  a  village  in  Den- 
bighshire, North  Wales. 

Cerrig  Gwyddyl  ym  Mon. 

Cerrig  Havael. 

Cerrig  Hydwydd.    {E.  Llvxyd) 

Cerrig  Hywel,  in  Brecknockshire.    Fairs  kept  here.    Rectfe 
Crug  Howel. 
•    Cerrig  Niwbwl,  certain  stone  in  Cader  Idris. 

Cersith.  ap  Hydwn  D wn.     Censith  {D.  MS) 

Ceryn,  the  47th  King  of  Britain. 

Cesail  Gyfarch,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Caernarvonshire. 

Cesaryeit,  Csesarians,  i.  e.,  Romans  belonging  to  Caesfitf,  or 
the  followers  of  Julius  Cassar.     {Tr.  40.) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  89 

•  Cettell  or  Kettel.  Here  a  battle  was  foiight  between  Bar- 
cLred  King  of  Mercia  and  Mervyn  Vrych,  where  Mervyn  is  said 
to  have  been  slain.    (Powel,  Car.,  p.  27,  a.d.  843.) 

Cethin.    leuan  Gethin  ap  Madog  Cyffin. 

Cbthineoc  (Price's  Descript).    See  Oytheiniog. 

Ceugant  Peiluawt  orPEiLLiAWC,un  o'rtri  aurgelein.  (2V.68). 

Ceulan,  a  valley  near  Tal  y  Bont  in  Cardiganshire.  Here  I 
was  shown  the  grave  of  Taliesin,  in  an  open  field,  encompassed 
with  flat  stones,  but  without  any  inscriptions  in  sight.  L.  M.,  1745. 

Ceunant  (fl.) :  hence  Aberceunant. 

Ceurwys  Amheurwy. 

Ceyna  (St.),  a  virgin,  daughter  of  Brychan ;  her  acts  in  Cap- 
grave,  Oct.  8 ;  called  in  British  Oeinvayre,  or  Keyna  the  Virgin, 
i.  e.,  Ceinforwyn ;  turned  serpents  into  stone  of  that  shape. 
{Brit,  Sanct) 

Chenin,  a  valley  in  Anglesey,  in  the  Cambridge  copy  of  Nen- 
nius,  where  there  was  a  wandering  stone  which  always  returned 
home  by  promise.  Ci/ieinn,  the  same  valley  in  the  Cottonian 
copy  of  Nennius ;  GheJiennius,  the  same  valley  in  the  Oxford  copy 
of  Nennius ;  Ohieninn,  the  same  valley  in  Sir  Simon  D 'Ewes' 
copy  of  Nennius. 

There  is  a  deep  valley  and  a  river  called  Cefni  (anciently 
Cevenni)  in  Anglesey,  which  is  the  place  meant  in  Nennius, 
where  this  tra^velling  stone  was  said  to  be.  Some  trick  of  the 
monks,  no  doubt.  There  is  a  church  near  that  river  called  Llan- 
gefuL 

Chepstow,  the  Saxon  name  of  Casgwent  by  Castell  Gwent. 
[Casgwent  is  the  same  as  Castell  Gwent. — L  if.] 

Chikk,  a  parish,  church,  and  castle,  part  of  Powys  Vadog, 
Denbighshire ;  in  Welsh  Y  Waun,  but  called  anciently  CasteU 
Crogen. 

CiAN  (Sant) :  hence  Llangian.  There  was  an  Irish  saint  of 
the  name  of  Kienan  in  the  fifth  century.  (Flaherty,  Ogygia,  p.  409.) 

CiBDDAR  (n.  pr.  v.).  Drych  eilCibddar,  un  o'r  tri  Uedrithawc. 
(Tr.  33.) 

CiBWR  (or  Cibowr  as  in  Price's  BescripL),  one  of  the  commots 
of  Cantref  Brenhinol,  Morganwg.  [Cibwyr  is  between  the  rivers 
Taf  and  Eleirch,  vel  Ehymyn  sen  Ehympyn, — /.  M.] 

12 


90  CELTIC  REMAINS, 

CiL,  a  recess  or  hermitage ;  an  ancient  Celtic  word.  Aburid- 
ance  of  churches  in  Ireland,  Scotland,  and  Wales,  are  named  from 
this  word,  as  Cilkenin  in  Cardiganshire ;  Cilcwm  in  Cannarthen- 
shire ;  Cil  y  Sant ;  Cilwri  in  Cheshire ;  Cil  Maenan ;  Cilgeraint. 
In  Ireland,  Kildare,  Kilkenny,  Kilfinan,  Kilmallock,  Kilamey, 
Kilaloe,  Kilfenora,  Kilworth ;  Kilrenny,  Kjlblain,Kilmoney,  Kil- 
moir,  etc,  in  Scotland. 

CiLBEBYLL,  Glamorganshire. 
.  CiLCARN,  Pembrokeshire. 

CiLCARW,  Carmarthenshire. 

CiLCELFF.    Cynan  Cilcelff  ap  Tryfifin  Varfawg. 

CiLCEN,  a  gentleman's  seat.  {J.  D)  Mostyn.  A  church  (rectory 
and  vicarage)  in  Flintshire.  Dafydd  person  Cilken :  qu.  an  id. 
Kilkenny  in  Ireland  ? 

CiLCENiN,  in  Cantref  Penwedig,  Ceretica. 

KiLCHERAN,  a  place  in  North  Britain  wherie  Aeddan  ap  Gafran 
was  buried  a.d.  606.  (Flaherty,  Ogygia,  p.  476.)  He  was  bom  in 
Kyntir. 

CiLYCWM,  Carmarthenshire. 

CiLFACH:  see  Y  GUfach. 

CiLFACH  Afal,  a  house  in  Cardiganshire. 

CiLFACH  YR  Haidd,  Glamorganshire :  qiL  Cil  Fechan  ? 

Cil  Fargen  or  Fargak,  Caermarthenshire.    Vid.  Margan. 

CiLGARAN  (Camden  in  Perribrokeshire), oorrxiptly  for  Cilgeraint. 

Cilgeraint,  a  village  and  castle  in  Dyfed,  on  the  river  Teivi, 
which  Mr.  Camden  says  was  built  by  Giraldus  of  Windsor ;  but 
Powel  {Oaradocj  p.  169)  says  that  Eoger  Montgomery  begun  a 

castle  about  a.d ;  and  where  Gilbert  Strongbow,  Earl  of 

StrygiU,  built  one  a.d.  1 109,  the  county  of  Caredigion  being  given 
him  by  Henry  I  to  win  and  keep.  This  place  is  famous  for 
nothing  but  salmon  fishery.  The  name  signifies  the  Eetreat  of 
Geraint,  and  is  of  great  antiquity. 

Cilgerran  :  see  Cilgeraint 

Cilgwri,  Worrall  in  Cheshire. 

Cil  Hendre,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (J,  D.) 

Cilmanllwyd,  Pembrokeshire. 

CiLMiN  Droed-ddu  {i,  «.,  Cilmin  with  the  black  foot,  one  of 
the  Fifteen  Tribes  of  North  Wales)  ap  Cadrod  ap  Gwrydr  ap 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  91 

Elidir  ap  Sandde.  He  came  with  Mervyn  Frych  from  North 
Britain  about  the  year  840.  He  lived  at  Glyn  LUvon  in  Uwch 
Gwirfai.  He  bore  argent  quartered ;  on  the  first  quarter  an  eagle 
displayed  with  two  heads  sable;  2,  three  rugged  sticks  gules;  3 
and  4,  ditto, — a  man's  leg  couped  sable  in  an  eschutcheon  argent. 
The  tradition  is,  being  a  conjuror,  and  in  going  through  hell,  lus 
foot  slipt  into  a  river  there,  which  coloured  it  black.  There  was  a 
king  in  Ireland  in  the  year  516,  called  NiaU  Glinddu,  i.  «.,  Niall 
with  the  Black  Knee. 

CiL  Owen,  a  place  in  Flintshire,  so  called  from  Owen  Gwyn- 
edd*s  retreat  there  in  the  war  with  Henry  II,  King  of  England, 
A.D.1157.  {Caradoe  in  0.  Gwynedd.) 

Gil  Bhedyn,  Carmarthenshire,  a  church  and  parish.  Also  a 
place  in  Pembrokeshire.     See  Bhedyn. 

CiLRHEDYNEN,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Englefield. 

Gil  Ehiwa,  in  South  Wales. 

Gil  Euadd,  in  Ireland,  where  St.  Golman  built  a  cell.  {Ogygia, 
p.  413.)     See  Zlangolman, 

Gil  y  Sant,  a  church  in  Llanwinio  parish,  in  Derllys  hundred, 
in  Garmarthenshire.    The  retreat  of  the  saint :  qu.  ? 

GiLYDD  (n.  pr.  v.). 

GiLLYN  YNAD. 

GiNAST,  enw  lie.     Syr  Eoger  o  Ginast. 

KiNED  (St.),  probably  Ov^nadl;  Llangwnadl.  Kined  was  a 
hermit  of  the  6th  century,  honoured  with  the  friendship  of  St. 
David.     (Brit.  SancL,  Aug.  1.) 

GiNiN  ap  liowarch  Fychan. 

GiNMEL  or  Gynmael,  a  place  yn  Sir  Dinbych. 

GiOG  or  CuAWC,  a  river  which  falls  into  Dyfi  at  Dolgiog  in 
Montgomeryshire. 

Yn  Aber  Cnano  yd  canant  cogen. — Llywarch  Hen, 
Dolydd  Kjog. — Llywarch  Hen, 
See  Abercuawc. 

KiRKiNN,  a  battle  where  Dyfngart^  (Domangard)  ap  Aeddan 
was  slain  a.d.  598.     {Ogygia,  p.  475.) 

Glaerddu,  in  Geretica,  a  river  which  falls  into  the  Wye. 

Glaerwen,  a  river  in  Geretica  that  faUs  into  the  Wye. 

Clam  Hoctor,  Clamoctor  {Gild,  Gotton.),  and  Olam  Octor 
{Camden).    This  is  a  King  of  Ireland  mentioned  by  Nennius, 


92  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

-whose  sons  invaded  and  possessed  some  parts  of  Britain,  as  Dal)]!* 
eta  in  North  Britain,  the  Isle  of  Man,  and  G^yr  and  Cydweli 
in  South  Wales ;  but  were  drove  out  of  all  the  regions  of  Britain 
by  Cunedda  and  his  sons.  This  was  in  the  year  460 ;  one  of 
the  irruptions  mentioned  by  Gildas.  The  Irish  history  is  almost 
a  blank  about  this  time  of  confusion  at  the  very  dissolution  of 
the  Boman  power  in  Britain.  But  in  Flaherty  (p.  429)  I  find 
one  Loagair  mac  Neil  that  reigned  from  428  to  463,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded King  of  Ireland  by  one  OUlol  Molt,  son  of  a  King  of 
Conacht,  who  reigned  twenty  years.  The  above  Clam  Octor  was 
either  one  of  these,  or  perhaps  one  of  the  petty  kings  of  Ireland. 
See  Glam  Hector,  Ysgroeth,  Builke,  and  Bethoun, 

Clarach  (fl.),  Ceretica. 

Clare  (St.),  died  a  martyr  in  Normandy.  {BiHt.  Sand.,  Nov.  4.) 
Parish  of  St.  Clare's,  Carmarthenshire. 

Clas  (in  Mr.Llwyd's  copy),  an  island  mentioned  in  the  Triades, 
supposed  by  Mr.  E.  llwyd  to  be  Carfu,  an  island  in  the  Ionian 
Sea  on  the  coast  of  Greece.    Vid.  Cla^  Merdin, 

Clas  Merdin,  or,  as  some  MSS.  have  it,  Clas  Meitin,  the 
first  name  of  the  isle  of  Britain  {Tr.  1) :  perhaps  the  Olds  of 
Myrddin  (see  Glas) ;  perhaps  corruptly  for  Glas ;  in  the  same 
sense  as  Latin  writers  called  it  Insula  Cserula,  or  the  blue  island. 
See  Selden,  Mar.  Olaus.,  L  i,  c.  2. 

Clawdd  Offa,  Offa's  Ditch,  a  deep  trench  and  mound  thrown 
up  by  Offa,  King  of  Mercia,  from  sea  to  sea,  to  prevent  the  incur- 
sions of  the  Welsh,  about  the  year  784;  about  which  time  also 
the  Princes  of  Powys  were  obliged  to  remove  their  seats  from 
Pengwern  Bowys  (Salop)  to  Mathravael.  (Caradoc  in  Cynan 
Tyndaethtay,) 

Cledawc  ap  Brychan,  videtur  idem  quod  Clydawc. 

Cleddau  Du,  one  of  the  rivers  that  go  to  Milford  Haven  ;  the 
other  is  Cleddau  Gwyn.  A.  hundred  there  called  Dau  Gleddau. 
(Caradoc  in  Llewelyn  ap  lonvertJu) 

Cleddyf.    Caergleddyf  is  Tenby.  (Thomas  WiUiams.) 

Cleddyf,  a  river. 

Cleddyfrudd,  a  surname  signifying  a  ruddy  sword,  i.e.,  bloody. 
Gwgon  Cleddyfrudd  ap  Caradoc  Freichfras.     Vid.  Bhudd, 

Cledfryn  yn  Ehos,  the  Castle  of  Denbigh  in  Denbighshire. 
{Camden.) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  93 

.    Cledri  ap  Cadivor. 

Cledwyn  ap  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 

Clegyr  (Y),  a  gentleman's  seat,  Anglesey. 

Clegyr  Gwynion  (Y),  Anglesey. 

Cleifiog,  a  place  near  Holyhead  (from  clai). 

Cleirwy.    Boger  Vychan  o  Gleirwy. 

Cleitddyn.    Twain  ap  Cleuddyn. 

Cleugoch  (fl.) :  hence  Abercleugoch,  Carmarthenshire. 
.    Clocaenog,  a  parish  in  Denbighshire,  dedicated  to  St.  Voddyd. 
(Br.  Willis,)     See  THllo  Caenog, 

Clodrudd,  a  cognomen.  Elystan  Glodrudd,  is  also  wrote 
Clodrydd. 

Cloff,  lame.    Arglwydd  Glofif. 

Clogwyn  Carnedd  t  Wyddfa,  called  also  Clogwyn  y  Gam- 
edd,  the  highest  rock  in  the  three  kingdoms,  famous  for  Alpine 
plants.     {E,  Llwyd!) 

Clogwyn  Du  (Y),  ym  mhen  y  Glyder,  a  mountain  near  Llan- 
beris.     {E,  Llvryd.) 

Clogyuddwr  or  Clegyrddwr,  a  gentleman's  seat.  [J.D)  Jones. 

Cloit  and  Cloith,  in  Doomsday  Book,  corruptly  for  the  Clwyd 
river  which  runs  by  Bhuddlan. 

Clonenau,  i.  q.  Celynennau,  enw  He. 

Clorach  (n.  1.)  in  Mon.,  and  a  river.    Khyd  Glorach. 

Clotvaeth  verch  Brychan. 

Clud  (qu.  a  river  ?),  a  country  in  Maelienydd.    Hence  Einion 

Clud  ap  Madoc. 

Priodawr  clodfawr  Clad  ac  Aeron. 

Cynddelw,  i  Cadwallawn  ap  Madawc. 

Clun,  a  castle  of  the  Normans  in  Elvel,  a.d.  1142  (qu.  ?). 

Clun  Castle  in  the  Marches,  taken  by  Lord  Eys  A.D.  llOr*, 
and  burnt,  in  Shropshire.    British,  Colunwy. 

Clwch  (n.  I.)*  Clwch  Tymog,  a  place  in  Anglesey  noted  for 
chrystals. 

Clwyd  (fl.),  a  river  of  this  name  divides  between  Flintshire 
and  Denbighshire,  in  Dyffryn  Clwyd ;  Engl.,  the  Vale  of  Clwyd. 
Another  in  Scotland  called  by  Latin  writers  Olota,  and  the  people 
bordering  on  it  the  Stradclwyd  Britains ;  and  by  the  Saxon 
writers,  Stratclyde  Weales,  i,  e.,  Welsh  or  Brutaniaid  Ystrad 


94  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Clwyd,  now  called  Clyde,  which  runs  through  Clyde's  Vale  to 
DunbartoQ  and  Glasgow.    See  Yatrad  and  Strat. 

Clydau,  a  parish  in  Pembrokeshire. 

Clydawg  (St.),  or  Clitauc,  son  of  Clitguin,  Prince  of  South 
Wales :  see  his  Life  in  Capgrave  and  in  Dugdale^s  Monasticon, 
voL  iii  He  was  buried,  where  he  was  killed,  by  the  river  Min- 
gui  (Mynwy),  where  a  church  was  erected  and  dedicated  to  him 
by  the  Bishop  of  Llandaf.     {Brit.  Sanct.) 

Clydawg  ap  Cadell,  slain  by  his  brother  Meuric,  ad.  917. 
(Powel,  Caradoc,  p.  47.) 

Clydawg  ap  Ithel,  the  53rd  King  of  Britain. 

Clydei  verch  Brychan. 

Clydno,  the  54th  King  of  Britain. 
,  Clydno  Eiddun,  a  Prince  of  North  Britain  (qu.  Edinborough  ?), 
father  of  Cynon.    {Tr.  53.) 

Clynennatj  or  Celynennatt,  a  place  in  Caernarvonshire.  Sir 
John  Owen  of  Clenenney.     (/.  JD.) 

Clynnog  or  Celynnog  (a  place  of  holly),  a  church  dedicated 
to  St.  Beuno  in  Caernarvonshire. 

Clyno  ap  Cynyr  Farfdrwch. 

Clynogwr,  a  parish  (qu.  ?)  in  Glamorganshire,  or  Glyn  Ogwr. 
Vid.  Offwr,  river. 

Clyw^DOG  (n.  ti),^,,8onarus  (qu.).  Llanvair  y  Clyieedogau ;  two 
rivers  of  that  name  there  meet.  Several  of  this  name.  [  Watein 
Clywedog,  a  poet —  W^.  -D.] 

Cnbppyn  Gwrthrynion,  a  poet  of  the  country  of  Gwrthrynion. 
[Marvmad  Trahaem,) 

Cnwccin,  a  place  not  far  from  Oswestry  {Dr,  Powel,  p.  381), 
where  Madoc  defeated  the  Marchers.  A  parish  and  church  now 
called  Knockin,  Shropshire.  The  castle  was  founded  1242,  says 
J.  K,  by  John  le  Strange. 

Ckwx)c  Glas,  in  Badnorshire,  a  gentleman's  seat 

Cnwch  (n.  1.).  Pen  y  Cnwch. 

CocH,  properly  red.  Cantref  Ooch,  formerly  one  of  the  seven 
cantrefs  of  Morganwg,  is  now  in  Gloucestershire,  called  Forest 
of  Dean.  (Price's  Description.)  Y  Fron  Goch ;  y  Plas  Goch ;  y 
Ehiw  Goch ;  y  Garn  Goch ;  y  Ehos  Goch ;  yr  AUt  Goch ;  Traeth 
Goch,  etc.    lorwerth  Goch  (n.  pr.  v.).   Y  Castell  Coch  ymhowys. 


CET4TIC  REMAINS.  d5 

the  Eed  Castle  in  Powysland,  now  called  in  English  Pcmis  CastU, 
It  lies  on  an  eminence  above  the  river  Severn,  near  the  town  of 
Welsh  Poole,  in  the  county  of  Montgomery,  and  hath  a  prospect 
that  wants  nothing  (except  a  view  of  the  sea)  to  make  it  com- 
plete. It  is  a  grand,  ancient  house,  built  on  a  rock,  in  form  of  a 
castle,  and  hath  been  a  stronghold  in  the  time  of  the  ancient 
Britains. 

GocHWiLLAN,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  the  parish  of  Uandygai^ 
near  Bangor  Fawr.  From  hence  came  the  famous  John  Williams, 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury  [York. —  W.  J9.] 

Coed,  properly  wood,  in  the  composition  of  names  of  places, 
as  Caer  Penhwyl  Coed ;  Uangoed,  a  church  in  Anglesey  and 
Brecknockshire. 

Llan-goed  fal  llwynau  Godwin. — Hywel  Bafydd. 

Coedmor  or  Coetmor ;  Coed  Llys ;  Tsgubor  y  Coed ;  Coed  Gron- 
wy;  Dugoed  Mowddwy;  Llechwedd  Hiigoed ;  Argoed ;  y  Coedty ; 
y  Goedtref ;  Glascoed ;  Coed  y  Brain ;  y  Perfeddgoed ;  y  Glyp- 
coed,  Anglesey ;  Coed  Celyddon,  yn  yr  Alban ;  Coetalog,  i.  e., 
Coed  halawg ;  Coedtraeth,  near  Tenby;  Trawsgoed ;  Pen  y  Coed ; 
Ty'n  y  Coed  ;  Cantref  y  Coed,  one  of  the  eight  cantrefs  of  Dyfed ; 
Coed  y  Mynydd ;  Uwchcoed  and  Iscoed,  etc. 

CoEDANE  or  CoEDANAU,  a  chapel  of  that  name  in  Anglesey. 
See  Cad  y  Coedanau. 

Coed  Celyddon,  near  Litchfield. 

Coed  Cae'  Du,  in  Trawsfynydd. 

Coed  t  Cra,  a  gentleman's  seat, — EUises.    {J.  D) 

Coed  y  Cymmar,  Brecknockshire. 

Coed  Eulo  :  see  Euh. 

Coed  Gronw,  near  Abergavenny.    {H.  Llwyd) 

Coed  yr  Haf,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  the  Cantref  of  Pen- 
fro.     (Price's  Descript) 

Coed  Llwyfain  :  see  Lhvyfain. 

CoEDMOR  (n.  L).  Llangoedmor,  a  church  and  parish,  and  a 
gentleman's  seat,  in  Cardiganshire.     See  Coetmor. 

Coed  y  Mynydd,  in  TegeingL    (D,  ap  Edmund,) 

Coed  Ehygyn,  a  house  in  Trawsfynydd. 

CoEDRWG,  in  lal,  a  gentleman's  seat. 

Coedtraeth,  near  Tenby,  a  place  not^d  for  trees  appealing  in 


96  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

the  sand  at  low  water.  (See  TJwyd's  Notes  on  Camden  in  Pem^ 
hrokeshire.)  This  is  by  Camden  erroneously  wrote  Groytarath, 
No  wonder  that  the  Romans  wrote  the  names  of  our  places  so  bad. 

CoEDTY  (Y),  Glamorganshire. 

Coed  y  Llai,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (J.  D.) 

Coed  Yspys.  A  battle  fought  here,  where  the  Nonnans  were 
defeated  by  Cadwgan  ap  Bleddyn  of  Powys,  who  the  same  year, 
with  GruJBTydd  ap  Cynan,  Prince  of  North  Wales,  had  taken  their 
castles  in  Cardigan  and  Dyfed,  a.d.  1092.    (PqwcI) 

CoEG.    GaUwyn  Goeg. 

CoEL  (n.  pr.  v.).  Camden  derives  it  from  Codius,  as  Howel 
fix)m  HcrUus,  sunbright,  used  in  Britain  before  the  Soman  inva- 
sion. 

CoEL,  son  of  CadeU  ap  Geraint,  the  45th  King  of  Britain. 

CoEL,  Earl  of  Gloucester,  the  85th  King  of  Britain,  father  of 
Elen  (i.  c,  Helena  Augusta),  his  only  child,  called  by  the  Britains 
Elen  Lwyddawg,  or  the  Prosperous,  the  wife  of  Constantius,  and 
mother  of  Constantine  the  Great,  Emperor  of  Bome. 

CoEL  GODHEBOG,  or  Coel  Hen,  priodawr  o'r  Gogledd,  the  son 
of  Tegfan  ap  Deheufraint,  was  a  Prince  in  North  Britain,  father 
of  Cenau,  from  whom  descended  several  great  warriors,  Padam 
Beisrudd,  Pabo  Post  Prydain,  Urien  Reged,  Uywarch  Hen,  etc. 
These  two  Coels  are  confounded  together  by  some  of  the  poets, 
etc., who  have  misled  Geo.  Owen  Harry  and  several  other  writers. 
See  Hanes  24  Brenhin, 

Coel  ap  Meurig,  the  78th  King  of  Britain. 

Coel  Momadawg. 

[CoELBRYN.  Capel  Coelbryn  in  Brecknockshire.  A  Roman 
causey  thereby.    Arch.y  i,  p.  297. —  W.  D,] 

CoETEN  Arthur,  i.  e..  King  Arthur's  Quoit.  By  this  name  a 
great  many  of  those  ancient  monuments  in  Wales  are  called, 
which  by  the  modems  are  supposed  to  have  been  the  altars  of 
the  Druids ;  but  in  some  places  they  are  called  croinlech,  pi.  crovft- 
lecfiau.  One  of  them  at  Llanvihangel  Tre'r  Beirdd,  in  Anglesey, 
is  called  Coeteri  Arthur ;  another,  near  Harlech,  etc.,  etc. 

CoETMOR,  a  place  in  Carnarvonshire,  t.  e..  Coed  Mawr ;  and 
Llangoedmor,  a  parish  in  Cardiganshire.  Hence  Catmore  in  Rut- 
land.   Pugh  of  Coetmor. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  97 

CoF  Angharad,  enw  Awdl  i  Angharad  verch  Ricart.  (D.  ap 
Givilyfn) 

[CiG,  the  name  of  two  villages  and  two  or  three  farmhouses 
in  Glamorgan.     Qusere,  what  does  it  mean  ? — L  M.] 

[Cog AN,  the  name  of  three  or  four  villages  in  Glamorgan.-/,  ilf.] 

CoLEDAWG  or  CoLEDDAWG  (n.  pr.  V.),  mab  Gwyn,  un  o'r  tri  an- 
heol.     Qu.,  anneol,  unchosen  ? 

CoLEiGiON,one  of  the  three  eommots  of  Cantref  Dyffryn  Clwyd; 
from  Coel  ap  Cunedda  Wledig.     (Price's  Descript) 

CoLEYON  (Price's  DescripL),  by  mistake  for  Coleigion. 

CoLMAN  (St.).  Llangolman  in  Dj^ed.  Colman  was  an  Irish 
saint,  and  the  third  Bishop  of  lindisfame.  Died  676.  {Ulster 
Annals.)  There  have  been  several  Irish  saints  of  this  name  about 
A.D.  661.    (Brit.  Sanctj  Aug.  8.) 

GoLMON,  the  name  of  some  Irish  general  that  invaded  Anglesey 

about  A.D There  is  a  great  ditch  thrown  up  near  Tre 

Wynn,  called  F/os  Golmon  to  this  day ;  and  the  ruins  of  a  town 
hard  by,  called  Y  Gaimeddau,  or  the  Heaps ;  but  no  tradition 
what  town  it  was.  A  wedge  of  gold,  about  20  lbs.  weight,  was 
lately  found  near  the  place,  and  other  treasure. 

CoLOFN  Prydain,  some  measure  of  poetry,  it  seems.  (Cynddelw, 
i  Hywel  ap  0.  Gwynedd.) 

O  Golofn  Prydain  y  prydaf 
Yn  gelfydd  or  defnydd  dyfnaf. 

CoLUN,  CoLUNWY,  in  English  Clynn  or  Clun.     See  Oolun, 
CoLUNWY,  a  river  in  Shropshire.  {Camden.)   Hence  the  Forest 
of  Clun,  Shropshire. 

CoLUNWY,  a  surname,  from  the  river. 

Maccwy  Colunwy,  cei  lawenydd. 

I).  M.  Tttdur^  i  Howel  Colnnwy. 

CoLWEN.  CasteU  Colwen  (Camden,  Britannia),  which  he 
makes  Maud's  Castle  in  Colwent.    Qu.,  whether  CasteU  Colwen  ? 

CoLWN :  see  Oolun. 

CoLWYN,  a  river.  Ystum  Colwyn,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Mont- 
gomeryshire. 

COLYN,  the  name  of  a  man  among  the  ancient  Britains :  hence 
Ehos  Colyn  in  Anglesey.     I  know  Mr.  Rowlands  fancied  it  came 

13 


98  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

from  Colofn,  or  a  column  erected  there  by  the  Romans  at  the 
extreme  boundary  of  their  conquest.  Hence  also  Dincolyn,  an 
ancient  fort  in  the  parish  of  Diaerth  in  Tegeingl,  where,  in  a 
field  called  Bryn  Colyn,  there  are  ruins  of  an  old  fort.  (E, 
Llwyd,  Itinerary,)     See  T  Ddiserth  and  Colyn  Dolphyn, 

Colyn  Dolphyn,  a  Briton  pirate  in  Bristol  Channel  in  Eichard 
the  3rd'8  time,  a.d.  1477.     (Powers  Caradoc,  p.  139.) 

CoLYNNOG  Fawb  yn  Arfon,  or  Celynnog  or  Clynnog. 

Coll  (n.  pr.  v.).  CoU  mab  CoUfrewy,  un  o'r  tri  Gwrddfeich- 
iad.  (TV.  30.)  This  man  was  the  principal  king-at-anns  in 
King  Arthur's  time ;  for  it  appears  in  this  Triad  that  he  gave 
the  eagle  to  Brynach  the  Scot,  and  the  wolf  to  Menwaed  of 
Arllechwedd.  This  shows  the  great  antiquity  of  bearing  arms 
in  Britain.  Un  o'r  tri  prif  hut.  (Tr,  32.)  Hut  Rhuddlwm  Gawr 
a  ddysgodd  i  Coll  mab  CoUfrewy.  [Tr.  32.)  Coll  mab  CoUfrewy, 
un  o'r  tri  prif  Uedrithawc.  {Tr,  33.) 

CoLLAWN  (n.  pr.  v.).     CoUawn  mab  Berch.    {Tr,  Meirch,  8.) 

CoLLEK  (St.)  ap  Gwynawg  ap  Clydawg  ap  Cowrda  ap  Cariadog 
Vreichfras.  Llangollen,  a  church,  parish,  and  village  in  Den- 
bighshire. Fairs  kept  here.  The  Abbey  of  Valle  Crucis  in  ruins 
near  this  place ;  and  also  Castell  Dinas  Bran^  an  impregnable 
fort.    Pont  Llangollen,  a  curiosity. 

CoLLFRYN  (n.  L),  q.  A  Bryn  y  CyH 

Cnewillyn  y  Collfryn  cell. — H,  Oilan^  i  Gr.  Deuddwr. 

[Coll-fryn,  from  loss  of  a  battle ;  and  Cefn  Digoll,  where  it  was 
retrieved. —  W,  DJ] 

CoLLWYN  (n.  pr.  v.),  and  not  Collfryn, 

Collw^n  tylwyth  Bleddyn  blaid.— flyweZ  Dafydd, 

CoLLWYN,  a  river.    Dyffryn  CoUwyn,  Breconshire. 

CoNGARTH  Fechan,  the  old  name  of  the  place  where  the  Castle 
of  Pembroke  was  built  by  Gerald  Steward  of  Pembroke,  A.D. 
1108.    {Carad.,  p.  163.)     Qu.,  whether  the  Oangi  t 

CoNiACH,  Conaught  in  Ireland. 

A  hyder  o  wychder  iach 
Hy  goresgynny  Goniach. 

lolo  Ooch  to  Sir  Bog.  Mortimer. 

CoNSTANS,  or  Cwsteint,  the  86th  King  of  Britain.  This  is  Con- 
stantius  Chlorus,  father  of  Constantine  the  Great. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  99 

CONSTANnus ;  Cambro*British^  Cwsteint  and  Constans. 

CONSTANTINUS ;  Cambro-British,  Owstenin.  Camden  says  "  in 
some  parts  of  the  realm"  he  was  called  Custance,  meaning  Wales ; 
but  he  was  wrong.  All  our  British  writers  call  him  Cwstenin 
oxCwstenyn;  and  there  is  a  church  in  Caernarvonshire  dedicated 
to  Cwstenyn  Fendigaid^  called  Llangwstenyn.    See  Custeint. 

CONSTINOBL  (Triad  61),  i.  e.,  Constantinople. 

CoDstinobl  a'i  phobl. 

Conwy,  or,  as  Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  would  have  it,  Cynvry;  Lat- 
inized Conovium  by  Antoninus  (rectfe  Convium) ;  a  garrison  town 
and  a  beautiful  castle  built  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  Conwy 
in  Caernarvonshire,  which  stands  to  this  day.  The  river  is  called 
by  the  natives  Alerconwy ;  Latinized  Aberconovium  ;  by  Ptolomy 
called  Toisovius  for  Conovius  {Oamden),  It  is  comiptly  called 
in  English  Conway,  This  place  was  by  the  Princes  of  Wales 
found  more  convenient  than  the  situation  of  Diganwy,  which 
was  the  ancient  town  that  lay  on  the  east  side  of  the  river, 
where  the  Princes  of  Wales  formerly  resided ;  and  where  King 
John  came  with  a  vast  army  to  destroy  all  Wales  and  every 
living  thing  in  it,  A.D.  1211 ;  but  was  defeated  by  the  Welsh,  and 
reduced  to  great  extremities.     See  Teganwy. 

The  Abbey  of  Conway  was  buUt  by ;  and  here  they  kept 

the  records  of  the  acts  and  successions  of  the  Princes  of  North 
Wales,  and  buried  their  chief  men.  This  Abbey  was  spoiled  and 
burnt  by  Henry  III,  a.d.  1245,  who  then  lay  at  Diganwy,  which 
Matth.  Paris  calls  Gannock.  Hugh  Earl  of  Chester  fortified 
Conway  before  Edward  I's  time.     (Camden  in  Caernarvonshire) 

Conwy  is  also  an  appellative.  Hugh  Conwy  ap  Robin  ap  Gr. 
Goch.  Hence  the  surname  of  Conway,  It  is  wrote  Conwy  by 
our  learned  poets ;  as, 

Neam  bn  aralldyd  ym  rydyd  rwy 
Cer  moreb  cain  wyneb  Conwy. 

Prydydd  y  Moeh^  i  L.  ap  lorwerth. 

Gwdion  mab  Don  ar  Gonwy 
Hndlaih  ni  ba  o'i  fath  fwy. 

D,  ap  OwUym. 

Wyr  i'r  gwalch  o  oror  Gwy 
Wyd  a*i  genedl  hyd  Gonwy. 


100  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Y  cawn  ar  Ian  Conwy  *r  wledd 
Nan  Conwy  man  cawn  y  medd. 

Tudur  Aled. 

Coppa'r  Leni,  a  gentleman's  seat  near  a  hill  of  that  name  near 
Rhuddlan.     [Coppa^r  Oleuni,  a  beacon  there. —  W.  JD,] 

CoRANNiAiT  or  CoRANYEiT,one  of  the  three  molesters  of  Britain. 
(Tr.  41.)  This  is  a  nation  or  colony  of  strangers  said  to  have 
come  to  Britain  in  the  time  of  Ilndd  ap  Beli,  which  was  before 
the  Roman  conquest,  and  are  said  to  be  originally  Asiatics. 
These  may  be  the  people  called  by  Roman  writers  Coritani.  (See 
Camden,  who  could  give  no  account  of  them.)  It  is  probable 
they  were  Grermans,  for  Lludd  went  over  to  Gaul  to  advise  with 
his  brother  Llefelys  about  them ;  so  they  were  not  Gauls.  {Tys- 
silio,)  See  "  Stori  'r  tair  Gormes."  [Of  these  L.  M.  gives,  in  his 
own  opinion,  a  very  good  account. — I.  MJ] 

CoRDiLA  or  CoRDEiLA,  a  Quecn  of  Britain  who  reigned  five 
years,  being  the  11th  Prince  of  Britain  of  the  Trojan  race.  She 
was  daughter  of  Ilyr. 

CORINEWa 

CoRMUR  ap  Eurbre  Wyddel.     See  Btychan. 

CoRNDOCHEN.  Castell  Comdochen,  the  ruins  of  a  castle,  of 
which  no  author  makes  mention,  says  Mr.  E.  Llwyd.  {Notes  on 
Camden,)  It  lies  in  the  parish  of  Llanuwchllyn  in  Merionydd- 
shire.  It  is  seated  on  the  top  of  a  steep  rock  at  the  bottom  of  a 
deep  valley,  a  wall  surrounding  three  turrets,  and  the  mortar 
made  of  cockle-shells.  Mr.  Edward  Hwyd  thinks  it  built  by  the 
Romans,  but  gives  no  reason  for  it.  See  Prysor,  [It  is  more 
likely  to  be  British  than  Roman.  There  were  no  coins  nor  any 
other  Roman  relics  found.  No  Roman  military  way  goes  near 
it.  The  situation  might  have  served  for  a  short  defence ;  but 
the  besieged  would  soon  find  the  inconvenience  of  the  place. 
The  Romans,  according  to  Hyginus,  always  chose  a  place  where 
they  might  conveniently  draw  out  to  figlit.  These  brave  people 
never  fortified  such  places  inaccessible  as  would  show  they  were 
afraid  of  the  enemy.  Camdochen  and  Treberry  (Tre'r  Biri,  or 
Castell  y  Biri,  q.  v.),  if  any,  are  of  Welsh  construction,  thinks 
Daines  Barrington ;  and  he  would,  he  says,  add  Castell  Dinas 
Bran,  if  not  so  near  the  English  frontier.     He  adds  that  the 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  101 

Welsh  princes  had  neither  money,  skilful  masons,  nor  a  sufficient 
number  of  hands,  to  complete  such  works.  He  had  never  seen 
a  coin  of  a  Welsh  prince.  None  of  them  (meaning  the  Welsh) 
can  now  lay  courses  so  well,  or  hew  so  regularly,  as  those  in 
many  of  the  ancient  castles. —  W,  D,] 

CoRNWY,  a  mountain  in  Anglesey ;  and  qu.  whether  a  river  by 
Caerau  ?  Y  Gam  ynghomwy. 

ComwyLys  and  ComwyLan  are  divisions  of  a  lordship  there : 
hence  a  church,  lianvair  ynghomwy.     See  Extent  of  Anglesey. 

CoROLWNG  ap  Beblig. 

CoRS,  a  bog ;  frequent  in  Ireland ;  used  in  the  names  of  some 
places  where  there  are  no  bogs ;  as,  Cors  y  Gedol,  Meirion ;  but 
chiefly  of  places  so  situated.  Dol  y  Corslwyn,  a  gentleman's 
seat ;  Cors  y  Bol ;  Cors  Eilian ;  Cors  Ddygai ;  Cors  y  Cefndu ; 
Glan  y  (Jors,  a  gentleman's  seat ;  y  Gors  Ddu ;  y  Gors  Wen ;  y 
Gors  Eudd ;  Ehiw  Rygors ;  y  Gors  Lwyd ;  y  Gors  Fawr ;  Uan- 
gors,  Brecknockshire,  etc.  Mr.  Edward  Ilwyd,  in  his  Letter  to 
Nicolson,  author  of  the  Historical  Library y  says  that  cors  signifies 
a  marsh,  which  is  a  mistake  I  don't  know  how  he  could  be  guilty 
of,  for  a  marsh  is  rnorfa ;  and  he  further  adds  that  cors  signifies 
also  a  reed,  and  marshes  being  often  overgrown  with  them,  it 
was  thence  probably  they  were  called  corsydd.  [Gors  is  a  marsh 
in  South  Wales ;  cors  is  also  a  reed  in  South  Wales. — L  J!f.] 
This  was  also  a  great  oversight  in  Mr.  Ilwyd,  for  corsen  in  the 
British  and  Armoric,  and  not  cars,  is  the  name  for  a  reed,  which 
is  plainly  derived  from  ctw-a,  a  bog,  because  often  growing  in 
bogs ;  and  corr  in  Irish  is  a  pit  of  water. 

Frenniau  cors  are  the  subterranean  trees  found  in  bogs,  but 
not  in  marshes,  unless  such  marshes  have  been  bogs.  Oorsydd 
are  inland,  but  marshes  are  on  the  sea-coast,  and  so  called 
because  overflowed  by  the  sea,  and  therefrom  called  morfa. 
There  is  also  a  distinction  between  mavm  cors  and  rriavm  mynydd, 
i.  e.,bog  turf  and  mountain  turf;  but  there  is  no  turf  in  marshes, 
which  are  clayey  ground. 

Cors  Fochno,  a  bog  by  the  river  Dyfi. 

A  chad  Cors  Fochno  a  chad  ym  M6n. — Hoi.  Myrddin. 

Cors  Heilin,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J.  D,) 


102  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

CoRS  Y  GEDOL,in  Meirionyddaliire,the  seat  of  William  Vaughan, 
Esq.,  Member  of  Parliament  for  that  county. 

[CoRS  T  Saeson. —  JT.  D.] 

CoRTHi  (o  Lwyn  Dyfnog)  ap  Medrod. 

CoRUN  ap  Ceredic.    Harri  Corun.    Cwm  Corun. 

CoRWEN,  a  vlUage  in  Edeymion  in  Powys  Land,  where  Owain 
Gwynedd,  with  the  forces  of  North  and  South  Wales  and  Powys, 
came  to  meet  Henry  II,  King  of  England,  with  a  vast  army  fix)m 
England,  Normandy,  Anjou,  Gascoine  and  Guyen,  Flanders,  and 
Britanny.  Here  the  Britains  encamped,  and  the  King  of  Eng- 
land encamped  on  the  river  Ceiriog,  where  they  disputed  the 
pass  with  him  with  some  loss  of  both  sides ;  but  he  got  over, 
and  encamped  on  the  side  of  Berwyn  Mountain.  Here  Owain 
Gwynedd  got  master  of  all  the  passes,  that  neither  forage  nor 
victuals  could  come  to  the  King's  camp,  nor  durst  a  soldier  stir 
abroad.  To  augment  his  miseries,  such  heavy  rains  fell  that  the 
strangers,  not  used  to  such  grounds,  could  not  stand  upon  their 
feet ;  so  with  much  ado  the  King  returned  with  great  loss  of 
men  and  danger  of  his  life,  without  effecting  his  purpose  of  de- 
stroying aU  that  had  life  in  the  land,  as  he  intended  and  threat- 
ened. A.D.  1165.  (Garadoc  in  Owain  Gvjynedd.)  See  Berwyn  and 
Crogm. 

CoRYBANTAU,  rect^  Ov/To  i  hantau.  The  Corybantes  among  the 
CeltaB  were  the  same  with  the  Curetes,  priests  of  Cybele.  Six 
brethren  who  had  the  care  of  bringing  up  lou  were  so  called  from 
their  curOy  beating  their  weapons  together  to  make  a  noise.  This 
they  did  in  the  isle  of  Crete,  that  Saturn  might  not  hear  his  son 
lou  cry.  And  when  lou  came  of  age  he  rewarded  them,  and  made 
them  priests  to  Cybele  in  Mount  Ida  in  Phrygia.    See  Curetes. 

CosGARN  EiNiON,  in  Basaleg,  Monmouthshire. 

CossEiL  or  CossAiL,  a  consul ;  the  principal  of&cer  or  general 
of  the  Boman  party  of  the  Loegrian  Britains ;  and  the  word  was 
in  use  even  after  the  Saxon  conquest  of  Loegria. 

Ny  thorrei  Oosseil  fy  nherfyn. — Llywarch  Hen. 
Ni  cbarei  OossaU  fy  ngwrthlid. — Llywarch  Hen. 

Cot  :  vid.  Oynlas.    Whether  Coth,  old  ? 
CoTHi,  a  river  in  Caermarthenshire,  falls  into  the  Towi.  Hence 
Dol  y  Cothi  (n.  1.) ;  Glyn  Cothi.    See  Glyn  and  Dol, 
Lewis  Glyn  Cothi,,  a  famous  poet,  A.D.  1456. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  1 03 

CouNSYLLT,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Tegengl  hundred. 
See  Prestatyn  and  Bhttddlan,  the  other  two. 

CouNSYLLT,  a  strait  or  pass  near  FKnt.  Here  Owain  Gwynedd 
with  his  North  Wales  men  met  and  fought  Sondel  Earl  of  Chester 
and  Madoc  ap  Meredyth,  Prince  of  Powys,  with  hired  soldiers 
from  England,  more  in  number  and  better  armed  than  the  Gwyn- 
eddians,  where  Owen  gave  them  a  total  defeat,  and  very  few 
escaped  except  the  chief  oflScers  by  the  swiftness  of  their  horses, 
A.D.  1148.  (Caradoc  in  0,  Gwynedd,)  Here  also  King  Henry  II, 
in  his  first  attempt  against  the  Welsh,  took  the  standard  of 
England ;  and  the  King  lost  several  noblemen,  and  was  obliged 
to  fly.  (Powers  Chron.,  p.  207.)   See  Ooed  JEulo. 

CowBRiDGB,  or  Bontvaen,  a  town  in  Morganwg. 

CowNi,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (/.  D,) 

CowRDA  Sant.  A  church  of  his  at  Llangoed.  Cowrdaf  ap 
Gariadog  Freichfras.  Bron  Llangowrda,  the  ruins  of  a  chapel  in 
Cardiganshire.  [GalU  Cawrda,  a  monastery  of  Glamorganshire, 
now  in  ruins. — I.  MJ\ 

COWRES  (n.  L),  qu.  a  river  ? 

Llys  Gowres  lies  ag  arian.— -O.  op  LI.  Moeh 

Tri  o  gariad  trwy  Gowres. — Eywel  Swrdwal. 
See  Gowres. 

CowRTD  ap  Cadvan :  qu.  Cywryd  ? 

CowRYD  ap  Perfarch  ap  larddur. 

CowYN  or  CowiN,  a  river.  (Llyivarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cadwall- 
awn.)    Llandeilo  Abercowyn,  Caermarthenshire.   See  Abe^-camyn, 

CoYTY,  a  lordship  in  Morganwg ;  or  perhaps  Coedty.  (Powel, 
p.  122.)  [The  richest  parish  in  Britain,as  the  inhabitants  boast;  it 
has  a  very  rich  soil,  plenty  of  wood,  coal,  lime,  iron,  lead,  marble, 
freestone,  slate,  millstone,  potter's  clay;  salmon,  trout  in  abund- 
ance ;  two  castles,  two  churches,  a  market-town  (Pen  y  Bont  ar 
Ogwr) ;  the  large  village  of  Coetty,  and  several  other  villages. — 
/.  M.]     ' 

Crach.    Gruffydd  Gr&ch. 

Cradifael  Sant.  A  church  dedicated  to  him  at  Penmynydd 
in  Anglesey.     See  Gradifel. 

Cradifel  (n.  L).    L.  G.  Oothi. 

Cradoc  or  Cradog  ;  Lat.  Caractacus,  {E,  Llwyd).  See  Caradog, 


104  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Crafdin  Grythob,  a  famous  musician  of  Ireland,  a.d.  48.  Crab- 
tine  Grutaire.     {Ogygia,  p.  283.) 

Crafnant,  a  river  in  Eryri,  which  runs  from  Ilyn  Crafnant, 
about  two  miles  from  Trefriw,  perhaps  took  its  name  from  craf, 
wild  garlick.     Qu.,  whether  that  plant  abounds  there  ? 

Craig,  a  rock,  used  in  the  names  of  places ;  as  Craig  Buna, 
Eadnorshire;  y  Graig  Coch;  y  Wen  Graig;  y  Greigddu;  y 
Greiglas ;  y  Greigwen ;  y  Greiglwyd  ;  Pencraig,  Anglesey ;  y 
Greigfryn,  etc. 

Crau  Swch.  Lands  of  Crau  Swch  mentioned  in  the  Prince's 
Extent^  A.D.  1352.  It  signifies  soccage  tenure.  Crau  is  that  part 
of  the  swch,  or  share,  that  the  wood  goes  into  the  iron.  See 
Lledwigan  and  Milain  Aradrgaeth. 

Credic  ap  Dyfiawal  Hen.    An  id.  qd.  Ceredig  t 

Credyw  Sant.     (Broume  Willis.) 

Creg.    Gwenhwyfar  Grfeg. 

Creirwy  (n.  pr.  f.).  Creirwy  verch  Cludno  Eiddim  ap  Cyn- 
wyd  Cynwydion. 

Creirwy,  merch  CeritwexL  (Tr.73.)  This  is  Caridwen  Wrach, 
wife  of  Tegid. 

Creirwy,  sister  of  Morfran  ap  Tegid,  a  lady  in  Arthur's  court. 
(Tr.  73.)     See  Gamy. 

Crenant.  Cappel  Crenant,  Morganwg ;  recti  CreunarU,  blood- 
brook.  See  Creunant  [Cappel  Creunant,  ymhlwyf  Uangyfelach 
y  mae ;  always  pronounced  Creunant ;  a  village  with  a  chapel 
and  fairs.    See  Almanetc. — I.  M.] 

Crbsi,  Cressy  in  France. 

Gwae  a'i  gweles  ynghresi 
Gwr  di  wael  mewn  trafael  tri. 

lolo  Oochf  1  Syr  Rys. 

See  Dr.  Davies  in  the  word  Oresi,  mistaking  it  for  a  verb. 

Cresfain  (Y),  enw  Ue. 

Creuddyn  (wrote  also  Creidhyn  by  English  writers),  one  of  the 
three  commots  of  Cantref  Penwedig  in  Cardiganshire ;  from  crau, 
blood,  and  dun,  a  fort ;  q.  d,  bloody  fort.  Qu.,  whether  of  the 
same  origin  with  Cruthen  in  Vita  S.  Patricii,     (Ogt/ffia,  p.  180.) 

Creuddyn,  a  commot  in  Caernarvonshire ;  one  of  the  three 
commots  of  Cantref  y  Rhos. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.        '  105 

Y  cri  oedd  yn  y  Creuddyn 

■A-g  wylo  tost  glowed  hyn. — B.  Ddu, 

Car  iddynt  wyf  o'r  Creuddyn, 
Llyna  haid  o'r  Uin  i  hyn. 

Deio  ah  leuan  Du. 

Perhaps  Croydon,  near  London,  is  of  the  same  origin. 
Creulon.    Einion  Greulon  ap  Einion  ap  Eirid. 
Creunant,  bloody  brook. 

Ami  celain  ynghrain  ynghrennant. 

Cynddelw,  i  0.  Gwynedd. 

Cribach,  a  harbour  in  Cardiganshire. 

Crib  y  Ddiscil,  a  mountain  near  Ilanberis  in  Eryri.  {E.  Llv>yd.) 
[Crib  y  Ddysgl  {Ddistyll),  one  of  the  three  peaks  of  Snowdon  as 
observed  from  Capel  Curig. —  W,  D,] 

Cricciaith  or  Crucciaith,  a  town  and  castle  in  Caernarvon- 
shire. 

Pendefig  Cmcciaith  maith  mygr  difwng. 

Ein,  ah  Mad,  Rhahawd^  i  BofT.  ap  Llywelyn. 

Rhys  ap  Sion  o'r  happus  iaith. 

Gwr  yw  accw  o  Gracciaith. — L,  O.  Cothi, 

Cridia,  an  abbey  of  White  Monks,  burnt  by  Henry  III,  be- 
cause a  refuge  for  the  Welsh,  near  Ceri  and  Montgomery,  men- 
tioned by  Matth.  Paris ;  where  Henry  III  gave  leave  to  Hubert 
de  Burgh  to  build  a  castle,  which  by  the  peace  then  made  Llew- 
elyn ap  lorwerth  insisted  to  be  rased  on  his  own  charge. 

Crigion,  in  the  parish  of  Guildsfield,  Montgomeryshire. 

Crimmach,  in  Anglesey. 

Criniogau  or  Crinioge  (or  qu.  whether  Ceinioge),  a  gentle- 
man's seat.     (/.  D) 

CRiSTik  (n.  f.),  Christiana.  Cristin  verch  Gronwy  (Ronwy)  ap 
Owain  ap  Edwin,  arglwydd  Tegengl,  oedd  wraig  Owen  Gwyn- 
edd ;  mother  of  Dafydd  and  Rodri.  {MS.)  See  "  Awdl  Saith 
Mab  Cadifor.'' 

Cristiolus  (Sant  yn  Uedwigan)  ap  Howel  Fychan  ap  Howel 
ap  Emyr  Llydaw.  {MS)  Llangristiolus  ym  M6n.  Dr.  H.  Mor- 
ris, a  famous  preacher  in  Charles  II's  time,  was  of  this  place. 

Cristog.    Y  Barwn  o  Gristog. 

14 


106  •      CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Croes  Oswallt,  Oswald's  Tree  or  Cross,  now  Oswestry,  in 
Shropshire. 

Crogen  Castle,  a  pass  on  Ofifa's  Ditch  near  Oswestry,  where  the 
Britains,  in  defending  it,  slew  a  great  number  of  Henry  II's  men 
in  his  expedition  to  Berwyn.  Castell  Crogen  was  the  old  name 
of  Chirk  Castle  in  the  commot  of  Nanheudwy.  SeeAdu^'rBeddau 
and  Com^en, 

Crogen  Iddon,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  the  parish  of  DangoUen, 
Here  was  a  battle  fought  between  the  Welsh  and  Normans. 

T  Plas  ynghrogen  ar  Ian  Dyfrdwy.     {Dr,  D) 

Cromlech,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Anglesey,  which  takes  its 
name  from  one  of  those  altars  of  the  Druids  called  cromlechau, 
which  still  stands  near  that  house.  It  is  very  large  and  high, 
and  worth  the  observation  of  the  curious. 

Cronerth,  one  of  the  four  cantrefs  of  Morganwg.  (Price's 
Descript.)  It  contains  three  commots,  viz.,  Ehwng  Nedd  ac  Afan, 
Tir  yr  Hwndrwd,  and  Maenor  Glynogwr. 

Croytarath  {Camden  in  Pembrokeshire),  rect^  Coedtraeth. 

Cruc  Mawr,  a  mountain  in  Ceretica  (Cardiganshire),  men- 
tioned in  Nennius  (Flaherty,  O^yfa,  p.  292),  where  he  says  there 
is  a  grave  which  fits  the  length  lying  in  it,  short  or  long. 

Crug,  a  heap  or  tumulus :  hence  the  names  of  places.  Crug- 
unan ;  Crug  Howel ;  y  Crug  in  Eryri ;  Crucmor  or  Crugmawr ; 
yr  Wyddgrug ;  and  perhaps  Crugciaith ;  Pen  y  Crug  (Lat.  Pen- 
nocrucium) ;  Gallt  y  Crug  ;  Crug  Eryr ;  Plas  y  Crug. 

Crug  Eryr  (n.  L).    Z,  Glyn  Cothi 

Crug  Howel  {£,  6.  Cothi),  a  town  on  the  Wysg ;  also  a  com- 
mot in  Brecknockshire. 

Crug  y  Dyrn,  in  the  parish  of  Trelech,  Carmarthenshire,  a 
timiulus  of  the  ancient  Britains.  Mr.  E.  Ilwyd  interprets  it  the 
King's  Barrow,  making  Dyrn  to  be  teym,  and  supposes  it  pagan. 

Crugunan  (n.  1.),  qu.,  in  Eadnorshire  ?  [and  CreigTiant  in  Mei- 
fod  parish. — W,  2).] 

Crupl.     Madog  Grupl  ap  Grufifydd. 

Cruthinii  Populi,  supposed  to  be  the  Picts.  The  people  of 
Dalaradia  in  the  time  of  St.  Patrick. 

Crydon  (n.  pr.  v.).    Crydon,  father  of  Cywryd.    ( JV.  73.) 

Cryg.     Ehys  Gryg,     Angl.  hoarse. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.       *  107 

Crymlyn,  a  river  (qu.)  in  Coy  church,  Glamorganshire.  Blaen 
Crymlyn.     Crymlyn  or  Cremlyn  in  Anglesey. 

Ckyniarth,  in  Edeymion,  a  gentleman's  seat.  {J,D)  [Another 
in  Mochnant,  Denbighshire. —  W,  2?.] 

Crys  Halawg  :  vid.  Oadwal 

Cu  ap  Gweneu  o  Frecheiniog.     Gwen  gu  verch  Gruffydd. 

CUAWC  (fl.).  Abercuawc  {Llywarch  Hen) ;  id.  quod  Ciog,  See 
Dolgiog. 

CuHELYN  (not  Cyhelyn),  Archbishop  of  London,  who  brought 
up  the  Roman  lady  who  afterwards  married  to  Cwstenyn,  brother 
of  Aldwr,  King  of  Ilydaw;  and  afterwards,  on  Gwrtheym's  seiz- 
ing the  crown  of  Britain,  escaped  over  to  Llydaw  (Armorica)  with 
her  two  sons,  Emrys  and  Uther,  Vho  were  both  afterwards  kings 
of  Britain.  {TyssUio)  Latinized  by  Galfrid  and  Virunnius, 
Gmtolinus. 

CuL.    Meirchion  Gul  ap  Gwrwst  Ledlwm. 

CULEDREMNE,  a  battle  fought  by  Conall  Mac  Conagail,  King  of 
Alban,  a.d.  563.     (Ogygia,  p.  473.) 

CuLFYNAWYD  (n.  pr.  V.).  Culfjrnawyd  Prydain,  father  of  the 
three  unchaste  wives,  Essyllt,  Penarwen,  and  Bun:    {Triades.) 

CUNALLT :  see  Bryn  Cunallt, 

CuNEDDA,  the  12th  King  of  Britain,  reigned  here  thirty- three 
years,  about  the  time  Romulus  founded  Rome. 

CuNEBDA  Wledig,  a  Priuce  of  a  country  in  Scotland  called 
Manau  Guotodin,  whence  he  was  drove  by  the  Scots  {i,  e:,  the 
Irish  Scots  or  Gwyddyl  Ffichti),  with  his  eight  sons,  146  years 
before  the  time  of  Ma^lgwn  Gwynedd,  i,  e,,  about  a.d.  440.  This 
was  the  time  the  Scots  came  over  from  Ireland,  and  settled  in 
Argile.  (Usher,  Prim,,  p.  1023.)  Nennius  says  he  brought  eight 
sons  with  him  from  Manau  Guotodin  (see  Gododin) ;  and  Price 
(Descript)  names  them  and  four  more.  He  might  have  some  sons 
in  Cambria  before. — 1,  Tibion,  father  of  Meirion ;  2,  Arwystl  ap 
Cunedda;  3,  Oaredig  ap  Cunedda;  4,  Dunod;  5,  Edeyrn;  6, 
Mael ;  7,  Coel ;  8,  Dogvael ;  9,  Rhufaon ;  10,  Einion  Yrth ;  11, 
Ussa ;  (in  a  note)  12,  Maelor  ap  Gwran  ap  Cunedda.  Selden,  in 
Mare  Clav^im,  p.  251,  concludes,  from  his  driving  the  Scots 
out  of  aU  the  islands  and  countries  of  Britain,  that  he  must  have 
very  great  strength  in  shipping. 


108  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Uii  o*r  tri  Sanctaidd  Linns.     (  TV.  42.) 

CURETUYR,  in  the  old  orthography  Cwr^^es.  Curet  in  the  ancient 
orthography  would  be  wrote  in  the  modem  Ov/rydd,  which  sig- 
nifies a  beater ;  and  those  priests  were  called  so  because  they 
beat  drums,  and  clash  their  armour  together.     See  Corybantau, 

CURIG  (n.  pr.  V.) ;  Lat  Cyricus,  Curig  Lwyd.  Llangurig,  a 
church  in  Montgomeryshire  erected  by  Curig,  an  Armorican. 
Curig  yn  Nhrefdraeth. 

CUKMWR,  alias  Morfawr,  ap  Caden  ap  Bran  ap  Llyr  Uediaith. 

CusTANS,  verch  Tomas  Hen  o  SalbrL 

CusTEiNT  or  CwsTEiNT  (n.  pr.  V.) ;  Lat.  Constans.  In  Nennius' 
Catalogue  there  is  Caire  Custenit;  in  Usher,  Goer  Custeint,  Some 
say  it  is  Caer'narfon ;  for  that  Constantius  re-edified  it,  and  was 
buried  there.     It  is  not  [called]  by  this  name  in  the  Triades, 

CusxENiT.  Caer  Custenit,  in  Nennius,  supposed  to  be  Caer 
Cwstennin,  i,  e.,  Caernarvon. 

CuwcH  (in  the  English  maps  Keach),  a  river  in  the  cantref  of 
Emlyn  in  Dyfed.  The  river  is  the  bound  between  Pembroke- 
shire and  Carmarthenshire :  hence  Uwch  Cuwch  and  Is  Cuwch,  the 
names  of  two  of  the  three  commots  of  Emlyn.  Price  (in  Deacript) 
calls  them  Uwch  Cuch  and  Is  Cuch  by  mistake. 

Glyn  Cuwch  yn  Emlyn.     (  Tr.  36.) 

See  Emlyn  and  Glyn  Ouioch, 

CwcH  (Castell).     Emljm  is  Cwch. 

CwM,  or  CwMM,  is  a  very  ancient  Celtic  word  signifying  a 
valley  or  dingle.  It  is  prefixed  to  the  names  of  several  places 
in  Britain  having  that  situation. 

CwM,  a  church  and  parish  in  Flintshire. 

CwM  Amman,  Carmarthenshire. 

CwM  Blowty,  a  gentleman's  seat.     (/.  R) 

CwM  Cawlwtd,  arglwyddiaeth. 

CwM  Cenin,  in  liandeUo  Fawr,  Carmarthenshire. 

CwM  Cethin. 

CwM  Cyllau,  in  the  parish  of  Gelli  G^ir,  Glamorganshire. 

CwM  Deri  Cyrn,  in  Llannon. 

Cw>i  Ervin. 

[CwM  Y  Felin  (n.  1.),  in  Glamorgan.  Gvjyr  Owm  y  Felin,  a  little 
ancient  society  thus  nicknamed,  supposed  by  the  common  people 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  109 

to  be  deists^  atheists,  or  the  Lord  knows  what ;  but  by  their  own 
account  of  themselves  they  are  the  immediate  successors  of  the 
ancient  bards  and  Druids ;  and  they  still  retain,  or  pretend  to 
do  so,  the  ancient  opinions,  discipline,  maxims,  poetic  laws,  etc., 
of  the  ancient  British  bards.  They  seldom  admit  any  into  their 
society  but  such  as  have  a  genius  for  poetry,  and  call  themselves 
by  no  other  name  or  style  but  Beirdd  or  Beirdd  wrth  Fraint  a 
Defod  Beirdd  Ynya  Prydain,  and  sometimes  Prifeirdd,  But  ask 
the  common  people,  especially  the  Methodists,  what  6w^  Cwm 
y  Felin  are,  and  it  is  ten  to  one  but  a  very  curious  (always  care- 
ful of  its  being  a  bad)  account  of  them : 

'Tis  this  and  'tis  that, 
And  they  cannot  tell  what. 

They  have  always  been  a  sensible  and  intelligent  set  of  people 
and  are  now  but  very  few  in  number. — /.  M.] 

Cwm  y  Gro  (n.  1.).    D.  ab  Owilym, 

CwMiNOD,  in  Powys  Land. 

Cwm  Igu,  a  parish  in  Monmouthshire ;  another  in  Hereford- 
shire. [One  and  the  same  parish  ;  part  in  one  county,  and  part 
in  the  other, — ^a  common  thing  in  South  Wales. — /.  M.'] 

Cwm  Llifon.  Cilmin  Droedtu  o  Gwm  Llifon.  Vid.  Ghjn 
Llifon, 

Cwm  Llwydrew,  in  Machyn,  Glamorganshire.  [Not  in  Mach- 
yn,  but  in  Llanilltud  Faerdref. — L  if.] 

Cwmmein,  a  gentleman's  seat ;  perhaps  Cwm  Meini,  or  Cwm 
Main,  a  river. 

Cwmmwd,  a  commot,  a  subdivision  of  a  cantref  in  Wales ;  from 
cwm  and  6orf,  people  living  in  the  same  valley :  hence  also  cym^ 
mydog,  a  neighbour.  Mr.Spelman  says  it  should  contain  properly 
fifty  villas,  which  is  half  a  cantref;  and  that  this  is  derived  from 
cynn  and  lod,  to  coexist,  to  coinhabit ;  and  quotes  the  Statute 
of  Ehuddlan,  12  Edward  I,  from  a  Latin  copy  which  I  have 
faithfully  copied  here  from  him.  Whether  his  copy  was  bad,  or 
(more  likely)  his  want  of  knowledge  of  the  language  of  the 
Britains,  a  Cambro-Britain  will  hardly  forgive  any  man  of  any 
nation  that  takes  the  liberty  of  murdering  his  language  as  this 
author  doth.  "  Statuimus  quod  vicecomes  coronatores  &  ballivi 
coramotorum  sint  in  Snowdon  &  terris  nostris."    And  a  little 


110  CELTIC  R  EMATNS. 

after:  "Vicecomes  de  Kaernarvan  sub  quo  cantreda  de  Arvan, 
cantreda  de  Artlentayth,  commotum  de  Gonkyn,  cantreda  de 
AUen  &  commotum  de  Irmenichy  Would  you  ever  have  thought 
these  to  be  Arvan,  Arllechwedd,  Orevddyn,  Lleyn,  and  Eivionydd  i 
And  yet  these  are  the  names  in  the  British  copy  of  that  statute, 
of  which  I  have  a  copy  I  took  firom  a  MS.  in  Hengwrt; 
and  all  are  known  at  this  day.  Since,  then,  the  British  names 
of  places  are  so  coiTupted  in  Latin  books  of  no  longer  standing 
than  Edward  I's  time,  what  sort  of  a  guesswork  must  that  be  of 
an  English  antiquary  who  is  utterly  unacquainted  with  tlie 
British,  when  he  would  attempt  to  explain  the  British  names  in 
Ptolomy,  Antoninus,  the  Notitia,  or  in  Nennius  ? 

CwM  Nant,  in  Llannon,  Carmarthenshire, 

CwM-  Nant  Ffyllon  :  see  Ffylhn. 

CwM  Symlog  :  see  SyrrUog. 

CwM  Teuddwr,  near  Rhaiadr  Gwy,  Eadnorshire,  on  the  river 
Elain. 

CWNNWS  (St.)  Du. 

CwNODL,  a  gentleman's  seat, — Wynne.     {J,  D,) 

CwsTENiN,  or  Constantin,  the  87th  King  of  Britain,  This  is 
Constantino  the  Great,  Emperor  of  Eome. 

Mae  ar  y  gweilcb  main  gwin 

Oes  donniau  plant  Gystenin. — Guttyn  Owain. 

TJangwstenin,  a  parish  and  chapel,  part  of  Rhos  deanery,  St. 
Asaph,  but  in  Caernarvonshire. 

CvvsTENYN  of  Armorica,  the  93rd  King  of  Britain. 

CwsTENYN  of  Cornwall,  the  101st  King  of  Britain. 

Cystenyn  Gorneu  (aZ.  Gorveu)^  idem  quod  Constantino,  Duke 
of  Cornwall, 

CwYFAN  (Sant)  :  hence  Uangwyfan  in  M6n,  and  another  in 
Denbighshire.  Cwyfan  yw  sant  y  Ddiserth  yn  Nhegeingl,  a'r 
Sul  nesaf  ar  ol  yr  ail  dydd  o  Fehefin  y  cadwent  ei  Gwyl  Mab- 
sant.  (E.  Llwyd,  Itinerary,)  There  is  a  stone  in  the  parish  of 
Whitford  called  Maen  y  Ghvpyfan,  with  curious  knots  of  lines  cut 
upon  it,  probably  belonging  to  this  Cwyfan.  (See  W.  WiUiams* 
cut  of  this  stone.)  In  our  genealogical  tables  we  find  Cwyfen  ap 
Brwyneu  Hen. 

CwYLLOG  (Sant).    Llangwyllog  Church  in  Anglesey. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  Ill 

CwYRT  (Y),  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Anglesey. 

CwTTA  Cyfakwydd  (Y)  0  Forganwg,  an  ancient  MS.  so  called. 

Cybi  Sant  ap  Selyf  ap  Geraint ;  Lat.  Kebius  or  Chebius,  John 
of  Tinmouth  says  he  was  son  of  Solomon,  a  nobleman  of  Corn- 
wall ;  that  he  studied  in  Gaul  under  St.  Hilary,  where  he  was 
made  bishop ;  converted  the  Isle  of  Mona,  and  had  his  episcopal 
see  at  Caer  Guby,  where  in  Leland  s  time  there  remained  a  col- 
lege of  canons,  which  he  supposes  to  have  been  formerly  the 
monastery  of  this  saint.  {Brit  SancL,  Nov.  8.)  Leland  says  he 
taught  in  Gwynedd  and  Manaw,  and  went  over  to  Mon,  and  fixt 
his  see  at  Holyhead  (Promontorium  Sacrum),  and  there  the 
Prince  of  the  island  gave  him  a  castle,  where  he  erected  a  monas- 
tery, which  of  his  name  is  called  Oastrum  Ohebii  (Caer  Gybi). 
(Leland,  Script  Brit,  c.  xlviii.) 

Caer  Gybi  in  Anglesey,  North  Wales ;  Llangybi  in  Lleyn ; 
Ilangybi  in  Cardiganshire ;  Llangybi  in  Monmouthshire. 

Cnan  a  daU  enwd  a  welynt 
Gwisgi  ar  ffon  Gybi  gynt. 

P.  LI.  i*r  Ffon  gerfiedig. 

Cydewain,  neu  Cedi^wain  (n.  1.). 

Cydweli  (k  qfd  and  gwdi),  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Can- 
tref  Eginoc  in  Caermarthenshire.  (Price's  Descript)  Cydweli 
Castle  built  by  Lord  Bees,  ad.  1190.     See  Nennius. 

Dwywlad  a  Chedweli  wenn 

Dwyoes  cwyned  Is  Cenneu. — Lewys  Morganwg, 
See  Cedweli. 

Cyfeddliw,  qu.  whether  a  river  in  the  north  of  England  ? 

Pell  oddyman  Aber  Llyw 

Pellach  an  ddwy  G^yfeddliw. — Uywarch  Hen, 

Cyfeiliog,  in  the  deanery  [diocese]  of  St.  Asaph ;  part  of 
Powys.  (1),  Machynllaeth ;  (2),  lianwrin ;  (3),  Cemmaes ;  (4), 
Llan  Bryn  Mair;  (5),  Penegoes;  and  (6),  Darywain,  Chwe 
phlwy  Cyfeiliog  (from  Cyfail,  n.  pr.  v.).  One  of  the  commots  of 
Castell  Cynan.     (Price's  Descript) 

Cyfeiliog  :  see  Ywain  Cyfeiliog, 

XIJyfelach.  Llangyfelach,  Glamorgansliire.  Fairs  kept  here. 
See  Camalae, 

Cyferthwch  (n.  1.).     Rhiw  Gyferthwch  yn  Eryri.    (TV.  30.) 


112  CELTl  C  REMAINS. 

Cyflefyr  ap  Brychan. 

Cyfreithiau  :  see  Dyfmoal  Moelmut  and  Hywel  Dda. 

Cyfylchl  Y  Ddywgyfylchi,  or  Ddugyfylchi,  or  Ddwygyfylclii, 
a  pass  over  the  mountains  of  Eryri,  between  Penmaen  Bacli  and 
Penmaen  Mawr.  Caer  y  Gyfylchi  may  possibly  be  Conway. 

Caraf  i  Gaer  falchwaifch  y  Gyfylchi. — H.  ajp  0.  Owynedd. 

But  see  Penmaen  Mawr  fort,  called  Braich  y  Ddinas.    A  plan 
of  this  wanted. 

Cyffig  and  Cynffig  (n.  1.)  in  Pembrokeshire. 

Cyffin.     Caer  GyflBn,  Conwy.     {1%.  Williams,) 

Cyffin  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Elphin  gida  Chyffin  chwym. — Llewehjn  ap  Guttyn, 

Eglwys  Gyflin  near  Conwy.  Cynllaith  y  Cyffin,  or  probably  Cyn- 
Uaeth,  primum  lac. 

Cyffog,  an  ancient  British  prophet. 

Gwn  i  Gyffog  ddarogan 

O'r  ffydd  ar  ryw  ddydd  ydd  kr\\ 

B.  LI.  ap  LI,  ap  Qruffydd^  of  the  Saxons. 

Cygurwen.     Gwaun  Cygurwen,  Glamorganshire. 

Cyhelyn,  the  24th  King  of  Britain.  Twr  Cyhelyn,  in  Llan- 
erchmedd. 

Cyhillin  ap  Marwydd  Goch  ap  Tryffbn. 

Cyhoret  eil  Cynan,  and  Cynhored  eil  Cynon.    {Tr,  M.  3,  9.) 

Cylch,  in  the  ancient  British  Laws  and  the  Extent  of  Wales, 
is  a  circuit  or  round,  as,  1,  Cylch  Stalwyn  or  Stalon ;  2,  Cylch 
Hebogyddion  ;  3,  Cylch  Ehaglon  or  Rhaglot ;  4,  Cylch  Dourgon. 
These  are  services  or  taxes  due  to  the  Prince's  ofl&cers :  1,  to 
the  Master  of  the  Horse  for  the  rose  of  a  stonehorse  for  manner 
(sic) ;  2,  attendance  on  the  Prince's  falconer ;  3,  attendance  on 
courts  baron ;  4,  attendance  on  the  Prince's  other  hunters. 
Spelman  owns  he  is  ignorant  of  the  root  oi  Kilck  and  Kylch 
Stalon,  which  he  corruptly  writes  "  Killyth  Stallon."  (Spelman, 
Glossary.) 

Cyliau  Duon,  Black  Cowls  or  Hoods,  an  order  of  lay  monks 
under  a  lay  abbot  in  a  monastery  in  Bardsey  Island  in  the 
beginning  of  Christianity.   It  seems  there  were  some  of  the  same 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  113 

order  once  at  JJanbadam  Vawr,  near  Aberystwyth.  (See  Giral- 
dus  Cambrensis,  Itin,  of  Wales,  Dr.  Powel's  edition.) 

Our  learned  writers,  who  were  unacquainted  with  the  British 
tongue,  have  beat  their  brains  to  no  purpose  in  deriving  these 
Oolidean  monks  from  the  Latin.  See  also  the  blunder  of  an 
Irish  Bishop  (Nicolson)  in  his  preface  to  his  Irish  Historical 
Library. 

Cylwch  ap  Cylydd  ap  Celyddon  Wledig,  or  Cyllwch  ap  Cil- 
ydd  ap  Celyddon  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Cylyddon  Wledig,  a  northern  Prince  [who]  gave  the  name  to 
Coed  Celyddon  yn  yr  Alban.  (D.  /.)  Caledonia  was  called  so 
before  the  time  of  this  Cylyddon ;  so  it  is  either  a  mistake  of 
D.  J.,  or  it  was  another  Celyddon  Wledig. 

Cymaron.  River,  and  Cymaron  Castle  in  Maelienydd,  Rad- 
norshire, built  by  Roger  Mortimer,  a.d.  1194;  belonged  to  Hugh, 
Earl  of  Chester,  1142. 

Cymen.  Madoc  ap  Hoel  Gymen  o  Fon.  [Gyrnen,  an  advocate 
in  law  courts  in  Dyfr  Coch  Asaph. — W,  D!\ 

Cyminawc  or  Cyminawt. 

Amgylch  Cyminawc  cymynai  Saeson. 

CyitdddWy  i  Gadwall.  ap  Madoc. 
Some  place  in  Powys. 

Cymmeibch,  one  of  the  two  commots  of  Tstrad,  Denbighshire. 
See  Cevnmeyrch, 

Cymmeb,  near  Caereneon.  lljm  y  Cymmer,  in  the  Severn,  near 
Llanidloes.  Pont  y  Cymmer,  near  Uantrisant,  in  Glamoigan- 
shire.  ICymmerau,  the  joining  of  rivers;  a  place  where  the 
rivers  Severn  and  Vemiew  join  in  Shropshire. —  W,  D^ 

Cyhmeb  Abbey,  near  Dolgelleu ;  another  in 

Cymmeb  Deuddwr,  mentioned  in  GorhofFedd  Hywel  ap  Owain 
Gwynedd.    It  seems  to  be  in  Keri,  for  he  immediately  adds, 

Arglwydd  nef  . . . 

Mor  bell  o  Geri  Oaer  Lliwelydd, 

[Dmddv^r,  between  Efymwy  and  Hafren,  a  tract  of  land  com- 
prising the  parishes  of  Uandysilio  and  Llandrinio,  ending  at 
Cymmerau,  the  junction  of  those  two  rivers. —  W,  B,] 
Cymmereu  (n.  L).     ffoianau  Myrddin. 

CymmereUy  near  Tal  y  Bont  in  Cardiganshire. 

15 


114  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Cymmereu,  in  Caermarthenshire. 

Cymmereu,  in  Badnorshire. 
It  signifies  a  confluence  of  rivers,  as  some  say.     (E.  Llwyd) 
CumaVj  in  Irish,  is  the  meeting  of  two  or  more  rivers. 

Cymminod,  a  place  in  Anglesey.  Qu.  Cwm  Minod  ?  Men- 
tioned also  in  Hoiane  Myrddin,  Cvmiinod  in  Powysland,  or  Gym- 

inaivc. 

Amgylch  Cyminawc  cjmynai  Saeson. — Gynddelw. 

A  chad  Cyminawd  a  chad  Caer  Lleon. — Hoiane  Myrddin, 

Cymmytmaen,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Lleyn. 
(Price's  Descript) 

Cymorth,  Mynydd  (n.  L). 

Cymraeg,  Wallica  Unffua. 

Cymraes,  Walla,  a  Welsh  woman. 

Cymro  {k  cyn  and  bro),  Wcdlus,  a  Welshman,  an  inhabitant  of 
Cambria :  pi.  Cymru,    See  Gymry, 

Ai  gwell  Ffranc  na  fPrawddns  Gymro  ? 

Prydydd  y  Mochy  i  Lew.  ap  lorwerth. 

Cael  Cymro  a  garo  gwir, 

Cael  flfynnu  i  Gymm  gar. — L,  O.  Cothi. 

Bond  da  a  f n  i  Gymm  Hon,  Gwent,  etc. — L,  G.  Cothi, 
Therefore  this  is  wrong  of  the  same  author : 

Ef  a  dry'r  Cymry  at  wyr  a'u  car. 

L.  O.  Goihiy  i  Syr  W.  Herbert. 

Tri  llu  aeth  o  [oL,  i]  Grymm  gynt 

Trwy  Wynedd  y  trywenynt. — L.  Glyn  Cothi, 

Y  dynion  anadonair 

Felly  drwy  Gymry  a  gair. — D.  Lhcyd  ap  LI,  ap  Gmffydd, 

O  digiai  Lloegr  a'i  dagiaid 

Cymry  a  dry  yn  dy  raid. — L;  O.  Cothi, 

larll  dy  dad  ... 

larll  gemrydd  ar  oU  Gymry, 

larll  dy  frawd  ar  ei  lied  fiy. — L,  O.  Cothi, 

The  country : 

Eithafwy  waed  Mon  mynna  pob  bonedd, 

Pwy  piDfl^l  holl  Gymru. — T,  Aled^  i  Rys  ap  Thomas. 

Pen  ar  G^mm  llu  lias  Lloegr  affaitb, 
Llu  Gruffydd  ap  I^iclas. — Tudur  Aled, 


CELTIC  B£MAINS.  115 

« 

Cymru  (Y),  the  Welsh  people  of  Cambria.  The  country  should 
be  wrote  Cymry,  and  the  people  Cymru,  q.  d.  Cynm>au.  [This  is 
wrong.    Cymru,  the  country ;  Cymry,  the  inhabitants. —  W.  D.] 

Cymry,  Wallia  or  Cambria^  the  country  called  Wales,  and 
anciently  Wallia  or  Gallia ;  perhaps  Gallia  Minor,  as  Bretagne 
in  France  is  now  called  Britannia  lilinor. 

Cymryd,  a  place  near  Conway,  where  the  great  battle  of  Dial 
BhodriwQA  fought  between  Anarawd  and  the  Danes  and  Saxons, 
A.D.  880.  The  river  in  this  place  is  fordable  at  low  water^  spring 
tides.    Probably  derived  from  Cam  ryd,  a  crooked  ford. 

Cyn,  river ;  hence  Abercyn. 

Cynan,  one  of  the  five  cantrefe  of  Powys  Wenwynwyn ;  also 
one  of  the  two  commots  of  Cantref  Cydewen,  (Price's  Descript.) 

Cynan  (Caer),  Norwich.    (Th.  Williama,) 

Cynan  (n.  pr.  v.),  Oonanvs;  AngL  Oonan. 

Cyfoeth  Cynan,  Owlad  Meibion  Cynan  {Oirald.  Cambrenaii)  is 
Meirion.  Cyfoeth  Cynan  is  mentioned  in  the  twelve  battles  of 
lly welyn  ap  lorwerth, 

Tri  thrywan  Oynan  Gyfoeth 
Pedwar  enwawg  peithiawg  poeth. 
See  CyUh  Llywdyn. 

Cynan  y  C^n. 

Cynan  Garwyn,  Prince  of  Powys,  father  of  Selyf.  (7V/65.) 

Cynan  Meriadoc.  A  prince  of  this  name  settled  with  a  large 
colony  of  insular  Britains  on  the  coast  of  Gaul  in  the  time  of 
Maximus  the  Tyrant,  which  was  about  the  year  S83 ;  [and  from 
these  the  Armoricans,  who  sent  for  wives  from  Britain,  and 
11,000  sailed,  and  fell  among  barbarians. — W.  D.] 

Cynan  Nant  Niver,  a  noble  warrior,  died  a.d.  865.  (Powel's 
Caradoc,  p.  32.) 

Cynan  Tindaethwy,  a  prince  or  King  of  Wales,  son  of  Rhodri 
Molwynog.  He  began  to  reign  a,d.  755.  He  had  his  surname 
from  his  place  of  birth,  Dindaethwy,  i.e.,  the  fort  of  Daethwy,  in 
Anglesey,  the  name  of  one  of  the  six  commots  of  that  county. 
He  was  father  of  Esyllt,  the  mother  of  Rhodri  Mawr. 

Cynan  Veiniai). 

Cynan  Wledig,  the  102nd  king ;  Latinized  Aurdiui  Conanus 
by  Gildas. 


116  CELTIC  BBMAINS. 

Cynadaf,  father  of  Brwyn,     {Trioedd  y  Meirch,  7.) 

C YNAWC  or  Cynog  (St.) ,  son  of  Brychan  Biyclieimog.  (Ach  Oynog) 

Cyndeybn  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Cyndbyrn  ap  Arthawg. 

Oyndeyrn  Gabthwys  (Latinized  Kentigemiis),  Archbishop  of 
Ireland  about  the  year  542,  was  son  of  Owen  ap  Urien  Beget, 
King  of  Beget  in  North  Britain  in  the  time  of  King  Arthur.  His 
mother  was  Thamet  (or,  as  some  write,  Thenis,  Thenna,  or 
Thenaw),  daughter  of  Lewddyn  Luyddog  o  Ddinas  Eiddyn,  i.e., 
Edenborough ;  called  also  Loth,  King  of  the  Picts.  He  is  said 
to  have  a  cognomen  given  him  on  account  of  his  virtues  and 
innocence,  Aftry?!^,  i.e.,  kind  and  lovely.  (Lives  of  Samts,  Jaj:i,  13.) 
Leland  calls  him  Ghentegemus,  and  says  he  was  bom  in  Ireland 
by  his  mother  happening  to  travel  there,  and  studied  there 
under  Servanus ;  that  he  came  to  Gwynedd  and  Bhos  (Bosses) ; 
that  the  people  were  partly  rude,  partly  infected  with  the  Pela- 
gian heresy;  that  Morchenius  [read  Maelcun],  King  of  Gwyn- 
edd, envied  him,  through  the  advice  of  Cathen ;  that  he  went  to 
Scotland,  and  erected  the  monastery  of  Glasgow.  Catgallus, 
Eang  of  Bhos,  gave  him  a  place  near  £lwy  and  Glwyd  to  build 
a  monastery. 

The  JTriades  say  that  he  was  Penesgyb  in  Penrhyn  Bhionydd 
yn  y  Gogledd,  i  e.,  head  of  bishops  at  Edenborough  in  the 
north,  when  Arthur  was  chief  King  there,  and  Gwerthmwl 
Wledic  chief  elder,  i  e.,  prince  or  proprietor.  See  Dewi^  MaeU 
gum,  and  Caradoc,    (Tr,  7.) 

After  the  death  of  Marken,  Morchenius  Lelandi  (March  ap 
Meirchion),  or  Morgan  his  friend,  King  of  Cambria,  his  death 
was  conspired  by  the  royal  family,  and  he  withdrew  to  Wales, 
and  built  a  church  at  GaerUion  ar  Wysc,  and  visited  St.  David ; 
then  founded  a  monastery  at  Llanelwy,  and  also  his  episcopal 
see,  and  was  both  Abbot  and  Bishop.  Maelgwn  opposed 
him;  but  he  was  struck  blind,  and  the  saint  cured  him,  and 
they  were  made  Mends.  He  left  his  disciple,  Asaph  or  Hasa, 
his  successor.  He  saw  in  a  vision  the  soul  of  St.  David  going 
to  heaven.  Ehydderch  Hael  succeeded  the  Prince  that  opposed 
him,  who  sent  for  him  to  his  see  at  Glasgow ;  and  about  the 
year  593  he  went  to  Borne  to  visit  Pope  Gregory  (as  Usher  says 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  117 

from  old  records),  which  was  his  seventh  journey  to  that  city. 
St  Gregory  was  charmed  with  him,  and  sent  him  home,  where 
he  died  eight  years  afterwards,  in  the  year  601,  being  85  years 
old.  (Brit.  Sa7ict.,  p.  34,  out  of  Capgrave,  Leland,  Usher,  and 
Harpsfield.) 

Jocelin,  in  his  life,  says  he  had  such  a  command  over  the 
clouds  that  neither  rain  nor  snow  ever  fell  on  him  or  those  in 
his  company.    Perhaps  he  had  a  coach. 

Cyndor,  yn  Sir  Amwythig. 

Cyndrwyn,  a  nobleman  of  Powys  (a.d.  603),  father  of  Cyn- 
ddylan.  {Llywareh  Hen.)     See  Dynivennan  and  Ovnon. 

Cynddelig  ap  Ninio  ap  Cimet  ap  Envay. 

Cynddelw. 

Cynddyian  ap  Cyndrwyn,  a  noble  warrior.  His  elegy  was 
wrote  by  liy warch  Hen,  "  Marwnad  Cynddylan  Powys."  He 
was  Prince  of  Powys  in  Maelgwn's  time ;  and  he,  or  his  father 
Cyndrwyn,  entertained  Llywareh  Hen  when  the  Saxons  took  his 
country  from  him.  In  this  Marwnad  there  are  several  of  Cyn- 
drwyn's  children  mentioned :  Elvan  Powys,  Gwion,  Cynwraidd, 
Moryal,Cynon,Gwyn;  and  daughters,  Ffrevor,  Heledd,  Meddlan. 
[His  mansion  house  was  at  Llys  Dynwennan  in  Powysland, 
wherever  that  place  is. —  W.  D.] 

Cynbddaf,  Lat.  Cunotamtis,    (Ed.  Uwyd,  Notes  on  Camden.) 

Cyneiddian  ap  Ynyr  Gwent. 

Cyneie  (n.  pr.  v.).    Meurig  ap  Cyneie. 

Cynfael  (n.  pr.  v.),  Lat.  OunovaUus.  (JE.  Llwyd.)  Huw  Llwyd 
Cynfaelf  a  poet. 

Cynfael,  a  river  in  Meirionydd.  Cynfael  yn  Ardudwy.  Blaen 
Cjmfael. 

Cynfael,  a  castle  of  Cadwaladr  ap  GruflFydd  ap  Conan,  in 
Meirion,  taken  by  Howel  ap  Owen  Gwynedd  and  brother  by 
battery,  &c.,  defended  by  the  Abbot  of  Ty  Gwyn.  T^  Cynfael, 
called  also  Cynvel. 

Cynfar  ap  Tudwal  ap  Curmwr,  alias  Morfawr,  ap  Caden  ap 
Bran  ap  Llyr  Uediaith. 

Cynfarch,  the  19th  King  of  Britain. 

Cynfarch,  the  27th  King  of  Britain. 

Cynfarwy  Sant.  Llechgjrnfarwy,  Anglesey,  a  chapel  and 
parish. 


118  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Cynfawr  Cad  Cadwg  ap  Cynwyd  Cynwydion,  one  of  the  Tri 
tharw  cad."  {Tr.  12.) 

Cynfedw,  a  slave,  father  of  Cadafael,  a  Bang  in  North  Wales. 
{Tr.  76.) 

Cynfel  :  see  Oynfael, 

Cynfelyn  (n.  pr.  v.),  Lat  Cunobdirms,  a  King  of  Britain,  son 
of  TeneuaiL  Also  Cappel  Cynfelyn,  and  Sam  Gynfelyn  in  Car- 
diganshire, take  the  name  hence.  His  sons,  Gwydyr  and  Gweir- 
ydd.  Cynfelyn  Drwsgl  or  Drwscyl,  iin  o'r  tri  phost  cad.  {Tr.  11.) 

Cynfrig  and  Cynrhig  (n.  pr.  v.).  Cynrhig  Goch  o  Drefiiw. 
{Arch,  Brit,  p.  262.)  Pentre  Cynfrig,  a  gentleman's  seat.  {J.  D.) 
Cynfrig  Oer  ap  Meirchion  Gul  ap  Grwst  Ledlwm. 

Cynfyg  Castle  of  the  Fitzhaimons^  Glamorganshire.  (Camden.) 

Cynfyl  Sant.  Uangynfyl,  Lleyn,  or  Cynwyl ;  hence  Cynwyl 
Gaio  and  Cynwyl  Elfed. 

Cynfyn. 

Cyngar  Sant.  His  church  at  Llangefni,  Anglesey.  [Cyngar 
founded  a  monastery  in  Morganwg  about  the  year  474.  This 
Cyngar  was  also  called  Docuinus.  The  place  is  still  called  lian- 
dochwy  and  Llangyngar.  There  is  a  curious  old  cross  with  an 
inscription  in  the  churchyard. — /.  M.] 

Cyngar  ap  Arthawg. 

Cyngar  ap  Geraint. 

Cyngen  ap  Ysbwys  ap  Cadrod  Calchfynydd  ap  Cynwyd  Cyn- 
wydion. 

Cynglas,  Lat.  Cuneglassits,  which  see. 

Cynhaethwy  ap  Herbert  ap  Godwin  larll  Cemiw  a  Dyfhaint, 
i.  e.,  Cornwall  and  Devon.  See  Daethwy,  which  seems  to  be  of 
the  same  origin. 

Cynhaval  or  Cynhafael  (Sant)  ap  Elgud :  hence  Uangyn- 
haval,  Denbighshire.  Cynhafal  mab  Argat,  one  of  the  Tri  tharw 
unhen.    {Tr.  13.) 

Cynhayarn  Sant.     Ynys  Cynhayam  Chapel,  Eiddionydd. 

Cynhillin  ap  Gwaithfoed.     See  GenUlin. 

Cynin  Sant  ap  Brychan.  Llangynin  yngwlad  Ddyfed.  Cynin 
Cof,  Cunyn  Cof.    {Tr.  88.) 

Ni  chawn  ym  Duw  a  Chynia 

Dy  bach  o*r  Deau  heb  win. — J),  ah  leuan  Du. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  119 

Cynio  ot  Cynyw  Sant.  Llangynio  in  the  deaneiy  of  Pool  [near 
Llanfair  Caereinion. — W,  D.] 

Cynlas  Cot  ap  Ywain  Danwyn.  Qu.  Cynog  Las  ?  [Ystrad 
Gynlas.—  JV.  R] 

Ctollaeth,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantre'r  Ehaiadr 
(Price's  Descript.) ;  oiCynllayth,  part  of  Powys  Vadog,  and  falsely 
CyrUleth. 

Cynllatth  (Cynddelw),  It  seems  the  river  Dyfi  was  origin- 
ally called  Llaith.  Carreg  Tstum  Ilaith  (not  Uaeth)  is  a  bend- 
ing of  it,  and  the  commot  of  Cynllaith,  from  whence  Machyn- 
Uaith  town  has  its  name.  The  old  legend  of  Tydecho  calls  it 
Llaethj  and  says  the  saint  turned  it  into  milk. 

A  heny w  ceinllyw  Cynllaith 

0  fonedd  Gwynedd  ai  gwaith. — Ekys  Ooch  Eryri. 

Och  nad  byw  ceinllyw  Cynllaith 

Achaws  fa  Haws  o'i  laith. 

Cynddelw,  i  Ywain  ap  Madawc. 
See  Canon, 

Cynllech  (fl.) :  hence  Abercynllech. 

Cynllo  or  Cynllaw  Sant.    Uangynllo,  Cardiganshire. 

Cynog  Sant  ap  Brychan  ap  Cormur  ap  Eurbre  WyddeL  Cynog 
signifies  chief  or  principal.  Llangynog  church  and  parish  in  the 
deanery  of  Pool.  Llangynog  church  and  parish,  Carmarthenshire. 
See  Ach  Cynog,  Anilech,  and  Brychan, 

Cynog  Las.  This  Prince  is  mentioned  by  Gildas  in  his  Excid. 
BrU.,  and  the  name  is  pretended  to  be  explained  there,  and 
foolishly  rendered  into  Latin,  Lanio  Fulve,  i,  e,,  a  Yellow  Butcher, 
which  is  a  plain  mark  of  the  want  of  skill  in  the  writer,  or  of 
the  forgery  of  the  story,  or  of  the  later  monks  trimming  it  to 
their  own  purpose ;  for  Cynog  Las  signifies  Cjmog  the  Blue,  or 
rather  Cynog  the  Pale,  as  Brut  Darian  Las  is  Brutus  Blue-shield. 

There  is  a  church  in  Montgomeryshire  dedicated  to  Cynog, 
called  Llangynog ;  and  the  grave  of  Cynog  Las  is  shewn  at  this 
day  in  the  cathedral  church  of  Bangor. 

Cynon.  Cappel  Cynon.  Cynon  mab  Clydno  Eiddyn.  (Tr.  53, 
86.)  Cynon  ap  Cyndrwyn.  {Zlywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Oyn- 
ddylan,) 

Cynon,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J.  D) 


120  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Cynbhig  (n.  pr.  v.),  Lat  Cingetorix  (?). 

Cynstabl,  a  constable ;  from  cyn,  a  head  or  chief,  and  ystabl,  a 
stable.    See  Spebnan's  Glossary  for  his  derivation  of  this  word. 

Cyntwbch  (n.  pr.  v.),  Latinized  Ountegorix,    (Ed,  Llwyd) 

Cynvor  or  Cynfawr,  i.  e.,  great  head ;  idem  quod  Owrgem,  and 
Gwrgent,    E,  Llwyd,  by  transposing, — aU  a  whim. 

Cynvyn  Hirdbef,  who  married  Angharad,  the  widow  of  Llyw- 
elyn  ap  Seisyllt,  Prince  of  Wales.     {Oaradoc,  p.  73.) 

Cynvyniait  or  Cynfynuid,  the  people  or  tribe  of  Cynfyn ; 
pi.  of  Cynfyn  in  -aid :  hence  the  Latin  termination  of  the  names 
of  people  and  places  in  Gaul  and  Britain  -ates :  Attrebates, 
Abrincatse,  Adimciates,  Agesinates,  Basabocates,  Bercoreates,Cade- 
tes,  Caletes,  Cocosates,  etc.  Some  plurals  end  in  -on,  as  Mer- 
viniawn,  lorwerthion,  Madogion,  Edeymion ;  but  these  are  patro- 
nymics or  clans'  names ;  and  hence  came  those  names  in  Gaul, 
etc., — ^names  of  places  or  people,  from  men,  as  Ambrones,  Alen- 
conium,  Bizeriones,  Burgundiones,  Caledonii,  Centrones,  Dum- 
nonii,  etc. 

Cynwac  Ehychwain,  o  Fodrychwain. 

Cynwal  ap  Ffr wdwr. 

Cynwlff  ap  Corvlwng  ap  Beblig. 

Cynwraidd  or  Cynfraidd  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  brother  of  Cynddylan 
ap  Cyndrwyn.     (Llywarch  Hen  in  Marumad  Cynddylan.) 

Cynwyd  Cynwydion,  a  man's  name ;  and  Cynwydion  was  the 
name  of  the  clan  or  land. 

Cynwyd,  a  place  in  Merionethshire  where  fairs  are  kept. 

Cynych  (n.  pr.  v.).  Llangynych,  Caermarthenshire.  Fairs 
kept  here. 

Cynyr  (n.  pr.  v.).    Cynyr  Ceinfarfawc,  father  of  CaL  {Tr,  26.) 

Cynyr  Farfdrwch. 

Cynyw  (n.  pr.  v.).    Llangynyw. 

Cyranog  (n.  pr.  v.).  Llangyranog  in  Ccudiganshire.  Fairs 
kept  there. 

Cyrchynan,  a  place  in  TegengL     {Caradoc,  p.  261.) 

Cysgen.    Bod  ap  Cysgen.    Vid.  Pasg^n,  qu.  an  id.  ? 

Cyttiau'r  Gwyddelod,  the  Hut^  of  the  Lish,  a  name  given  to 
certain  circular  small  entrenchments  on  Bhos  Ligwy  in  Anglesey, 
and  not  in  the  woods  (as  Mr.  E.  Llwyd  in  his  Notes  on  Camden) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  121 

They  are  on  a  plain,  open  common,  where  there  are  no  stones  ; 
and  are  only  round  ditches  with  a  door  into  them,  as  if  they  had 
been  tents.  They  are  not  called  KittimW  Gwyddelod,  as  he  calls 
them,  but  Oyttieu,    A  survey  of  them  wanted. 

Cytheinigg  or  Catheiniog  (i.  G.  Cothi),  one  of  the  four  com- 
mots  of  Cantref  Mawr  in  Cardiganshire  [Carmarthenshire],  wrote 
by  Sir  John  Price,  in  Description,  Cethineoc.  Qu.,  whether  it 
has  any  affinity  with  Cathen,  Llangathen,  and  with  Caithness  in 
Scotland    It  is  also  one  of  the  commots  of  Caermarthenshire. 

Cywrennin  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Marw  Morgenen  marw,  Cywrennin 
Marw  Morien  mar  trin. 

Cyfoed  Myrddin  a  Owenddydd, 
See  Tir  Morien. 

Cywryd  (n.  pr.  v.).  Llywelyn  Fardd  ab  y  Cywryd,  a  poet, 
flor.  A.D.  1280  {K  Llwyd)  ;  but  rather  sooner. 

Cywryd  ap  Crydon,  father  of  Gwen,  un  o'r  tair  gwenriain. 
(2V.  73.) 

CH. 

Chenin,  a  valley  in  Anglesey  (in  the  Cambridge  copy  of 
Nepnius),  where  there  was  a  wandering  stone  which  always 
returned  home  by  promise.  Ciheinn,  the  same  valley  in  the  Cot- 
tonian  copy  of  Nennius.  Ohehennius,  the  same  valley  in  the 
Oxford  copy  of  Nennius.  Chieninn,  the  same  valley  in  Sir  Sim. 
P'Ewes*  copy  of  Nennius. 

There  is  a  deep  valley  and  a  river  called  Cefni  (anciently 
Cevenni)  in  Anglesey,  which  is  the  place  meant  in  Nemiius, 
where  this  travelling  stone  was  said  to  be.  Some  trick  of  the 
^onks,  no  doubt.  There  is  a  church  ne^r  that  fiver  c^ed  Llan- 
gefpi. 

Chepstow,  the  Saxon  name  of  Casgwent  by  CasteU  Gweut. 
[Casgwent  is  the  same  as  CasteU  Gwent. — /.  M,] 

Chikk,  a  parish  and  church  and  castle,  part  of  Powys  Vadog, 
Denbighshire ;  in  Welsh  Y  Waun,  but  called  anciently  CasteU 
C^rogQu. 

Chwaen  (n.  1.).    Several  places  in  Anglesey  of  this  name. 

16 


122  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Chwaen,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Denbighshire  (?).  Hughes  of 
Chwaen. 

Ohtvaen  Bach, 

T  Chwaen  Ddu,  .  ^ 

Y  Chwaen  Goch,  f  ^^       ^ 

Y  Chwaen  Hen,- 

Y  Ohwa>en  Wen  is  called  Chawen  erroneously. 
Chwibleian,  a  Sibyl,  quoted  by  Myrddin  Wyllt ;  q.  d.  Sihleian, 

wrote  also  Ohvrimbleia/n. 
Chwiler  (fl.) :  hence  Aberchwiler. 
Chwitffordd,  enw  plwyf. 

Chwitmor,    Dafydd  Chwitmor  ap  Davydd  person  Cilken. 
Cmwith,  left-handei  Davydd  Chwith  ap  Grufiydd  ap  Caradog. 

D. 
Da,  good    CiUin  ap  Maelog  Dda. 
Dadu  (fi.).  Cwmdadu. 

Tabwrd  dadwrdd  Cwmdadu. — T.  Prys. 

Daethwy,  a  man's  name :  hence  Dindaethwy,  some  fort  from 
whence  the  commot  of  Dindtiethwy  in  Anglesey  took  its  name : 
hence  also  Forth  Ddaethwy,  the  ferry  over  the  Menai  to  Bangor. 
See  Cynhaethwy  and  Cynan  Tindaethvy. 

Daftdd  or  Davtdd,  a  man's  name,  common  among  the  ancient 
Britains.  This  has  a  very  natural  derivation  from  the  British 
tongue,  from  da,  good,  and  h/dd,  will  be ;  i.  e.,  he  will  be  good ; 
but  as  it  is  a  name  that  seems  to  have  been  used  but  since 
Christianity  came  here,  it  may  be  the  same  with  Damd,  a  Hebrew 
name  signifying  beloved,  though  by  the  Britains  pronounced  as 
if  wrote  in  English  DavUh,  with  a  soft  th,  as  in  the  English  word 
with, 

Dafydd  Ddu  o  Hiraddug,  a  poet  who  wrote  about  the  year 
1340.  He  wrote  a  British  grammar,  which  is  extant  Henry 
Salesbury  says  he  was  a  noted  mathematician,  and  Bobert 
Yaughan  calls  him  Doctor  of  Divinity,  and  he  had  the  honour  of 
being  called  a  conjuror  and  a  magician  by  the  ignorant  of  his 
age,  who  have  handed  down  to  us  such  surprising  stories  about 
him.  This  hath  been  the  fate  of  another  great  man,  his  name- 
sake, Dr.  John  Dee,  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  time. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  123 

Dai  ap  Uywri  ap  Cynan  CiIk6l£F.    Dai  Melyn. 

Dalaboan  (h.  pr.  v.).  A  king  of  the  Picts  of  tbis  name  killed 
in  Gwaith  M^adoc,  a  battle  with  the  Britains^  A.D.  750.  (Car- 
adoc) 

Dale,  part  of  Powys  Vadog.    {Poml) 

Dalltaf  (n.  pr.  v.).   Dalltaf  eil  Cunyn  Cof.    {Tr.  88.) 

Dan,  the  28th  King  of  Britain. 

Dan  y  Castell,  a  house  near  Aberystwyth,  where  there  are 
the  remains  of  a  castle,  which  I  take  to  be  that  of  Bichard  de  la 
Mare,  mentioned  in  Powel's  Oaradoc,  p^  189. 

Danes,  the  English  name  of  the  people  of  Denmark.  It  is 
remarkable  that  the  British  writers  never  call  those  people  by 
this  name,  but  always  either  Uychlynwyr  or  Nartmyn.  We 
have  no  such  word  as  Daniaid,  and  it  seems  Nartmyn  was  a 
general  name  among  the  Britons  for  all  the  northern  nations ; 
and  the  names  of  Danes  and  Normans  were  promiscuously  used, 
as  appears  by  Eegino,  Dudo,  W.  Malmsbury,  Abbo,  and  Gemi- 
tensis.  (Selden,  Afare  Olaumm,  p.  249.)  Tyssilio  calls  their 
country  Denmarc. 

Daniel  (Sant),  the  first  Bishop  of  Bangor  in  North  Wales,  the 
cathedral  of  which  is  dedicated  to  his  name ;  and  he  instituted 
a  college  or  monastery,  says  Bale,  at  Bangor  in  the  year  516, 
where  King  Maelgwn  afterwards  built  the  city ;  and  the  pletce, 
from  its  lofty  choir,  was  called  Ban-cor  or  Bangor.  Here  Daniel 
was  ordained  Bishop  by  Dubricius.  Daniel  was  at  the  Synod  of 
Brevi,  and  deputed  by  them  to  bring  St.  David  thither.  He 
died  A.D.  545,  and  was  buried  in  the  isle  of  Bardsey.  (See 
Usher's  ArUiq,,!^.  274;  Brit.  Sand.,  Nov.  23.) 

Myrddin,  the  Pictish  poet,  mentions  him  in  his  Hoiane,  in 

these  words : 

Pan  Borro  Deinioel  vab  Danod  Deinwyn, 

which  shows  he  was  the  son  of  Dunod,  probably  the  great  Dunod 
Fyr  ap  Pabo  Post  Pryda-in.  Deinioel  had  a  son  called  Deiniel, 
who  founded  the  church  of  Llanddeiniel  Fab  in  Anglesey.  Le- 
land  says  he  erected  a  college  in  Arvon,  in  Gwynedd,  near  the 
passage  to  M6n,  called  Portua  (Porthaethwy),  which  place  is 
called,  for  its  excellency,  Banchor  Vawr  (Bangor  Fawr  yngwyn- 
edd). 


124  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

D  ANMONH.  So  the  iRomans  called  the  Britons  inhabiting  Corn- 
wall and  Devon.  The  name  was  coined  from  the  British  name 
of  Devon,  which  is  Dyfrh  Nainty  i.  e.,  deep  valleys. 

Daon,  a  river.  Aberdaon  (Dr.  Powel)  for  Aberthaw,  Glamor- 
ganshire. It  runs  through  Ystradowe,  or  some  siich  name :  qu., 
and  by  Landogh  or  Llandogh  ? 

[Lewis  yn  y  coed ! — all  merely  conjectural.  Dawon  runs  through 
Cowbridge,  Ilandochwy,  Llanfleiddan,  lianfair,  TreflSieniin,  Uan- 
garfan,  Ilandathan,  etc.,  and  falls  into  the  Bristol  Channel  at 
Aberddawon. — /.  M,"] 

Dar,  a  river,  Glamorganshire.    Aberd&r  parish. 

Darog.  .    Llanddarog  in  Caermarthenshire.    Fairs  kept  here. 

Daron  (fl.) :  hence  Aberdaron,  a  village  and  church  in  Lleyn 
{k  dar  and  onn,  oak  and  ash). 

Daronwy  (n.  pr.  v.,  Tr.  81:  qn.  Dar  Eonwy  or  Daron  Wy  ?), 
one  of  the  three  chief  molesters  of  Anglesey  that  was  bom  in  it, 
Un  0  dair  prif  gormes  Mon,  etc. 

Darowain,  a  chui*ch  and  parish  in  the  deanery  of  Cyfeiliog, 
dedicated  to  St.  Tudur.  {Br.  Willis.)  But  I  never  heard  of  a 
saint  of  that  name ;  and  this  seems  to  be  but  the  blundering  gtiess 
of  those  who  wonld  have  it  a  contraction  of  Tvdur  Owain  ;  but 
there  never  was  such  a  name  among  the  Britains.  It  would  have 
been  Tudur  ab  Owain.  Darowain  is  Owain's  Oak,  as  Cil  Owain 
is  Owain's  Retreat ;  Tir  Owain  in  Ireland,  Owen's  Land,  etc. 

Dathel.     Caer  Dathel,  qu.  ? 

David,  treasurer  of  Llandaf,  a  very  ingenious,  learned  man,  a 
great  antiquary,  a  great  natural  philosopher,  and  a  great  poet. 
He  wrote  several  things  in  prose  and  verse,  and  was  cotempo- 
rary  with  Jo.  Boss  the  historian,  who  mentions  him.  (Leland, 
Script.  Brit,  c.  573.) 

David's  (St.),  a  bishop's  see  in  Pembrokeshire,  South  Wales, 
founded  by  Dewi,  or  St.  David,  about  the  year  523,  and  was  the 
metropolitan  church  of  all  Wales  from  that  time  to  the  year 
1103,  when,  after  a  long  trial  at  Eome,  it  became  subject  to 
Canterbury. 

Davydd  ap  Gwilym,  the  Ovid  of  the  Welsh  nation,  a  most 
sweet  poet,  and  a  great  master  of  the  British  tongue.  He  is  said 
to  have  been  bom  at  Bro  Gynin,  according  to  Taliesin's  predic- 
tion, about  800  years  before  : 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  125 

[Am  Dafydd  gelfjdd  goelfin  praff  awdnr 
Propbwydawdd  Taliesin] 
T  genid  ym  Mro'  G^in 
Brydydd  a'i  gywydd  fal  gwin. 

But  wherever  he  was  born,  he  says  himself  his  country  was  Tir 
Pryderi  in  Bro  GFadelL  His  uncle  and  tutor  was  Dywelyn  ap 
Gwilym  ap  Gwrwared,  one  of  the  lords  of  Cardigan,  whose  seats 
were  at  Cryngae  and  DdSl  Goch. 

This  poet  wrote  avast  deal  I  have  of  his  works  near  300 
poems.  He  is  oftener  quoted  by  Dr.  Davies  in  his  Dictionary 
and  Grammar  than  any  other  poet.  He  flourished  about  a.d.  1400. 

Dau,  Aberdau,  mentioned  in  *'  Gorhoffedd  Gwalchmai/'  sig- 
nifying the  flail  of  two  waters  into ;  and  thence  came  the 

name  of  Deuddwr,  and  a  surname  of  a  family,  Gruflfudd  Deuddwr, 
etc.,  and  a  lordship  and  cwmmwd  Deuddwr  in  Cantref  Ystlyc 
in  Powys  Wenwynwyn.  According  to  Gwalchmai,  the  two 
waters  that  gave  it  the  name  are  Ogwann  and  Cegin;  and  a  third 
falls  into  them,  called  Clywedog.  Hywel  ap  Owain  Gwynedd 
calls  it  Cymmer  Deuddwr.     (Gorhoffedd  Hywel  ap  Owain.) 

[See  Gwalchmai*s  poem,  "Gorhoffedd",  whether  his  Aherdani 
has  any  reference  to  Ogwen  and  Cegin.  However,  Aberdau 
shoiQd  not  be  confounded  with  Deuddwr,  which  has  its  cymmerau 
at  the  junction  of  the  Vyrnwy  and  Havren,  below  Han  Drinio. 

—w.d:\ 

Daubertheg  (fl.).    Aberdaub  Ertheg. 

Daugleddeu,  one  of  the  eight  cantrefs  of  Dyfed.  (Price's  1>«- 

Daugleddyf  (fl.).  Alerdaugleddyf,  Milford  Haven,  Portus 
Alaunicua,    (/.  Morganwg) 

Daun,  corruptly  for  Dawn,  which  see. 

Dauei,  Dauvri,  see  Davm, 

Dawn,  a  river  in  the  West  Eiding  of  Yorkshire,  which  falls 
into  the  Humber  ;  in  English,  the  Don,  Gaer  Dawn  in  the  Tri- 
odes,  Gaer  Daun  in  Nennius  and  Usher,  is,  no  doubt,  Doncaster 
in  Yorkshire. 

Ddeheuros  (Y),  a  place  in  Cardiganshire.    (2>.  ah  Tman  Dil) 

Ddreiniog  (Y),  in  Anglesey  (i  drain,  thorns).  [Dreiniog, 
nomen  loci  in  Glamorganshire. — L  M,] 


1 26  CELTIO  BEMAINS. 

Ddbtdwt  (Y),  the  name  of  a  river  in  Anglesey.  Melin  7 
Ddiydwy. 

Ddwygyfylchi  (T),  or  Ddngyfylchi,  or  Ddy  Wgyfylchi :  see 
Cyfylchi, 

Ddysgwylpa  Fawb  (Y)  and  Ddysgwylfa  Face,  two  mountains 
in  Cardiganshire,  which  by  their  names  seem  to  have  been  the 
watch-mountains  or  beacons  in  ancient  times.  See  Wylfa,  [Sguil- 
ver  Hillfl  near  Bishop's  Castle. —  W.  Di] 

De,  a  foreigner :  hence  deol,  to  exile. 

Decca:  vide  Tecea. 

Dee.  Camden  (in  Merionethshire),  describing  this  river,  says 
it  runs  unmixed  through  liyn  Tegid.  It  is  the  English  name 
for  the  river  Dyfrdwy.  (See  also  Peryddon  and  Aerfen.)  He 
says  some  derive  it  from  dwy,  because  it  has  two  fountains.  So 
have  all  rivers  two  or  more  fountains.  Others  contend,  says  he, 
that  it  took  its  name  from  Duw,  God,  as  if  a  sacred  river ;  others, 
from  du,  black.  There  is  another  river  Dee,  which  runs  by  Aber-^ 
deen  in  Scotland. 

Deheubabth,  South  Wales,  including  at  present  Cardiganshire, 
Badnorshire,  Brecknockshire,  Glamorganshire,  Caermarthenshire, 
and  Pembrokeshire,  and  also  Monmouthshire,  though  called  an 
English  county.  Dafydd  Benfras  calls  Dafydd  ap  Gwilym  £os 
Djjfed,  and  Hehog  Dehmbarth. 

Dehewynt  ap  Ithel  ap  Dolflfyn  ap  Ilywelyn  0. 

Deicws  ap  Gronw  ap  Gruffydd  Grach  o'r  Blaen.  Nicolas  ap 
Deicws  o  Ystrad  Alun. 

Deifir,  Durham  coimtry  {E.  Llwyd),  Deira.  Ddfr,  Durham 
men  (2V.  16).  It  seems  it  extended  to  the  river  Tweed,  for  Goer 
Deifr  is  Barwick.    See  Brynaich  and  Brynych,  and  Gall. 

Deiftb,  a  hermit  at  Bodffari,  who  directed  Gwen&ewi  to  Sad- 
wm,  a  hermit  at  Henllan.     (Life  of  Winifred.) 

Deili,  verch  Syr  Gruflfydd  Llwyd,  marchog. 

Deiniel  (Sant).  Llanddeiniel  Fab,  a  chapel  in  Anglesey.  This 
Deiniel  or  Daniel,  they  say,  was  son  of  Deinioel  Sant,  first  erector 
of  the  see  of  Bangor,  and  first  Bishop.    See  Daniel. 

Deinioel  Sant,  Daniel  Sant. 

Doniog  im'  fed  myn  Deinioel 
Yn  &rdd  hil  Llywelya  Foel. — Deio  ap  leuan  Du. 
See  Daniel. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  127 

Deniolen  Santes.    lianddeiniolen. 
Deinis  Lyth  ap  Cadwr. 
Deio,  dim.  of  Dafydd. 

Tri  henw  ay  ar  y  dyn 
Deio,  Dafydd,  Deipyn. 

Deio  ap  Dafydd  ap  Madog  Ddu. 

Deio  ap  lorwerth  o  Ddinmeirphion. 

Deneio,  a  church  near  Pwllheli  in  Lleyn  (qu.  k  din  ?). 

Denmabe,  mentioned  in  Tyssilio.  The  word  is  compounded, 
says  Camden,  of  a  Danish  word  and  the  German  march,  which 
signifies  a  bound  or  limit.     (Camden  in  Names  of  Brit) 

Deon  (qu.),  foreigners,  strangers. 

Dyniadon  Deon  dylyam  ei  ddwyn 
Dolnr  cwyn  ai  cyffry. 

Einion  Wan^  i  Llyw.  ap  lorwerth. 

Nid  ar  a'n  perchis  a'n  peiroh  y  weithon 

O'r  Deon  dihefeireh 

Tn  y  cyrcham  oaroharfeirch. 

Cyndddifff  i  Birid  Flaidd. 
See  Dwywg. 

Deobath  Wledig,  father  of  Ehufawn  Befr. 

Dekfedd,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Ffiniog,  Caer- 
marthenshire.     (Price's  Description.)    Whether  Perfedd  t 

Deri,  a  place  in  Anglesey.  Tre  Dderi  (Jt  dar,  oak.  So  doth 
also  Derry  in  Ireland,  which  Bede  interprets  Bdboreturn), 

Derllys,  one  of  the  present  hundreds  of  Caermarthenshire ; 
now  wrote  also  Derllysg.  [A  place  of  the  same  name  in  Mon- 
mouthshire.— I.  M!\ 

Dervel  (n.  pr.  v.).  Lltrnddervel,  a  parish  and  church  in  Edeyr- 
nion  deanery,  diocese  of  St.  Asaph,  Powys,  Merionethshire. 

Dervel  Gadarn  (n.  pr.  v.).  There  was  a  huge  image  of  his 
in  Llandderfel,  carried  to  London  to  be  burnt. 

Fal  Derfel  ynghamlan. — Tudur  Aled. 

See  Fox's  MaHyrs,  and  also  Lord  Herbert's  JUfe  of  Rewry  VIIL 
Derwas,  q.  d.  Gwas  dewr  (?).    Gruffydd  Derwas  ap  Howel 
Selyf  ap  Meurig  Uwyd.  Owen  Derwas,  Dafydd  Derwas,  etc.  It 
is  but  modem,  and  now  used  as  a  Christian  name. 


128  CELTIC  R  EM AINS. 

Derwen,  a  parish  and  church,  Denbighshire. 

[FfynTum  Ddenoen,  a  well  greatly  resorted  to. — W.  2>.] 

Debwennydd,  rivers  in  England,  now  called  Derwent  One 
is  between  the  East  and  North  Biding  of  Yorkshire,  and  falls 
into  the  Ouse.  Antoninus  names  a  city  Derventio,  on  this  river, 
seven  miles  from  York  The  first  of  G-wrthefyr's  battles  with 
the  Saxons  was  fought  on  a  river  of  this  name.  It  is  called  in 
Nennius,  published  by  Dr.  Gale,  Derevent  and  Dergwent ;  in  my 
vellum  MS,  of  Galfidd's  translation  of  Tyssilio,  Derwende ;  in  the 
French  editions  of  Galfrid,  1508  and  1517,  it  is  "super  fluvium 
Derimend  all  which  are  corruptions  of  the  ancient  British  name, 
according  to  the  old  orthography,  Dervenyt,  and  in  the  modem 
orthography,  Derwenivydd,  probably  from  derwen,  an  oak. 

The  Derwent  or  Darent,  in  Surrey,  which  falls  into  the  Thames, 
is  the  river  where  Gwrthefyr  fought  the  Saxons  probably.  An- 
other Derwent  river  rises  in  the  Peak,  and  runs  through  the 
heart  of  Derbyshire,  and  falls  into  the  Trent. 

A  place  called  Derwen  in  Wales  ;  qu.,  whether  a  river  of  that 
name  besides  Daron  in  Lleyn.  [  Vide  my  account  of  Darwent 
from  Burlington. —  W,  2>.] 

Derwydd,  a  Druid  (anciently  Dervid),  Derwyddon  and  Drudion 
(Gynddelw),  Druids,  Druidce.  These  were  princes  and  priests  of 
Gaul  and  Britain,  and  so  had  their  subjects'  bodies  and  souls  in 
their  power  \  and  the  king  was  the  high  priest.  It  seems  to  be 
owing  to  this  Druidical  government  that  the  British  monarchy 
lasted  so  long,  viz.^  from  the  first  plantation  of  the  island  to  the 
time  of  Christ's  birth,  or  thereabouts  ;  it  being  not  only  heredi- 
tary, but  absolute  and  arbitrary. 

The  help  qf  the  Church  and  religion  hath  been  always  found 
necessary  to  govern  mankind  in  all  nations :  oracles,  auguries, 
prophets,  seers,  etc.,  were  the  great  hinges  of  the  state ;  but  here 
and  in  Gaul  the  crow^  and  the  Church  were  united  in  one  per- 
son. This  is  the  reason  that  religion  is  scarcely  mentioned  in 
our  ancient  British  history,  it  being  an  article  that  no  writer 
durst  meddle  with. 

The  religion  of  the  Druids  prevailed  in  some  parts  of  Ireland 
tUl  the  year  433,  when  St.  Patrick  converted  the  Irish.  [Ogygia, 
p.  203.) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  129 

Bar  is  an  old  oak  tree ;  derwen,  a  young  oak ;  derwyddon, 
oak-men.  The  singular  must  be  denvydd,  hence  Tre  Dder- 
wydd  in  Anglesey;  Llan  y  Dderwyddon,  a  village  near  St. 
David's  ;  and  the  Indian  Bervis,  a  priest,  may  be  of  the  same 
origin.  Cerrig  y  Drudion,  a  church  and  parish  in  the  rural 
deaneiy  of  Ehos,  Denbighshire. 

Dysgogan  Derwyddon  dewrwlad. 

Cynddelw,  i  Yw,  Oyfeiliog. 
Dmdion  a  veirddion  a  fawl 
Neb  dragon  namyn  draig  ai  dirper. 

Cynddelw,  i  Yw.  Cyfeiliog. 

Derwyddveirdd,  i.  a.,  Druidical  Bards.  These  were  the  poets 
of  the  Britains  and  Gauls  in  the  time  of  paganism  here.  They 
kept  an  account  of  the  descent  of  families,  and  made  songs  on 
the  actions  of  great  men,  and  consequently  were  the  national 
historians.  These  songs  they  sang  to  the  harp,  and  from  them 
our  ancient  history  hath  been  collected  ;  and  not  only  ours,  but 
[that  of]  all  nations  (except,  perhaps,  the  Jews)  was  collected 
from  the  same  kind  of  materials.     See  Derwydd. 

Derwyn,  and  Bryn  Derwyn,  where  a  fierce  battle  was  fought 
by  Lleweljm  ap  Gruflfudd  and  his  brothers  Owen  and  Davydd 
for  the  Principality  of  Wales,  a.d.  1254,  when  Llewelyn  got  the 
day.  It  is  called  in  the  jErce  Gambro-Britannicce,  y  Frwydr  yn 
Nerwyn ;  and  in  Llyfr  Cock  o  Rergest,  Bryn  Derwyn.  Caradoc 
[Hist,  of  Wales)  doth  not  name  the  place. 

Devanog.  Cappel  Devanog  in  Eamsey  Isle,  near  St.  David's, 
in  Pembrokeshire. 

Stinan  a  Devanog  dan  anwyl  gymydog. 

(E.  Llwyd,  Notes  on  Camden  in  Pemhr.) 

Qu.,  whether  it  is  not  Tyvanog  i 

Deusant.  iJanddeusant,  a  parish  and  church  in  Anglesey ; 
a  chapel  dedicated  to  two  saints.  Llanddeusant  in  Caermarthen- 
shire. 

Deudraeth,  y  Traeth  Mawr  a'r  Traeth  Bychan,  Ardudwy. 

Gwrdd  y  gwnaeth  uch  Deudraeth  Dryfan. 

Prydydd  y  Moch,  i  Lew.  ap  lorwerth. 

Deulyn.     Afon  Deulyn,  the  name  of  the  river  composed  of 

the  waters  of  Llyn  Crafnant  and  Llyn  Geirionydd. 

17 


130  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Deuddwr  or  DuDDWR,  Divodurum  {E.  Lhtryd),  a  commot  in 
Cantref  Ystlyc  in  Powys  Wenwynwyn.  Qu.,  two  waters  ?  Hence 
Gruffudd  Deuddwr  ap  Owain. 

Dewen  Hen, father  of  Mabon:  in  ihelndex,Dov^ngan,{Tr.55.) 

Dewi  Sant  (i.  e.j  St.  David),  the  patron  saint  of  Wales,  as 
St.  George  for  England,  St.  Patrick  for  Ireland,  and  St.  Andrew 
for  Scotland.  He  was  son  of  Xanthus  {Oambro-Brit.  Sand.),  who 
had  taken  refuge  in  Armorica,  and  had  married  an  Armorican 
Briton,  and  a  relation  of  King  Arthur,  who  was  son  of  Ceredic 
ap  Cunedda  Wledig,  Prince  of  Ceretica  (Ceredigion),  now  called 
Cardiganshire,  in  South  Wales.  Dewi's  mother's  name  was 
Nonn;  and  there  are  churches  dedicated  to  her  name:  Uan- 
nonn,  and  a  river  near  St.  David's  called  Non,  and  a  place  called 
Abernon.  She  was  called  in  Latin  (the  favourite  language  of 
those  days)  Nonna  or  Nonnita ;  others  call  her  Melaria,  by  mis- 
take, I  suppose,  for  Eleri,  daughter  of  Brychan,  the  mother  of 
Xanthus.     {Brit,  Sand,) 

He  was  bom  in  South  Wales  in  the  5th  century,  and  was 
brought  up  at  ffen  Menew,  or  Old  Menevia,  in  Pembrokeshire. 
[Cardiganshire,  near  Aberaeron. —  JV,  D,]  {Brit,  Sand,)  See  Dr. 
Davies'  mistake  in  his  Dictionary,  Mynyw  Hen,  He  was  edu- 
cated at  the  famous  school  at  the  Isle  of  Wight,  under  Paulinus, 
a  disciple  of  St.  Germanus ;  and  there  performed  miracles  by 
giving  Paulinus  his  sight,  with  the  sign  of  the  cross,  which  he 
had  lost  with  much  weeping  and  old  age.  {Brit,  Sand,)  An  angel 
admonished  Paulinus  to  send  Dewi  among  the  Britains,  where 
he  founded  twelve  religious  houses  or  monasteries,  among  which 
were  Glastonbury,  Bath,  Leominster,  Rhaglan  in  Gwent,  Llan- 
gyvelach  in  Gower,  and  the  chief  in  the  Vale  of  Ross,  near  Mene- 
via, or  Vallis  Bosina  (the  Rosy  Vale) ;  in  the  Acts  of  the  Irish 
Saints  called  Bosnat  or  Rosnant,  {Brit,  Sand.,  Mar.  1.)  Theo- 
marchus  and  John  of  Tinmouth  mention  his  Rules. 

He  was  sent  for  by  Dubricius  (Dyfrig),  Archbishop  of  Caer- 
lleon  ar  Wysg,  to  the  synod  held  at  Uanddewi  Brevi  to  suppress 
the  Pelagian  heresy  that  had  revived  after  Garmon  and  Lupus 
had  suppressed  it  about  anno  430 ;  and  in  his  way  there  he 
raised  a  person  from  the  dead ;  and  whilst  he  preached  in  the 
fields,  the  earth,  by  a  miracle,  raised  under  his  feet,  and  became 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  131 

a  hill,  on  the  top  of  which  the  church  was  afterwards  built. 
(Brit.  Sanct.)  At  the  conclusion  of  the  synod  Dubricius  desired  to 
resign  and  retire  to  the  monastery  of  EnUi,  and  that  David  might 
succeed  him;  which  David  approved  of  on  condition  that  he 
might  remove  the  metropolitan  see  to  Menevia,  the  noise  and 
hurry  of  Caerlleon,  a  populous  city,  being  disagreeable  to  him. 
Dubricius,  with  most  of  the  clergy  that  [were]  convened  on  that 
occasion,  went  to  the  Isle  of  Bardsey,  and  entered  themselves  in 
the  monastery  there  for  the  rest  of  their  lives.  (Llwyd,  Notes  on 
Camden,  out  of  Mr.  E.  Vaughan's  MSS.)  But  what  could  induce 
the  other  clergy  to  do  this,  though  Dubricius  might  take  a  pen- 
sion for  his  archbishoprick,  unless  they  [were]  opposed  in  that 
synod,  or  that  the  Armorican  party  were  the  most  powerful  ? 
Uthur  Bendragon  having  brought  over  many  relations  who  must 
be  provided  for,  and  Dewi  among  the  rest.  [L.  Morris  is  at  a 
loss  here. —  W.  2?.] 

It  was  in  anno  522  that  Dewi  was  made  Archbishop  of  Caer- 
lleon ar  Wysg,  in  King  Arthur's  time,  when  he  kept  his  court 
there.  (Tr.  7.)  But  take  notice  that  the  Triades  call  him 
Penescvh,  i.  e,,  head  of  bishops,  and  not  archbisliop  (archesgob), 
Dewi  held  another  synod  afterwards,  to  confirm  the  former,  and 
called  it  the  Synod  of  Victory.     {Gir,  Camhrensis,) 

Leland  calls  his  parents  Xanthus  and  Noninta,  He  says  he 
went  to  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  studied  there  under  Paulinus ; 
thence  to  Ceredigion ;  thence  to  Pebidiauc,  which  is  in  the  Vale 
of  Eos,  where  Patrick  once  lived  a  solitary  life.  There  a  little 
well,  called  Pistyll  Ddewi,  afforded  him  his  drink ;  and  for  his 
abstinence  and  hard  living  he  was  called  Dewi  Ddyffnor,  i,  e., 
David  Aqnaticus,  His  fame  spread  abroad  all  over  Wales,  and 
Teilo  (called  also  Eliud),  and  Madoc  of  Towyn  Meirionydd  (called 
also  Aidan),  and  Ismael  of  Ehos,  came  to  visit  him.  There  he 
was  troubled  by  one  Boias,  a  prince,  who  had  two  castles  in  lihos. 

Dyfrig  and  Deinioel,  bishops,  and  others,  having  met  at  Llan- 
ddewi  Brevi  (i.  e., "  Locus  Davidis  mugientis",  Leland,  from  hrcvu, 
to  talk  loud, — ^a  very  poor  derivation),  David,  with  much  ado,  was 
persuaded  to  join  them  out  of  his  great  modesty;  and  in  Leland's 
memory  there  were  canons,  vulgarly  called  prebendaries,  at  Han- 
ddewi. 


132  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

In  the  Triades  (43)  he  is  called  one  of  the  three  happy  guests 
of  the  Isle  of  Britain,  because  he  was  a  foreigner.  St.  Padarn 
and  St.  Teilaw  were  the  other  two  happy  guests.  He  died  at 
Menevij^  147  years  of  age,  and  was  succeeded  by  Chinotus, 
Bishop  of  Llaubadarn  Vawr.  (Leland,  Script,  Brit.,  c.  34.)  St. 
Kentigem,  in  a  vision,  saw  his  soul  going  to  heaven,  conducted 
by  angels,  and  there  crowned  by  our  Lord.   {Brit.  Sanct,  Mar.l.) 

Dewma  (n.  1.).    Leitns  Glyn  Cothi. 

Dial  Kodri,  a  battle  fought  by  the  Britains  on  the  river  Con- 
way, A.D.  880,  against  the  Danes  and  English,  where  the  Welsh 
had  the  victory,  in  revenge  of  Eodri's  death.  (Gwaith  Cymryd 
Conwy.) 

DiAMS  verch  Eoger  Vychan  o  Frodorddyn. 

Diana  (n.  f.),  the  name  of  a  Celtic  princess,  afterwards  deified. 
In  the  British  the  word  signifies  without  blemish  (di-anav). 

DiER  ap  Arwystl  Gloff. 

DiFWG  (n.  pr.  v.).  Difwg,  mab  Alban,  was  a  commodore  of  a 
fleet  of  pirates.     (TV.  72.) 

DiFFEDEL,  mab  Dysgyfedawc,  one  of  the  three  chief  heads  of 
Deira  and  Bernicia  about  the  time  of  the  Saxon  conquest.  He 
killed  Gwrgi  GarwlwyA    {Tr,  16.)     See  Gall. 

DiGAiN  ap  Cwstenyn  Gomeu  {at,  Gernyw). 

DiGANWY  or  Dyganwy  (Dictum.  Notitia),  Gannoc  (if.  Paris), 
a  town  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  Conwy,  burnt  with  light- 
ning. Here  Maelgwn  Gwynedd  kept  his  royal  palace.  There 
are  still  the  ruins  of  an  old  fort  called  Castell  y  Faerdref.  Thus 
far  Henry  III,  King  of  England,  came  against  Llewelyn  ap 
GrufPydd  with  the  power  of  all  England  ;  but  could  proceed  no 
further,  retiring  with  great  loss.     See  Teganvjy. 

DiGOLL.  Mynydd  DigoU,  the  Long  Mountain  in  Shropshire, 
mentioned  by  Llywarch  Hen  in  Marvmad  CadwaUaiim. 

Owaith  Digoll,  a  battle  fought  there  between  CadwaUawn, 
King  of  the  Britains,  and  Edwin,  King  of  the  Saxons,  till  the 
river  Severn  was  red  with  blood.  (TV.  75.)  Neither  this  battle 
nor  that  of  Bryn  Ceneu*n  Ehos,  between  Cadwallon  and  Edwin, 
is  mentioned  in  Tyssilio,  nor  in  Galfrid's  translation ;  nor  the 
battle  of  Meigeii.     See  Triades,  49. 

Lluest  Gadwallon  glodrjdd 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  133 

YDgwarthaf  Digoll  Fynydd, 

Saithmis  a  saithgad  beunydd. — Llywarch  Hen. 
See  Belyn, 

DiGWYDD  (Y),  reversio, 

A'r  digwydd  o  draean  i  fam. 

DiHEWYD,  a  parish  in  Cardiganshire. 

DiLYN :  hence  Aberdilyn. 

DiLLUS  Fakfawc  (n.  pr.  v.).     Tstori  Kil  ap  Kilydd. 

DiMBECH  or  DiMBYCH,  Angl.  BeiMgh.  Dinas  Bychod,  city  of 
bucks. 

DiMEiRCHiON,  enw  lie ;  q.  d.  Dinmeirchion. 

DiMETiE,  a  name  given  by  the  Eomans  to  the  inhabitants  of 
what  is  now  called  part  of  Caermarthenshire,  Pembrokeshire, 
and  part  of  Cardiganshire ;  by  the  Britains  called  Dyfed  ovDyvet, 
q.  d.  Dehau/ed,  or  the  South  Country ;  part  of  what  is  now  called 
South  Wales.  Camden  makes  them  a  different  people  from  the 
Silures  [and  that  very  rightly. — /.  if.]. 

DiMiLWY  or  DiNMiLWY,  the  name  of  some  fort  in  Cantref 
Gwaelod  drowned  by  the  sea. 

Ardal  dwfu  hoewal  Dinmilwy 
Eissyddyn  gwylain  rhiain  yn  rhwy. 

Prydydd  y  Moch,  i  Llew.  ap  lorwerth. 
See  Dinfyddwy, 

Dm  (fl.):  hence  Aberdeen  in  Scotland,  Lat.  Aberdonia,  a 
bishop's  seat  and  University ;  anciently  Devana  {AiTtsworth). 
Aberdeen  lies  between  the  rivers  Dee  and  Don ;  two  cities,  New 
and  Old  Aberdeen. 

Din  is  a  most  ancient  Celtic  word  used  in  the  composition  of 
the  names  of  places,  signifying  a  fortress  or  stronghold,  and  is 
not  the  same  as  diTias,  as  Dr.  Davies  advances.  Out  of  it  was 
formed  Dinas,  when  a  city  or  a  society  of  people  was  added  to 
the  fort  so  as  to  make  it  a  garrison  or  fortified  town.  Dindryfal ; 
Dinefwr;  Dinbych;  Dinsol;  Dinorweg;  Dinteirw;  Dineithon; 
Dinsilyw;  Dindaethwy;  Dinalclud;  Dinerth;  Dinmor;  Din- 
geraint;  Dinmael;  Dinbrain;  Dinmeirchion. 

In  Scotland :  Dunbar ;  Dunbarton ;  Dundee  ;  Dungon ;  Dum- 
fries; Dunfermlin;  Dimkeld;  Dunstafnag;  Dunvegan;  Dun- 
tulm ;   Dum'obin ;  Dunnet  Head ;   Dingwel ;   Dunsbay  Head 
Dunblain ;  Dunsterc ;  Dunglass  ;  Dunrossness. 


134  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

In  the  Irish,  dun  and  duna  signifies  a  fort,  and  hence  came  the 
Latin  terminations  of  the  names  of  some  places  in  dmium :  Gam- 
elodunum,  Uxelodunum,  etc.,  etc.  [Melodunum,  Moeldun. —  W.  DJ] 

DiNALCLUD :  see  Alclud, 

DiNAM,  qiL  ?  Llanddinam,  Montgomeryshire,  dedicated  to  St. 
ULoniaw. 

Dm  ANT,  a  place  in  Britanny  lately  called  DzTiham,  from  whence 
the  surnames  of  some  families  in  England.  (Camden.)  DunarUr 
in  the  Welsh,  is  black  valley.     See  Dmam. 

DiNAS  is  an  old  Celtic  word  signifying  what  the  Latins  called 
civitas  and  urbs;  Ir.  diian,  "City"  is  the  English  word  that 
comes  nighest  it.  It  is  prefixed  to  the  names  of  several  towns, 
as  well  as  din,  from  which  it  is  formed ;  din  signifying  only  a 
fortified  place,  but  dlnas  an  inhabited  town  fortified,  which 
answers  to  the  notion  of  a  city,  according  to  Cowell,  who  says  it 
should  be  civitas,  oppidum,  and  urbs:  dvitas,  because  of  the 
magistracy ;  oppidum,  for  the  great  number  of  inhabitants ;  urbs, 
because  of  the  walls.  Sir  Edward  Coke  calls  Cambridge  a  city» 
though  it  never  had  a  bishop.  Westminster,  by  27  Elizabeth, 
c.  5,  is  called  a  city.  Crompton,  in  his  Jurisdict,  leaveth  out 
Ely  in  his  catalogue  of  cities,  though  it  hath  a  bishop  and  cathe- 
dral ;  and  Landaff,  St.  David's,  Bangor,  and  St.  Asaph,  are  na 
cities,  though  they  have  cathedrals  and  bishops. 

DiNAS,  an  old  fort  near  Aberystwyth ;  and  several  others^ 
Dinas,  near  Carnarvon. 

DiNAS  Bassin,  an  abbey  near  Holywell  in  Flintshire ;  Basing^ 
werk.     Tomas,  Arglwydd  Abad  Dinas  Bassin. 

Dinas  Beli,  London. 

Dinas  Bran  :  see  Bran. 

Dinas  Bwch,  enw  Ue.    Arglwydd  Dinas  Bwch. 

DiNAB  DiNLLE,  Caernarvonshire.  [Caer  Dinlle,  now  Kinners- 
ley.—  W.  D.'\ 

Dinas  Emeys,  in  Caernarvonshire ;  enw  Dinas  Ffaran  ar  ol 
dadguddio'r  dreigiau.  {Tr.  45.)  Another  of  the  same  name  in 
Lloegria ;  Latinized  Anibrosii  Vicus,  Ambresbury.    (Camden.) 

A  Dinas  Bmrys  amrygant 
Amrygyr  Newenhyr  naw  cant 
A  Chaer  yn  Arvon. 

Frydi/dd  u  Moch,  i  Lew.  ap  lorwerth. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  135 

DiNAS  Ffakaon  or  Ffaran,  He  dadcuddiodd  Gwrtheym  y 
dreigiau.  (2V.  45.)  This  was  some  fort  on  Snowdon  hills,  per- 
haps the  same  with  Dinas  Emrys,  which  see,  and  Ffaraon  and 
Coed  FfarcLon,     (Bhys  Goch  Eryri,) 

Dinas  Gawb. 

Dinas  Melin  y  Wyg,  a  British  oppidum,  such  as  is  described 
by  CsBsar  (Comm,,  1,  v).  It  lies  in  the  mountains  of  Denbigh- 
shire. 

Dinas  y  Mowddwy,  a  town  in  Meirionydd. 

Ddinas  Newydd  (Y).  Gwaith  y  Ddinas  Newydd,  a  battle 
fought  at  Brecknock  with  Elfled,  Duchess  of  Mercia,  ad.  919. 
(Powel,  Carad.,  p.  47.) 

Dinas  Powys,  a  manor  in  Morganwg.    See  Ynys  Pawys. 

DiNAU  (Llwdlo),  or  Dinan,  or  Dunant,  qu.  ? 

DiNAWALy  a  lordship  in  Cardiganshire. 

Pob  rhjrw  wr  pybyr  eirian 

0  Ddinawal  a  d&l  dan. 

Beio  op  leuan  Du, 

DiNAWAL,  neu  Dinawl,  neu  Dinafawl  :  qu.,  whether  the  same 
as  Dinefawl,  tad  Bran,  tad  Uowarch  (15  Zlwyth). 

DlNBKAIN. 

hydr  riain 

O'r  wenliys  gar  Dinbrain 

Ami  yw  gwawd  gynnevawd  gain,  etc. 

Hytoel  ap  Eignion^  i  Fefanwy  Fechan  o  Gkistell  Dinas  Bran. 

DiNBRAN,  the  name  of  a  lordship  near  liangoUen,  where  Cas- 
teU  Dinas  Bran  is.     See  Castdl  Diiias  Bran. 
DiNBRiTHON,  Dunbritton  in  Scotland. 
Dinbyrn  (a  pr.). 

Eirf  drabludd  ang^dd  angerth  Dinbyrn. 

Em.  ap  Gwcdchmaiy  i  Lew.  ap  lorwerth. 

Nid  ail  Dinbryn. — 2>.  ap  Gwil/ym^  i  Rys  Meigen. 

DiNBYCH  and  Dinbech,  q.  d.  Dinas  Bychod,  a  town  and  castle 
in  North  Wales;  in  English,  Denbigh:  hence  Denbighshire. 
Church  dedicated  to  St.  MarcheU.    See  Dinas  Stock 

DiNBYCH  Y  Pysgod,  Tenby,  and  the  hundred  of  Denbigh  in 
Essex. 


136  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

DiNCADVAEL,  an  old  fort  on  the  top  of  a  high  hill  in  Han 
Nefydd  parish  in  Denbighshire,  capable  of  holding  a  large  army, 
strengthened  with  three  fosses  on  the  side  next  the  east,  the 
other  side  very  steep ;  not  mentioned  in  Camden.  There  is  also 
a  gentleman's  seat  called  Dincadfeiel^  in  the  hundred  of  IsalecL 
(J.  D) 

DiNDAETHWY,  One  of  the  six  commots  of  Anglesey,  from  a  fort 
of  that  name. 

DiNDRYFAL,  the  ruins  of  a  fort  in  Anglesey ;  lit,  a  triangled 
town  or  fort. 

DiNEFWR,  a  part  of  South  Wales,  once  a  principality.  Talaith 
Dinefwr.  Castell  Dinefwr,  near  Llandeilo  Fawr.  Here  a  terrible 
battle  was  fought,  a.d.  1254,  between  Llewelyn  ap  Gruffudd  and 
Henry  Ill's  army,  who  had  besieged  this  castle  with  a  strong 
power  landed  at  Caermarthen.  The  King's  men  were  put  to 
flight,  and  [he]  lost  2,000  soldiers.     {Camd,  in  Llewelyn) 

Llawn  Uef  Talaith  Dinefwr 

Llefain  mal  llif  Noe  am  wr. — Lewys  Mbrganwg. 

Dm  EiTHON,  a  castle  on  the  river  Eithon  in  Maelienydd,  from 
which  some  part  of  that  country  takes  its  name.  Bro  Din  Eithon. 

Prif  arglwydd  brolwydd  Bro  Dineithon. 

Cynddelw^  i  Cad.  ap  Madawg. 

DiNERTH  (n.  pr.  v.).  Howel  ap  Dinerth.  (Powel,  Car  ad.,  p. 
178.)    Hence  Castell  Dinerth. 

Dinerth  in  South  Wales,  at  St.  David's,  where  a  battle  was 
fought,  AD.  911,  between  the  Welsh  and  Uther  and  Rahald,  the 
Danes,  who  came  there  with  a  great  navy,  where  Mayloc  ap 
Peredur  Gam  was  slain.     {Garad,  in  Anar,,  p.  451.) 

Dinerth  Castle  and  Caerwedros  Castle  rased  by  Owen  Gwyn- 
edd,  etc.,  A.D.  1136,  and  all  the  Normans  and  Flemings  drove  out 
of  Cardiganshire.  {Carad.  in  Gruff,  ap  Gynan,)  He  had  this  year 
an  army  of  6,000  foot  and  2,000  horse  well  armed,  and  near  the 
river  Teivi  fought  all  the  power  of  the  Normans,  Flemings,  and 
English ;  killed  3,000  in  the  field,  and  several  were  drowned  in 
the  flight,  and  several  carried  away  captives.     (Garadoc.) 

DiNFYDDWY.     Some  fort,  in  Caledonia,  perhaps. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  137 

Gwyn  ei  byd  hi'r  fedwen 

Yngwarthaf  Dinfyddwy 

A  wybydd  psin  fo  y  g&d  yn  Ardudwy. — Myrddtn  WyUK 

DiNGAD  Sant. 

Nid  Dingad  ddoniad  ddinodi  gwlad  Goel 
Deinioel  a  Seirioel  rhag  ea  sorri. — Hywd  Dafydd^ 

DmGAD  ap  Nedd  Had. 

DiNQAD  ap  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 

DiNLLAEN. 

Oes  le  rhydd  was  osier  hen 

Ond  yn  Ll^  neu  Dinllaen. — lolo  Ooch^  i'r  Gwyddelyn. 

DiNLLAES:  vid.  Tinllaes. 

DmiiLE.    Dinas  Dinlle. 

DiNMAEL,  in  Powys  Vadog.  (Powd.)  See  LUmgwm  Dinmael, 
Denbighshire. 

DiNMAWR  or  DiNMOR,  viilg6  Dingmor. 

DiNOGAN  (n.  pr,  v.).    Dinogan  mab  Cynan  Garwyn. 

DiNORWEG,  Caernarvonshire.  Syr  Gruffydd  Ilwyd  o  Wynedd, 
Arglwydd  Dinorweg. 

DiNOTHTJS  {Dinotvs  by  Leland,  who  says  in  Scr.  Brit,,  c.  44, 
he  was  first  a  monk  of  Bangor  is  y  Coed,  and  then  abbot),  a 
learned  man.  He  and  other  abbots  and  seven  British  bishops 
met  Augustine  at  the  Claudian  Synod,  when  sent  by  Pope 
Gregory,  but  could  not  agree  with  him.  He  is  also  mentioned 
by  Bede,  1.  i,  c.  1.  In  the  ancient  orthography  this  name  was 
wrote  Dinot  or  Dinanjt ;  in  the  modem,  Dwnod  or  Dunawd.  Dun- 
awd  Fyr  was  son  of  Pabo  Post  Prydain.  See  also  Oaer  Ddunod 
and  Deinid.     [Dunawd  Ffur,  i,  e.,  Dunawd  the  Wise. —  W.  2?.] 

DiNSOL,  some  town  anciently  in  the  north  of  England. 

DiNTAGOL  or  TiNTAGOL,  a  village  in  ComwalL  It  is  turned 
into  a  man  by  Buchanan. 

DiNTARN.    Mynachleg  Dintam  ym  Mynwy  gynt. 

DrNTEiRW,  a  castle  in  ...... 

Trais  ar  ysgwyd  rhag  ysgor  Dinteirw 
A  gwyr  meirw  rhag  mar  cor. 

Cyndddw^  i  Twain  Gyfeiliog. 

DiocHLEisiON  (n.  pr.  v.),  Dioclesian  the  Emperor.  See  Cffmedlau 

DoethUm  Ehufain  [printed  in  the  BrythonI]. 

18 


138  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

DiBiE,  the  Furies  Tisiphone,  Megsera,  and  Alecto ;  from  the 
Celtic  dfr,  necessity.    T  Duwiau  Dir. 

Snccessum  Dea  dira  negat. —  Virgil. 

Ddiseeth  (Y),  a  parish  church  in  Tegeingl,  whose  patron  saint 
is  Gwyfan  {K  Llwyd) ;  Disart  {CwmderC),  There  has  been,  says 
E.  Uwyd,  in  Descript.  Diserth,  a  castle  at  Trecastell,  which  some 
say  was  called  CasteU  Ffailon,  alias  Dincolyn,  alias  Gastell  Geri ; 
for  in  the  same  township  there  is  a  field  called  Biyn  Dincolyn. 
There  are  some  pieces  of  wall  still  remaining.     {E,  Llwyd) 

DiSEBTH  parish,  Eadnorshire.    There  is  a  Dysert  in  Scotland 

DisiLWY,  or  DiNSiLYW,  or  Diksilwy,  Mon. 

DiSMAS :  see  Esmas. 

DiSTAiN.    Einion  Distain  ftp  lerwerth ;  i.  e,,  steward. 

DiFANCOLL  (T),  Total  Loss,  a  battle  fought  in  North  Britain, 
where  it  seems  not  one  man  escaped.  It  is  mentioned  in  Tr,  34 : 
"  Teulu  Gafran  mab  Aeddan,  pan  fu  y  DifancoU,  a  aethant  i'r 
mor  tros  eu  harglwydd."  Bede  says  it  was  fought  between 
Ethelfrid,  Eang  of  Northumbria,  and  Edan,  King  of  the  Scots 
that  inhabit  North  Britain,  who  had  an  immense  army,  and  that 
they  were  almost  all  slain.  The  Saxon  Chronicle  places  it  in  ad. 
606,  but  Bede  in  603.    See  Bede,  L  i,  c.  34 

Divi  Gawb.  Gaer  Divi  Gawr  yw  Gaer  Ddyffn,  says  Thomas 
Williams  {Oatalogue  of  Cities), 

DivoDOG  or  Dyfodog  :  see  Tyfodog, 

DiWLAS  (fl.),  Montgomeryshire. 

DiWKiG,  father  of  larddur. 

DoBUNi,  a  name  which  the  Bomans  gave  to  the  people  of 
Gloucestershire  and  Oxfordshire,  or  thereabouts. 

DocvAN  ap  Brychan,  oZ.  Doevan. 

DocHTWY  o  Lydaw. 

DoDiEN,  King  of  Gomwall.    See  Dyfimai, 

DoFB,  Dover. 

T  ddelw  a'i  wayw'n  ei  ddwylaw 

A  fu  ar  draeth  yn  Nofr  draw. — L.  Morganwg. 

Gwerthefyr,  King  of  Britain,  whose  statue  was  set  up  at  Dover 
harbour  to  frighten  the  Saxon  invaders.  {Marvmad  Syr  B.  af 
Sion,) 


CELTIC  BJEBMAIN8.  139 

DoGOED.  Uanddoged,  a  parish  and  charch  in  the  deanery  of 
Ehos,  Denbighshire. 

DOGMAEL  ap  Cunedda  Wledig.     {Ach  Cynog  a  Chattwg.) 

DoGYAEL  Sant  (in  English,  Dogmael)^  a  British  abbot.  An 
ancient  church  dedicated  to  him  in  the  land  of  Kernes  in  Pem- 
brokeshire, given  after  the  Conquest  to  a  priory  of  monks,  by 
the  name  of  St.  Dogmael's.  (Dugdale's  Monasiieon.)  Uanddyg- 
weL  {Brit,  Sanct.,  June  13.) 

DoGVEiLYN,  one  of  the  commots  of  Cantref  Dyfifryn  Clwyd, 
Denbighshire ;  so  named  from  Dogvael  ap  Cunedda  Wledig. 

DdL  or  Dole,  the  name  of  a  city  and  bishop's  see  in  Little  Britain 
and  of  a  city  in  Fraruihe  Comte,  The  meaning  of  the  word  in 
British  is  avale  or  dale,  much  the  same  with  y8trad,dyffn/n.  Agreat 
many  places  in  Wales  so  situated  have  their  names  formed  from 
ddl,  as  Dol  Gadfan ;  Dol  y  Calettwr ;  Dolau  Gwyn ;  Dol  y  Cothi  ; 
Dolfan,  Caermarthenshii'e  ;  y  Dolau ;  Dol  Benmaen ;  Dol  y  Cors- 
Iwyn ;  Dol  Arddun  (see  Arddun) ;  Dolgelleu ;  Dolgiog  (see  dog) ; 
Dolobran ;  Dol  Bodfta ;  y  Ddol  Goch ;  Dol  y  Garrog ;  Dolwyddelen. 

In  Scotland  those  places  that  have  this  situation  are  called 
Dale  or  Strat;  and  Stratclwyd  in  Scotland,  where  the  Strat- 
clwyd  Britains  were  formerly,  is  now  called  Clydesdale ;  and  so 
our  Ystrad  Clwyd  in  Wales  is  called  Dyffryn  Clwyd.  They 
have  also  in  Scotland,  Teviots  Dale,  Liddis  Dale,  Annan  Dale, 
Tweed  Dale,  Lauderdale,  Eskdale,  Dalewhinie,  Nithsdale,  Knap- 
dale,  Dalkeith,  etc. 

DoLANOG,  a  gentleman's  seat  {J.  B).    Williams. 

DoLBEN  (n.  pr.  v.). 

DoLBENMAEN,  a  chapel  in  Caermarthenshire  [Caernarvonshire]. 

DoLEUBACHOG,  a  gentleman's  seat.    Wynne. 

DoLEUGWTN,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Meirion. 

DoLGABFAN  (nomen  loci). 

Dolgelleu,  a  town  in  Meirionyddshire,  near  the  river  Maw. 
Mr.  Camden  places  it  on  the  river  Avon,  but  there  is  no  such 
river.  Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  says  the  name  is  derived  from  kdleu, 
which  he  says  is  ceUi,  a  grove  of  hazles ;  but  qu.  whether  the 
river  that  runs  through  the  town  is  not  called  Gelleu,  as  most 
Ddles  have  their  name  from  the  rivers  that  run  through  them  ? 
The  great  sessions  are  kept  here  and  at  Bala  alternately.  It  is 
called  DolgeUef  by  Syr  Owain  ap  Gwilym  to  Lewis  Owen. 


140  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

DOLGIOG,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Montgomeryshire. 

DoL  Y  Glesyn,  a  gentleman's  seat  {J.  B,).    Wynne's. 

DoL  Y  FoNDDU,  a  gentleman's  seat  (/.  D,),    Pugh. 

DoL  Haidd,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Pembrokeshire,  qu.  ?  [Carmar- 
thenshire]. 

DoL  Y  Melynllyn,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Meirionydd. 

DoL  Y  MocH,  a  gentleman's  seat.  (/.  D.) 

DoLOBRAN,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Powys. 

Dolor  (n.  pr.  v.).  Dolor  Deifr  a  Bryneich,  father  of  Pryder, 
one  of  the  three  strong  crooks  or  strong  cripples.  (Tr.  21.) 

DoLPHYN  ap  Terwerth  ap  Llewelyn  Anrdorchog.  Hence  Prys 
Dolphyn  and  Treddolphyn  in  Anglesey.  [Ooed  Olphyn  (n.  1.), 
Davies'  Heraldry,  p.  33.— JT.  D.] 

DoL  Y  Sere,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Meirionydd. 

DoLWEK :  see  Llwyndolwen. 

DOLWYDDELEN  Castle,  near  Uyn  Dolwyddelen  in  Caernarvon- 
shire ;  q.  d.  Dol-wydd-Elen,  i.  e.,  the  Valley  of  Elen's  Wood. 

Dolling  ap  GrufiTudd  ap  Cynan,  a  learned  priest,  A.D.  1137. 
{Garadoc) 

Don  (n.  pr.  v.).  Don,  lord  of  Arfon,  was  father  of  Gwydion 
or  Gwdion,  an  eminent  Cambrian  philosopher  and  astronomer. 
Tir  mab  Don,  i,  e.,  Arfon,  the  land  of  Gwdion  ap  Don. 

Pan  aeth  Caswallon  hir  i  dir  mab  Don. — Taliesin, 
Hence  Oaer  Daun  in  Nennius ;  in  the  British,  perhaps  Caerdon ; 
whence  the  Danum  in  Anton.  Itinerary,  which,  perhaps,  is  Don- 
caster.    See  lor.  ap  Beli  i  Esgob  Bangor,  and  also  -4rcA.  Brit,,  p. 
259,  and  Gwdion, 

Don.     lankyn  Don.    Ddn  Gwenonwy. 

Dona  Santes.    Llanddona,  a  church  in  Anglesey. 

DoNCASTER :  see  Davm, 

DoNN,  a  river,  runs  by  Aberdeen  in  Scotland. 

DoNET  ap  Tudwal  ap  Ednyfed, 

DoRABEL,  a  castle  near  Abertemys, — the  mouth  of  the  Thames 
(Tyssilio) ;  probably  at  Deal  or  Dover.  J.  Caesar  having  landed 
at  Abertemys,  Caswallawn  secured  the  Castle  of  Dorabel.  In 
Galfrid's  Latin  it  is  DorabeUum  oppidum,  and  not  a  castle.  See 
Pvryth  Meinlas. 

Doris,  a  sea-nymph.    (Ovid.  Met.  i,  11.)     This  was  a  Celtic 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  141 

princess.    Duwies  y  Dvrr,  the  Goddess  of  Water,  or  Water  God- 
dess,— Dwres  or  Dyfres. 

DoBTi  (n.  pr.  f.),  Dorothea. 

DovEiLiNG,  enw  He.  Gwehelyth  Doveiling  (qu.  Dogfeiling  ?). 
Vid.  Dogvael. 

Dour  or  Dwr  (fl.) :  hence  Aberdour  of  Fife  in  Scotland.  Lat. 
Aberdara  or  Dura, 

DouRGUY,  wrote  anciently  for  Dourdwy.   {K  Llvryd) 
'    DoWROR  or  Dyfrwr,  Llanddyfrwr,  a  parish  and  church,  Caer- 
marthenshire. 

Dows,  verch  Sicard  ap  Hoel.    AngL  and  Lat  Duldbella, 

Draethon.    Caer  Draethon.   (Usher's  Oataloffue.) 

Dragon.  I  take  it  to  be  an  old  Celtic  term  in  the  military 
art ;  perhaps  a  standard.  Some  say  it  signified  only  a  lord  or 
commander.  Uther,  the  father  of  Arthur,  was  sumamed  Pen- 
dragon  ;  that  is,  head  or  chief  dragon.  Perhaps  a  dragon  was 
with  the  Britains  what  the  eagle  was  with  the  Eomans,  their 
standard.  Gwen  Ben  Dragon  is  also  mentioned  in  the  Triades, 
50.     Qu.  whether  the  word  dragon  is  derived  from  thence  ? 

GwyddbwU  Dragon  gosbarth  Brython. — Taliesin,  i  Eidol. 

Dran  (n.  pr.  v.).    Triad  24. 

Dref  Wen  (Y),  a  town  mentioned  by  Llywarch  Hen  in  Mar- 
wnad  Cynddykn,  where  Mr.  E.  ULwyd  supposes  he  was  killed. 
It  lay  near  a  wood,  between  the  river  Tren  and  Trodwydd,  and 
Tren  and  Traval.     Y  Drewen  {£.  6,  Oothi),  Whitington. 

Y  Dref  wen  ymron  y  coed. — Llywarch  Hen, 

Dremrost.  Daniel  Dremrost,  a  king  of  Armorica.  (Sunburnt. 
— Br.  Davies,) 

Dreflys  (Y),  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Buallt. 
(Price's  Descript.) 

Droichau.  Caer  Droichau.  (Nennius,)  Qu.  whether  Caer 
Draethon  of  Usher  ? 

Dronwy  or  Daronwy,  a  place  in  Mon.  See  Palttc  and  Edwin. 

Drudwas  or  Drutwas  (n.  pr.  v.).  This  I  found  in  an  old 
MS. :  "  Drutwas  ap  Tryphin  a  gafas  gau  ei  wraig  dri  ederyn 
Uwch  gwin,  y  rhai  a  wnaent  beth  bynnag",  etc. ;  i,  e.,  Dnitwas, 
son  of  Tryphin,  had  of  his  wife  three  Llwch  givia  birds  which 


1 42  CELTIC  BEMAINS. 

would  do  whatever  their  master  commanded  them.  There  was 
a  duel  to  be  fought  between  Arthur  and  Drutwas,  but  no  body 
was  to  be  suffered  to  come  into  the  field  but  themselves.  Drut- 
was sent  the  birds  into  the  place  of  appointment  with  orders  to 
kill  the  first  man  that  came.  A  sister  of  Drutwas,  who  was 
Arthur's  concubine,  came  to  know  this,  and  out  of  regard  to 
them  both  stopped  Arthur  from  going.  At  last  Drutwas  came 
into  the  field  imagining  that  the  birds  had  killed  Arthur  in  his 
armour,  and  the  birds  snatched  him  up,  and  killed  him  instead' 
of  Arthur ;  and  when  they  were  high  up  in  the  air,  they  knew 
who  he  was,  and  came  down  with  the  most  pitiful  complaints 
for  killing  Drutwas  their  master ;  and  upon  this  that  famous 
piece  of  music  called  "Adar  Uwch  6 win"  was  composed,  and 
then  Llywarch  Hen  had  the  subject  to  sing  as  follows : 

Drutwas  ap  Tryphin  mewn  (gwnae)  trin  anianawl 
Ar  drallawd  ac  orddin 
Adwy  a  wnaeth  gysefin 
Adar  a'i  lladdodd  Uwch  gwin.  — Llywarch  Hen, 

The  meaning  of  this  fiction  of  the  poets  is  this :  Some  Arthur 
(not  the  King)  and  Drutwas  (who  is  mentioned  in  the  Triades  as 
a  noted  orator  in  King  Arthur's  court)  had  a  duel  to  fight.  Drut- 
was sent  three  ruflBans  to  the  place  appointed,  to  kill  the  first 
that  came.  Adar  Uwch  gtoin  are  vultures,  and  vultures  is  a  pro- 
per term  enough  for  ruffians.  The  tune,  or  piece  of  music,  after- 
wards composed  on  this  subject  was  of  a  grave  and  melancholy 
kind ;  and  perhaps  Llywarch  Hen's  Englyn,  misunderstood,  gave 
the  first  rise  to  this  story. 

Drutwas  mab  Tryphin  was  one  of  the  three  golden-tongued 
knights  in  King  Arthur  s  court.  {Tr:  82.)  His  oratory  dropt 
as  pleasing  as  gold  from  his  tongue. 

Drum:  see  Trum, 

Drum  Benawc  ap  Tryphin  o  Frecheiniog  ap  Drem  ap  Cu  ap 
Gweneu. 

Drws,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  prefixed  to  the  names  of  places, 
signifying  in  our  days  a  door  or  entrance  into  a  house,  anciently 
signified  any  opening  or  passage  between  mountains,  etc.,  or  a 
pass.  Drws  Ardudwy,  Meirion ;  Drws  y  Coed ;  Drws  y  Nant. 
[Bwlch  Oerddrws.— W^.  Z^.] 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  143 

Drych  (n.  pr.  v.).  Drych  eil  Cibddar,  un  o*r  tri  phrif  Uedrith- 
awc.    {Tr,  33.) 

Dryge.  Tudur  (a  laddodd  y  Dryge)  ap  Gronw.  I  suppose  y 
Dreigiau. 

Dryll  y  Pobydd,  a  gentleman's  seat.    {J.  D,) 

Dryslwyn  (n.  1.),  in  Ilangathan,  Caennarthenshire.  Fair 
kept  here. 

Drystan  ap  Tallwch  {Tr.  24),  un  o'r  tri  galofydd.  See  Trys- 
tan.    Un  o'r  tri  gwrddfeichiad*  {Tr,  30.) 

Drysyaes,  Lat.  iM^^ma^ru«.  {E.Llwyd)  Qu.,  whether  Dyrys- 
faes,  as  Dyryslwyn,  etc. 

Drywarth. 

Qorddyar  adar  ar  y  Drywarth. — Uywarch  Hen. 

Drywon  (n.  pr.  v.).  Drywon  mab  Nudd  yn  Rhodwydd  Arder- 
ydd.  {Tr.  36.)  A  battle  fought  ad.  557.  This  Drywon  had  a 
gorsgordd  adwy  then ;  i.  «.,  a  guard  of  a  pass,  as  I  understand  it. 
{Tr.  36.)     See  Owenddolau. 

Du,  black.    Llewelyn  Ddu. 

Due,  a  duke.  A  degree  of  nobility  among  the  ancient  Britains ; 
originally  a  general  or  leader  of  an  army,  as  the  British  word 
signifies  to  lead;  and  in  that  sense  IN'ennius  says  of  King  Arthur 
that  he  was  dtus  of  all  the  petty  kings  of  the  Britains  against 
the  Saxons.  But  some  unwilling  persons  will  not  see  that  this 
is  the  sense  of  that  passage :  "Arthur  pugnabat  contra  Ulos  in 
illis  diebus  videlicet  Saxones  cum  regibus  Britonum  sed  ipse 
DtuK  erat  bellorum  et  in  omnibus  bellis  victor  extitit."  (Nennius, 
c.  bdL)  Can  anything  be  plainer  than  that  Arthur  was  the 
chief  of  the  British  kings,  and  generalissimo  or  leader  of  all  the 
British  forces  ?  With  which  account  agree  Tyssilio  and  the 
Triades. 

DuDLYSTON.  LlwythDudlystonynyTraean.  [Dudleston,  near 
Ellesmere,  Shropshire. — W.  D.] 

DuLAS  (fl.).  There  are  abundance  of  rivers  of  this  name  in 
Wales ;  and  the  river  Douglas  in  Scotland  {i.  e.,  Duglas),  and 
also  Douglas  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  are  of  the  same  original.  It 
signifies  black  and  blue  water,  or  bluish  black.  See  Zlanddulas 
and  AberdtUas. 

DuLYN  and  Duflyn,  i.  e.,  Dublin  in  Ireland ;  k  du  and  Uyn, 


144  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

i.  e,,  black  lake  or  black  pool ;  and  so  in  Irish.    So  Dafydd  Ep- 
pynt  is  wrong  to  write  Dulun, 

Mae  enw  Wiliam  yn  Nulun 
Kt  finan  gwyr  fwy  nag  un. — D.  Eppynt^ 
See  JEdnyfed  Vychan. 

DuNAWD  ap  Cunedda  Wledig. 

DuNAWT,  DuNAWD,  or  Dynod  (n.  pr.).    Dunawd  Fjrr,  son  of 

Pabo  Post  Prydain,  mentioned  by  Tyssilio  to  have  been  one  of 

the  noblemen  that  attended  Arthur  in  his  great  feasts,  etc.  The 

Triades  call  him  "  un  o  dri  phost  cad  Ynys  Prydain";  meaning, 

I  suppose,  in  the  time  of  Arthur  (TV.  11),  for  his  father  was  also 

called  "  Post  Prydain";  so  that "  Tarw  Cad",  "  Post  Cad",  «  Cad- 

farchog",  and  "  Taleithog  Cad",  seem  to  be  some  particular  station 

in  the  army.    Uywarch  Hen,  in  Urien  Reged's  elegy,  mentions 

him : 

Dynod  fab  Pabo  ni  thech. 

St.  Dinoth  Church,  at  Worthenbury,  Flintshire.    See  Pabo. 

DUNOD  Deinwyn,  father  of  Deiniol  Sant.  (Raianau  Myrddin) 

DuNODiG.  Cantref  Dunodig,  anciently  one  of  the  four  cantrefs 
of  Caernarvonshire,  containing  the  commots  of  Ardudwy  and 
Efionydd :  so  called  from  Dunod  ap  Cunedda  Wledig.  (Price's 
Descr) 

DuNSETTAN,  a  name  given  by  the  Saxons  to  the  mountain 
Welsh  of  Monmouthshire  or  Gwent  Land,  called  also  Wentset 
{Gamden) 

DuNWALLON,  lord  of  Dyfed,  ad.  948.     {Caradoc,  p.  60.) 

DuBOTRiGES,  Loegrian  Britains  inhabiting  Dorsetshire;  so 
called  by  the  Eomans.  The  British  name  was  JDwrdrigMoyr,  men 
inhabiting  the  water-side.  They  were  of  the  Belgse  that  inha- 
bited the  water-side  about  the  Ehine,  and  were  called  also  Mar- 
inwyr  (Lat.  Morini),    See  Morini  and  Morinwyr, 

DwGAN  (n.  pr.  f,).  Y  Ddwgan  Ddu  o  Harlech.  {AraUh  lolo 
Goch.) 

DwNWALLON,  lord  of  Dyfed,  ad.  948. 

DwB.  Caer  Ddwrg3mt,  sef  yw  Caergybi,  yn  Saesneg  IToly* 
head,  (Th.  Williams,  Catal)  Qu.,  whether  not  Caer  y  Tvrr,  from 
Mynydd  y  Twr. 

DwRGWENT,  Darby ;  from  the  river  Derwent.  See  Derwen- 
nydd. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  1 45 

DWY,  qu.  ?  Danddwy  (n.  1.). 

Meibion  myr  Uenwjr  Llanddwy, 

Meddiant  teg  mae  iddjnt  hwj. — Bedo  Pkdip  Bach. 

DwYFACH  and  Dwyfawr,  two  rivers  near  PwUlieli ;  i  e.,  the 
greater  and  lesser  Buioy  :  hence,  perhaps,  Djrfrdwy,  the  Dee,  or 
the  water  of  Du,  or  Black- water.  Probably  it  was  at  first  called 
Dwfr  Dtty  as  Dublin,  Dulyn,  black  pool. 

DwYFAEN,  a  gentleman's  seat.    {J.  D,)     Llwyd. 

DwYGYFYLCHBU,  a  parish.  {E.  Llwyd.)  Dygjrfylchi,  Dygyfylchi, 

or  Dywgyfylchi    The  church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Gwining.  {Br. 

WiUis) 

Carafi  gaer  falchwaith  o'r  Gyfylchi. 

Qu.,  whether  Conwy  Castle  ?    See  OyfyUM. 

DwYWANEDD  verch  Amlawd  Wledig. 

DwYNWE,  merch  Gwallawc  ap  Llienawc. 

DwYNWEN,  Santes  y  Cariad ;  daughter  of  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 
Her  church,  at  lianddwyn  in  Anglesey,  was  repaired  to  in  all 
love  affairs,  as  Yenus' Temple  was  among  the  Bomans.  (2>.  Jones) 
Dafydd  ap  Gwilym^s  poem  or  petition  to  her  is  curious  as  a 
specimen  of  it. 

DwYEYD,  a  river,  Meirion. 

DwYBYW  (fl.),  in  Ilywarch  Hen's  Marwnad  Cynddylan  Powys. 

DwYVAEL  ap  Piyderi  neu  Pryder  ap  Dolor  Deivr.  Vid.  Pry- 
deri, 

DwYWE,  Santes  Ilanddwywe,  Meirion. 

DwYWELYTH  ap  Tegawc. 

DwYWG  (n.  pr.  v.).    See  Difwg, 

Dygn  gofion  deon  am  dwg 
Difa  dewrblant  da  Bwywg. 

CynddekOf  ym  Marwnad  Meibion  Dwywg  ap  lorwerth. 

Dyddgan  Sant.  Capel  Dyddgan  or  Dyddgen,  in  the  parish 
of  Llangyndeyrn  in  Caermarthenshire. 

Dyddgi  (vel  Dyddgu)  verch  Cynfrig  ap  Uywarch.  See  D.  ap 
Gwilym. 

Dyddgu,  wife  of  Cadwaladr  ap  Gruffydd  ap  Cynan.  (J.  D.) 

Dyf.  Caerdyf :  qu.  whether  a  river  called  Tyf  falls  into  the 
Taf  at  Caerdyf?    [No  river  there  called  Tyf.—/.  M.] 

19 


146  CJBLTIO  REMAINS. 

Morgannwg  mawr  yw  gennyf 
I  gwyr  a'i  dwr  hyd  Qaer  Dyf. 

Bhys  Ooch  Olytidyfrdwy. 

But  the  great  river  is  called  T&f.    T  Ty  Gwyn  ar  Dftf. 

Dtfed,  the  coimtiy  called  in  Latin  Demetia  or  Dynetia  (rectum 
Dyvetia),  Penbrokeshire,  t.  e.,  Penbro  Dyfed;  part  of  South 
Wales  contaimng  8  cantrefe  and  23  commots ;  derived^  I  sup- 
pose, from  dehau,  south,  q.  d.  Dehaufed,  as  all  South  Wales  is 
called  from  the  same  word  Deheubarth.  In  the  MS.  Book  of 
the  Church  of  Landaf  it  is  said  that  **  Septem  domus  episcopales 
sunt  in  Dyued :  (1),  Menevia,  que  est  sedes  principalis  in  Cam- 
bria; (2),  Ecclesia  Ismael ;  (3),  Ecclesia  Degeman ;  (4)^£cclesia 
Yssel ;  (5),  Ecclesia  Teilau ;  (6),  Ecclesia  Teulydavc ;  (7),  Ecclesia 
KenexL  Abbates  Teilau  et  Teulydavc  et  Ismael  et  Degeman  tenen- 
tur  clerici  esse  et  ordinari.  Ebediu  cujuslibet  istorum  Domino 
Byued  erunt  sc.  12  lib.  vel  qui  ilUs  successerint  reddant.  Mene- 
via  ab  omnia  debito  libera  manet  et  soluta.  Ecclesia  Eeneu  et 
Ecclesia  Yssil  ab  illo  debito  liberse  erunt  quia  terris  carent" 

This  JSbediu  was  paid  to  the  Prince;  and  the  abbots  of  Eeneu 
and  Yssil  were  probably  lay  abbots  or  seculars.  What  these 
"  domus  episcopales"  were  is  hard  to  find  out.  They  were  not 
bishops'  sees,  as  Mr.  Spelman  imagines  them  to  be ;  but  probably 
they  might  have  been  originally  bishops'  seats  in  the  infancy  of 
Christianity,  when  the  Loegrian  bishops  were  drove  into  Wales. 
Secular  abbots  could  not  be  bishops. 

Bhag  unig  bari£fwyn  gwehun  Dyfed. — Boiana/u  Myrddin, 

Dyfed  (Qwarthaf),  the  north  part  of  Dyfed.  (Pawd,  p.  274.) 

Dyfnaint  ap  Iddon  ap  Iddic. 

Dyfnaint  or  Dyfneint,  the  ancient  name  of  Devon  and  Corn- 
wall {k  dyfn,  and  wmi),  i,  e,,  deep  valleys ;  by.  Eoman  writers, 
Bamruyrda.  A  colony  of  Britains  went  from  thence  in  early  times 
to  Ireland,  which  they  called  Fir  Domnan,  i.  e.,  in  British,  Gw^r 
Dyfnant,  or  men  of  Dyfhant.     (Flaherty,  Ogygia,  p.  14.) 

0  Ddyfnaint  o  Naint  o  Nanbeudwy. 

See  Damrumii. 
Dyfnan  ap  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  147 

Dttnan^  Sant  IlanddyfhaQ,  a  parish  church  in  Anglesey. 
Na  bo  ...  Fab  Br&n  ap  Djfnan  heb  dir. — D.  Eppynt. 

Dyfnog  Sant.    {Br.  Willis,) 

Dyfnwal  Moel  Mut  ap  Dodien,  King  of  Cornwall  (Lat  Dun^ 
wcUlus  Molmutiiis),  the  21st  King  of  Britain,  was  father  of  Bell 
a  Bran  (Belinns  and  Brennos),  and  the  first  King  that  wore  a 
gold  crown.  He  reduced  the  pentarchy  into  a  monarchy,  and 
probably  was  the  Prydain  ap  Aedd  Mawr  mentioned  in  the 
Triades  to  have  conquered  the  island,  and  to  have  called  it  after 
his  name,  Piydain ;  for  our  tables  of  genealogies  place  that  Pry- 
dain about  this  distance  of  time,  and  is  made  to  come  from 
Cornwall ;  and  Tyssilio,  in  his  Brut  y  Brenhinaedd,  makes  this 
Dyfnwal  the  first  that  wore  a  golden  crown,  and  gave  the 
islanders  wholesome  laws.  Mr.  Leland,  in  Script  Brit.,  c.  7, 
praises  him  greatly  for  his  great  learning  and  making  laws  for 
his  country,  which  were  called  after  his  name,  the  Modmviian 
Laws ;  that  they  were  translated  by  Gildas  into  Latin  on  the 
decline  of  the  Eoman  empire,  and  afterwards  taken  into  the 
Saxon  and  Norman  laws ;  that  he  made  four  public  ways  through 
the  Isle  of  Britain,  a  deed  worthy  of  so  great  a  prince.  The 
Saxon  writers  have  endeavoured  to  deprive  this  monarch  of  the 
honour  of  beginning  these  roads,  and  would  fain  have  it  that 
they  were  made  by  the  Bomans ;  but  none  of  them  ever  could 
fix  what  Boman  it  was  that  made  them.  See  Banulph  Higden, 
monk  of  Chester.  But  Dyfnwal  only  began  these  roads,  and 
gave  them  privileges.  His  son  Beli  prescribed  the  bounds  of 
them,  and  perfected  them.     [TyssUio) 

And  the  Laws  of  Dyfnwal  have  retained  his  name  to  the  time 
the  British  power  over  the  whole  island  was  overturned  by  the 
Saxons.  The  Saxons  being  illiterate  when  they  first  came,  had 
no  written  laws.  The  first  written  laws  they  had  were  those  of 
King  Ethelbert  of  Kent,  who  reigned  from  561  to  617 ;  and 
these  were  short  and  rude.  {Spelman)  The  next  were  of 
Ina,  King  of  the  West  Saxons,  between  A.D.  712  and  729 ;  the 
next  were  of  OflFa,  King  of  Mercia,  about  the  year  758 ;  then 
came  those  of  King  Alfred,  King  of  the  West  Saxons,  about  the 
year  900,  who  collected  all  the  Saxon  laws,  and  translated  the 
Laws  of  Dyfnwal  into  Saxon,  as  Tyssilio  says.    There  is  a  great 


148  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

probability  in  this,  as  [his]  tutor,  Asserius,  was  a  Britain,  who, 
no  doubt,  assisted  him  in  it ;  they  being  before  translated  by 
Gildas-  into  Latin.  {TyssUio.)  Therefore  the  argument  of  the  im- 
probability of  his  translating  of  his  enemies'  laws  is  answered. 
About  this  time  Howel  Dda  revised  the  Cambro-British  Laws. 

Dyfr  (n.  f.).  Dyfr  Wallt  Eurait,  one  of  the  ladies  of  Arthur's 
court.    (JV.  78.) 

Dyfrdonwy  (fl.),  the  same  with  Dyfrdwy.  {Dr.Davies,  but  qu.) 

Nid  cywiw  a  llwfr  dwfr  Dyfrdonwy. 

Prydydd  y  Mochy  i  Lew.  ap  lorwerth. 
See  Trydonwy  and  Onwy. 

Dyfrdwy,  the  river  Dee,  q.  d.  Dwfr  Du,  or  black  water.  This 
river  had  other  names  in  ancient  times,  as  Feryddon,  Aerfen. 
Dyfrdwy,  qu.  Dowrdwy,  from  dwrdd,  loud  water  (E,  Llwyd) ;  but 
it  is  not  louder  than  others.  It  is  mentioned  by  Einion  ap 
Gwalchmai  (1200) : 

Eil  gwelais  i  drais  dros  ganol  Dyfrdwy 

Yn  y  trai  tramwy,  etc. 

Dyvrig  (by  Latin  writers  called  Duhricius),  Archbishop  at 
Caerllion  ar  Wysg.  King  Arthur  was  crowned  by  him ;  and  in 
his  old  age  he  turned  hermit,  as  some  say,  and  was  succeeded 
by  Dewi  (St.  David),  who  was  uncle  to  King  Arthur;  but  the 
truth  is,  he  finished  his  days  in  the  Monastery  of  Enlli ;  and 
had,  no  doubt,  a  pension,  to  make  room  for  the  King's  relation. 

Bennet  of  Gloucester,  Capgrave,  and  John  Tinmouth,  have 
wrote  his  acts ;  and  Brit.  Sanct  picks  out  of  them  that  he  was 
a  native  of  South  Wales,  and  opened  a  famous  school  near  the 
banks  of  the  river  Wy,  at  his  college  of  Henllan,  and  among 
the  scholars  or  disciples  were  Sampson,  a  bishop,  and  Teilo,  who 
succeeded  him  Bishop  of  Uandaf.  He  was  the  first  Bishop  of 
the  see  of  Llandaf,  consecrated  thereto  by  St.  German  on  his 
second  coming  into  Britain  to  oppose  the  Pelagian  heresy,  for 
which  he  is  supposed  to  have  been  afterwards  translated  to  the 
archbishoprick  of  Caerllion.  Our  British  historians  say  he  set  the 
crown  on  King  Arthur's  head,  and  was  with  him  at  the  battle  of 
Mons  Badon.  At  the  synod  of  Brevi  he  resigned  his  archbishop- 
rick  to  St.  David,  and  retired  into  the  solitude  of  Enlli  (the  Isle 
of  Bardsey),  called  the  Isle  of  20,000  saints,  where  he  died  in 


CELTIC  BEMAINS.  149 

the  sixth  centtuy,  and  was  buried  there,  but  his  relics  were  since 
translated  to  Llandaf.  (BrU.  Scmd.)    See  Dewi.    Uanddyfrig. 

Dyfynnog,  vie.  Breckn. 

Dtfynnyn  Diabchae  {Cyfoesi  Myrddin  a  Gwmddydd),  or 
Dtfyn  Diabcheb  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  Prince  who  I  find  in  an  old  MS. 
reigned  in  North  Wales  after  Cynan  Dindaethwy.  He  is  there 
called  Byfn  IHarchar  Penhyn  ;  perhaps  penhyTieify  or  chief  elder. 
He  was  nephew  to  Alaethaw  ap  Cadvan,  and  Mdn  was  his  inhe- 
ritance ;  at  the  same  time  that  fourscore  chiefs  (jpeviaeihau)  dis- 
puted their  right  to  North  Wales ;  at  last  it  fell  to  him.  (Dr. 
Thomas  Williams'  MS.) 

Dyffrtn,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  signifying  a  vale  (&  dy  and 
tryTt),  is  prefixed  to  the  names  of  many  places  in  Wales :  as  Dyf- 
fryn  Clwyd ;  y  Dyffryn  Gwyn ;  Dyf&yn  Ardudwy ;  DyfiBryn  liar ; 
Dyfifiryn  Paith ;  Dyffryn  Meissir ;  Dyffryn  Ceiriog ;  Dyffryn  Gol- 
uch  ;  DyfiBryn  Hownant,  Cardiganshire. 

Dtffbtn  Clwtd,  one  of  the  five  cantre&  of  Berfeddwlad, 
containing  the  commots  of  Coleigion,  Llannerch,  and  Dog- 
feilyn. 

Dyffryn  Goluch,  in  Glamorganshire.    Fairs  kept  here. 

Dyffryk  Iglydd.   {Hyivel  ai  Chvain  Owynedd,) 

Dyffryn  Meisir,  a  place  in  Powys,  wrote  in  Myfr  Goch  Eer^ 
gestf  DyfSynt  Meisir.  {Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cynddylan.) 

Dyffryn  Tefeidiat.  The  Teme  (Shropshire,  Eadnorsbire,  and 
Herefordshire) ;  a  country  near  the  marches  of  Wales  about 
Knighton,  thence  to  Ludlow.  It  is  one  of  the  three  commots  of 
Gantref  y  Clawdd.  Through  it  nms  Teveidiat  river.  (Price's 
De8cript) 

Dygbn  or  Tygent,  a  river  near  Craig  Freiddin  in  Powys. 

Gorlas  rydian  dyfr  Dygen  Freiddin. — Oorhoffedd  Owalchmai, 

Dygen  Dyfnant. 

EQ  gad  trom  y  tremynasant 
Udd  adian  uch  Dygen  Dy&ant 

Ailagwrdd 

Bron  yr  Erw  y  galwant. 

Prydydd  Mochj  i  Low.  ap  lorwerth. 

[Qa.  Dyfnant  in  Meifod  ?—  W.  2).] 

Dygynnelw,  son  of  Cynddelw  Brydydd  Mawr,  A.D.  1160. 


150  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Dygynklw  (n.  pr.  v.),  Owen  ap  Urien's  poet ;  one  of  the  Tri 
gweywrudd  beirdd,  i.  e.,  red  speared  poets.    (2V.  17.) 

Dylan  ail  Ton  (n.  pr.  v.).    Marwnad  Dylan  ail  Ton. 

Dtlooau,  a  place  in  Cwm  Ystwyth,  Cardiganshire. 

Dtltgion.  Eithaf  Dylygion,  one  of  the  two  commots  of  Gwent 
Llwg  in  Monmouthshira  Qo.,  Dy  Iwg  or  Dwy  Iwg  ?  Perhaps 
rivers  of  that  name. 

Dtmmoc,  Dymock.    Thomas  Dimock. 

Dyndaethwt,  recti  Dindaethwy.    Vid.  Tyndaetkwy, 

Dtnbvowb:  BQQiHnefwr, 

Dtngad,  a  church  in  Herefordshire.     (PatoeL) 

Dyngbeant  (n.  L).  (Powel,  Caradoe,  p.  169.)  It  shonld  have 
been  wrote  Dingeraint ;  i.  e,,  the  Castle  of  Geraint,  it  being  bnilt 
at  a  place  called  Cilgeraint  in  Dyfed,  on  the  bank  of  the  river 
Teifi.    See  CUgeraini. 

Dynod.  Caer  Ddynod,  or  Caer  y  Ddynod,  in  the  parish  of 
Uanvihangel,  close  by  the  river  Alwen.  (j^.  Llwyd,)  See  also 
Oder  Forwyn^  which  is  just  by  this,  on  the  other  side  of  the  river, 
probably  Caer  Forudd.  Caer  Ddynod  should  probably  be  wrote 
Caer  Ddunawd.  Dunawd  Fyr  was  son  of  Pabo  Post  Piydain, 
a  powerful  Prince  in  King  Arthur's  time,  whose  caer  this  might 
be.  It  answers  the  description  of  Caractacus'  camp  in  Tacitus, 
when  he  engaged  Ostorius  Scapula  somewhere  in  this  country  of 
the  Ordovices.    See  Ihmawt. 

Dynwennain,  or  DinwenruLin,  joi  Mhowys,  llys  meibion  Cyn- 
drwyn.    {E.  Zlwyd.)     See  Cynddylan, 

Dynwil  Hib,  the  camp  of  Reynold  Earl  of  Bristol,  near  Oaer- 
marthen,  a.d.  1159  or  60. 

Dyknog  or  Dypnog  Gawr,  a  Cambrian  Prince  in  the  time  of 
the  Romans  in  Britain.  Pair  Dyfnog  Oawr  was  one  of  the  thir- 
teen rarities  of  Britain.  In  this  pot  or  boiler,  if  the  meat  of  a 
coward  was  put,  it  would  never  boil ;  but  the  meat  of  a  man  of 
courage  would  boil  immediately.     {MS) 

Clwch  Dymog  in  Anglesey ;  perhaps  Tyrnog. 

Dyrnwyn,  the  name  of  Rhydderch  Haers  sword,  one  of  the 
thirteen  rare  things  or  curiosities  of  the  Isle  of  Britain.  Un  o'r 
tri  thlws  ar  ddeg.  Upon  taking  it  out  of  the  scabbard  it  woidd 
flame  like  fire.  Qu.,  whether  they  knew  the  use  of  phosphorus 
then  ? 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  151 

Dtbtsqlwtn  or  Tbtsqlwyn,  a  gentleinan's  seat  in  Anglesey. 
—  Lewis,  Esq. 

Dtsgl  a  Gren  Bhydderch,  one  of  the  thirteen  rarities  of 
Britain.    See  Elumed. 

Dysgugbttawk  (n-  pr.  v.),  Dysgugettawr,  perchen  y  Wen 
Ynys.   Taliesin  apud  B.  Yaughan. 

Dysgwylfa  (n.  L),  [a  calcareous  mountain  between  Nant  y 
Glo  and  aydach.—  W.  D.] 

Dysgypedawg  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  poet,  father  of  Gall  {Tt.  16)  and  of 
Diflfedel  and  of  Tsgafnell  {Tr.  37).  In  Mr.  liwyd's  book  2>wsy- 
vyndod, 

Dysynni,  a  river.    Aberdysynni  in  Meirion. 

Oadr  ei  dy  oedwis  ger  Dissynni 

Gadredd  a  llariedd  a  Uary  roddi. — Llywelyn  Vardd. 

Dyvib.    Caer  Ddyvir,  al.  Deifr,  Berwick.     {Th,  Williams,) 

Eastyn,  a  church  and  parish  in  Flintshire  dedicated  to  St. 
Cynfar.    Qu.  whether  St.  lestyn  ? 

Ebber  Cubnig,  a  monastery  on  the  sea-side,  near  the  borders 
of  Scotland  {Bede,h  iv,  c.  16) ;  probably  Abercymig  or  Abercora. 

Ebhbawc  :  see  Sfroc. 

Ebrain  ach  Eurog  Gadam. 

Eblud.    Sc. 

Ebrancus,  falsely  for  Ebraucm. 

Ebbaucus  :  see  Efroc 

Ebroauc  {NmnivSy  Gott.  lib.,  Ox.) :  see  Efroc 

Ector  ap  Eurog  Gadaxn. 

ECHEIFIANT  (nomen  loci). 

EcHEL  FoRDDWYTWLL,  father  of  Goronwy.    {Tr.  15.) 

EcHNi,  falsely  for  Enlli  island,  in  Gapgrave's  Life  of  St.  Oadoe, 

Echyrnwg.    8cr. 

Edeirnion,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Gantre'r  Barwn  in 
Powys  Vadog ;  as  if  you  would  say,  the  lands  of  Edeym  ap 
Cunedda. 

Edelfled  Fflesawc  {NenmuSy  c.  65),Eadlfred,  son  of  Ealdric  or 
Eadlfered.  He  was  killed  by  Ysgafnell  ab  Dysgyfedawg.  {Tr.  37.) 


152  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Nennius  calls  the  Pictish  king  whom  Ea^&ed  fought  Briiei^ 
perhaps  Aeddan  Fiadog.    See  Bede. 

Edbnawc  (n.  pr.  v.).     Qraffydd  ap  Gwrgeneu. 

Edeybk  (n.  pr.  v.).  Edeym  ap  Cunedda  Wledig :  hence  Edeyrn- 
ion,  a  country,  a  commot  of  Cantre'r  Barwn  in  Powys. 

Edetbn,  a  parish  in  Caernarvonshire. 

Edetrn  Dafod  Aub,  a  grammarian  [orator,  and  poet  of  the 
13th  century.—  W.  J9.] 

Edbyrniawn,  the  people  of  Edeym,  or  his  clan,  or  tribe,  or 
land. 

Edetbnion,  a  deaneiy  of  St.  Asaph ;  seven  parishes. 

Edgab,  a  King  of  England.  Mr.  Camden  (in  Britannia  in 
Cheshire)  tells  us  of  a  triumph  this  King  had  at  Chester  over 
the  British  Princes.  These  are  his  words,  speaking  of  the  city 
of  Chester :  "And  soon  after  saw  King  Edgar  gloriously  triumph- 
ing over  the  British  Princes ;  for  being  seated  in  a  triumphal 
barge,  at  the  foredeck,  Kennadius,  King  of  Scotland ;  Malcolm, 
King  of  Cumberland ;  Macon,  King  of  Man  and  of  the  Islands ; 
with  aU  the  Princes  of  Wales,  hronght  to  do  him  homage,  like  barge- 
men rowed  him  up  the  river  Dee,  to  the  great  joy  of  the  specta- 
tors"; and  in  the  margin,  "circ.  an.  960".  This  story  seems  to  me 
to  be  very  lame,  and  to  want  confirmation.  First,  Caradoc,  in  his 
History  of  Wales,  hath  not  a  word  of  his  triumph ;  nor  Dr.  Powel 
in  his  Notes,  who  only  mentions  this  tribute  of  the  wolves  agreed 
upon  about  this  time.  Whoever  worded  this  story  did  not  know 
the  names  of  the  Princes  of  Wales  that  reigned  then,  nor  how 
many  there  were  of  them,  and  only  says  "  all  the  Princes  of 
Wales".  Caradoc,  in  the  space  between  the  years  958  and  961, 
tells  us,  "  In  those  days  laco  and  leuaf  (two  brothers)  by  force 
and  strength  ruled  all  Wales  as  they  thought  good."  Then  all 
the  Princes  of  Wales  were  but  tvH),  which  with  the  three  other 
Princes  before  mentioned  made  five.  They  should  have  had  six 
Princes  to  make  it  a  six-oar  barge.  But  how  came  Princes  to 
understand  handling  the  oar  so  well  as  to  row  against  the  stream 
lip  the  river  Dee  ?  Kings  and  Princes  are  very  little  used  to  row- 
ing ;  and  I  believe  if  the  experiment  was  tried  upon  even  five 
country  esquires  to  row  a  barge  up  the  river  Dee,  they  would  be 
more  apt  to  go  down  the  river  than  up.  Again,  how  happened  it  to 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  153 

the  great  joy  of  the  spectators  ?  All  the  spectators  were  not 
Saxons.  If  there  were  British  princes  there,  they  had  a  great 
many  attendants  that  were  all  spectators;  but  it  was  not  to 
"  their  great  joy".  Therefore  the  story  should  be  gilt  to  make  it 
more  easily  swallowed. 

Edlin,  the  heir  to  the  crown.  Edlin  braint  neu  e7ii,  an  heir 
by  privilege,  or  born.  Spelman's  Glossary  by  mistake  writes  this 
Breint  eric,  from  an  old  Latin  MS.  of  the  Laws  of  Howel  Dda  : 
where  he  also  writes  Vrchrichiad  for  gvrrthrycMad,  an  heir.  See 
Spelman's  Glossary  in  Adeliir^us, 

Edmund,  Earl  of  Richmond.    See  Owen  Tudur, 

Edni.     lian  Edni. 

Owain  ydyw  o  Llan  Edni. — I&iian  Deulwyn. 

Ednob,  the  lordship  of  Edenhope,  near  Bishop's  Castle   in 

Shropshire. 

Yu  amwyn  Ednob  ednaint  ar  gnes 

Yn  lladd  esgarant  pan  esgores. 
Cynddelw,  in  Marwnad  Cadwallawn  ap  Madawg. 

The  Castle  of  Edenhope,  besieged  by  the  Bomans  and  defended 
by  Cadwallawn. 

Ednyted,  an  old  British  name  of  men. 

Ednyfed  Vychan,  Baron  of  Bryn  Ffenigl,  was  a  man  of  great 

power  in  Wales  about  the  year  1200.    He  was  of  the  privy 

council  to  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth ;  and  his  wife  was  Gwenllian, 

daughter  to  Ehys  ap  Gruffudd,  Prince  of  South  Wales.     (Powel, 

Car.,  p.  249.)     He  had  a  son  called  Gruffudd,  who  was  obliged 

to  flee  his  country  on  a  suspicion  of  an  amour  with  the  Princess 

;  and  we  have  extant  his  father's  advice  to  him  in  excellent 

poetry : 

Bydd  ddilesg,  Gruffudd,  bydd  dilech 

Ag  na  ddilyn  eiddilwch 

0  ddolnr  bydd  eiddilach 

O  Ddulyn  oni  ddelych. — Edn.  Vycluin  a'i  dint. 

[See  G.  0.  Harry's  Pedigrees,  whether  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth  had 
a  daughter. —  W,  2>.] 

Ednyfed Awo  or  Ednyfedog  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Ednywain  Bendew  ap  Eginir  ap  Gollwyn,  lord  of  Englefield, 

20 


154  CELTIC  RBMAIKS. 

one  of  the  Fifteen  Tribes  of  North  Wales,  bore  argent^  a  chevron 
sdbU  between  three  boars'  heads  of  the  second. 

Ednywain  ap  Bradwen,  of  Ilys  Bradwen  near  Dolgelleu,  one 
of  the  Fifteen  Tribes  of  North  Wales,  lived  about  a.d.  1194 
Bore  giiles^  three  serpents  enowed  argent, 

Edryd  Wallthir,  a  name  given  by  the  Britains  to  Eadred 
Duke  of  Mercia,  who  fought  the  Britains  at  Gwaith  Cymryd 
Conwy,  A.D.  880. 

Edryd  ap  Nethan  [Tref  Edryd  near  Mathraval. —  W.  J9.]. 

EDRYWi(n.  pr.  v.).  Traeth  Edry wi  Carreg  Edrywi  is  in  New- 
port, Pembrokeshire. 

Edvedd  ap  Sedd  Gyfedd  o  Frecheiniog. 

Edw  (fl.) :  hence  Aberedw. 

Edwal  ap  Grufifudd  ap  Cynan,  abbot  of  Fenmon.  (Garadoc  in 
Gruff,  ap  Cynan.) 

Edwal  Foel,  made  Prince  of  Wales,  a.d.  916,  son  of  Anarawd. 
{Caradoc.) 

Edwin  ap  Gronwy  (called  King  of  Englefield),  one  of  the 
Fifteen  Tribes  of  North  Wales,  ap  Owen  ap  Hywel  Dda  ap  Cad- 
ell  ap  Khodri  Mawr,  lived  at  Uys  Llaneurgain,  an.  1040.  Bore 
argent,  a  cross  flory  engrailed  sable  between  four  Cornish  choughs. 

Edwin,  son  of  Howel  Dda.     {Garadoc,  p.  58.) 

Edwin  or  Edwyn  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  British  name.  A  King  of  the 
Saxons  of  this  name,  bom  and  brought  up  in  Cadvan's  court  in 
Anglesey,  with  Cadwallon,  his  father  Edelfled  having  turned  off 
his  mother,  who  took  refuge,  and  was  brought  to  bed  in  Cad- 
van's  court.     Edwin  and  Cadval were  sent  by  Cadvan  to 

King  of  Armorica,  to'  be  brought  up  in  feats  of  arms.  (BrtU 

TyssUio)  The  Triades  call  Edwin  "  un  o  dair  gormes  Mon  a 
fagwyd  ynddi"  {Tr.  81),  i,  e.,  one  of  the  tliree  molesters  of 
Anglesey  that  were  born  in  it.     It  is  a  British  name. 

North  dnid  Gasswallon  wrth  drin 
Nan  Edwin  a  wnae  adwy. 
See  Edwin  ap  Gronwy, 

Edwy  river  falls  into  the  Machawy  river  at  Aberedwy,  Breck- 
nockshire (q.  d.  Ehedwy,  from  eJipd,  to  fly).  {E,  Llwyd)  See 
Aedwy, 

Edwyn,  Kmg  of  the  Picts,'  died  a.d.  736.  (Powel,  Garadoc, 
p.  15.) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  155 

Edyrn,  vel  Edeym,  qu.  ? 

Efelffre,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  cantref  Daugleddeu 
in  Pembrokeshire.  Qrt,  whether  Y  Velffri  is  from  hence ;  or 
Y  VSl  Vre,  the  honey-mount  ?  [Qu.,  Ufelfre,  the  fiery  moun- 
tain ?—>r.i>.] 

Efell,  Angl.,  a  twin,     Cynfrig  Efell. 

Efyrnwy  or  Efernwy  (fl.)  or  Y  Fumwy,  or  Furnwy,  falls  into 
the  Severn. 

Efiliau  (n.  pr.  f.).  Eftliau,  wife  of  Wydyr  Drwm,  noted  for 
a  chaste  wife.  (IV.  55.) 

Efionydd,  a  part  of  Caernarvonshire^  or  Eiddionydd ;  also 
EJionudd,  but  not  right. 

Och  fyned  nwch  Efionndd 

Ceirw  da  'ngh6r  Cowrda  'nghndd. — Hywel  BeinallL 

Ni  chawn  odid  ddawn  hyd  Eiddionydd. — Ttulur  Aled. 

Efnudd  neu  Eunudd  ap  Alan  ap  Alser. 

Efnydd  (n.  pr.  v.).  Efnydd  ap  Clydawc  died  a.d.  936.  {Car- 
ad,,  p.  51.) 

Efnydd  ap  Morrier,  one  of  the  Fifteen  Tribes  of  North  Wales. 
In  another  book  thus :  Efnydd  ap  Gwerngwy  in  Dyffryn  Clwyd, 
and  lord  thereof,  lived  in  the  time  of  Bleddyn  ap  Cynfyn,  of 
whom  he  had  this  coat  for  his  services  in  the  wai^s  with  the  Sax- 
ons :  azure,  a  lion  rampant  or.  One  Efnydd,  a  prince,  I  suppose, 
was  slain  in  Arwystli,  a.d,  900.    (Powel,  Oarad,,  p.  43.) 

Efrawc  :  see  JSfrog. 

Efrei,  Gw^  Efrei,  Jews,  Hebrews. 

Efroc,  Efrog,  Ebhrawc,  Evrawc,  and  Evravc  (n.  pr.  v.) ;  Lat., 
EbraticTia. 

Efroc  Gaparn,  the  fifth  King  of  Britain.  He  had  twenty 
sons  and  thirty  daughters.  Built  Caer  Efh)c,  now  York,  and 
made  some  conquests  in  Gaul.  Beigned  thirty-nine  years. 
(Usher's  Cai.,  Efrog ;  Triades,  Catalogue  of  Cities,  Caer  Efrawc.) 

Egbert,  King  of  the  West  Saxons,  who  in  the  ninth  century 
(A.D,  827)  brought  the  Saxon  heptarchy  under  one  crown,  and 
called  them  by  the  name  of  English,  and  their  country  England. 
About  100  years  afterwards  the  Danes  conquered  the  English, 
and  kept  the  crown  for  some  time.     About  100  years  after  that 


156  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

the  Normans  conquered  England,  and  demolished  most  of  the 
English  nobility,  so  that  what  remains  of  great  families  in 
Britain  are  either  ancient  Britains  or  Normans. 

Eginib  ap  GoUwyn. 

Eginoc,  one  of  the  four  cantrefs  of  Caermarthenshire. 

Eglwys  Wen  (Yr),  i,  e.,  Whitchurch,  Candida  Gam,  built  by 
Nynias,  the  Britain,  in  the  country  of  the  Bemicians,  or  Southern 
Picts.     (Bede,  1.  iii,  c.  14.) 

Egri  (n.  pr.  v.).  Egri  o  Dalybolion  ym  M6n,  A.D.  550  {Arch. 
BriL,  257)  :  hence  Bodegri,  Anglesey. 

Egryn  (n.  pr.  v.).  Egryn  ap  Gwrydr  Drwm.  lianegiyn, 
Meirion.     See  Llwyn  Egryn, 

Eg  WAD  Sant.  Llanegwad,  Carmarthenshire.  Wiliam  Egwad, 
the  poet,  had  his  cognomen  from  hence ;  lived  a.d.  1480. 

Egwest  or  Egwestl.  Camden  calls  it  a  small  monastery  of 
Llan  Egwest.  Llanegwest,  in  Latin  Valle  Grttcis,  an  abbey  near 
Llangollen,  Denbighshire,  built  a.d.  1200.  John  Llwyd,  arglwydd 
abad. 

Ehedog.    Moel  Ehedog,  a  high  mountain  in  Caernarvonshire. 

EiDAL,  Eydal,  Italy,  Italia. 

EiDOL  or  Eidiol  ap  Evrog  Gadarn. 

EiDOL  ap  Arthfael,  the  63rd  King  of  Britain ;  Latinized  Aido^ 
Ins. 

EiDRUL,  Hteturia  [Hetruria  or  Etniria  ?]. 

EiDYN  (n.  pr.  v.).  Eidyn,  mab  Einygan,  a  laddodd  Aneurin. 
(TV.  38.) 

EiDDiLic  CoRR,  one  of  the  three  noted  philosophers  {Tr.  31) ; 
in  another  place,  Qwyddyl  Goi^,  Perhaps  Eiddilic  should  have 
been  Gwyddelig,  i,  e.,  Irish. 

EiDDiONYDD  {E.  Llwyd),  a  country  or  commot  commonly  called 
Eifionydd,  in  Caernarvonshire. 

Ni  chawn  odid  ddawn  hyd  Eiddionydd. — Tudur  AM, 
See  Eifionydd. 

EiDDON  ap  Idnerth;  in  another  place,  Iddo  ap  Idnerth  ap 
Edryd. 

EiDDUN.  Cad  Eiddun.  Cledr  cedeym  cad  Eiddun.  {Cyndddw) 

EiDDYN,  Dinas  Eiddyn,  Edenborough.  See  Penrhyn  Rhionedd. 

ElFFT,  for  Aijphf,  Egypt. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  157 

EiFiON  (n.  pr.  V.  ?).     See  Neifion. 

Nofiad  a  wnaefch  hen  Eifion 

O  Droia  fawr  draw  i  Fon. — Dafydd  ap  Gwihjm. 

EiFiONYDD  (wrote  also  Eiddionydd  and  Efionydd,  and  pro- 
nounced YJionydd),  one  of  the  two  commots  of  Dunodic  in  Caer- 
narvonshire ;  the  other,  in  old  times,  being  Ardudwy. 

Ni  chawn  odid  ddawn  hyd  Eiddionydd. — Ttidur  Aled. 
See  Eifion, 

EiFL  (Yr),  wrote  also  Yr  Eifyl  or  Yr  Eiffyl,  a  high  mountain 
on  the  sea-coast  of  Caernarvonshire.  On  the  top  of  one  of  its 
three  heads  is  a  surprising  fort  of  vast  stones.  I  read  in  an  old 
MS.  that  the  Princes  of  Scotland,  upon  the  defeat  and  death  of 
their  countryman,  Elidir  Mwynfawr,  killed  by  Shun  ap  Mael- 
gwn,  landed  their  forces,  and  burnt  the  country  from  the  Eifl  to 
Hergyn  [Erging,  Urchenfield. —  W.  DJ], 

EiGBAD  Sant.     Ilaneigrad,  a  church  in  Anglesey. 

EiGYR  and  Eigr,  verch  Amlawdd  Wledig  ap  Cynwal. 

EiGYK,  the  mother  of  Arthur,  King  of  Britain. 

Ejlon  ap  Dogvael  Dogveiling. 

EiLLiON.     Caer  Billion  in  Powys.     {Qweylgorddau  Potvys.) 

EiLLT.  Cynddelw  a  gant  y  3  Englyn  hyn  i  Fab  Eillt  o  Lan- 
sadwrn  a'i  enw  Pyll.     (MS,) 

EiNiAWN,  or  Eneon,  Einion,  Eingion,  and  Engan,  or,  as  Cam- 
den writes  it,  Enion,  is  a  British  proper  name  of  men,  which  he 
says  the  British  Glossary  translateth  Justiis ;  but  there  is  no 
such  glossary.  It  is  true  that  uniawn  in  the  British  tongue  sig- 
nifies straight  or  just,  though  not  enion.  But  the  name  Einiavm, 
as  it  is  pronounced  Eingion,  seems  to  have  the  signification  of 
the  word  eingion,  that  is,  a  smith's  anvil, — a  name  not  improper 
in  an  age  of  war,  to  a  man  able  to  bear  strokes.  Einion  fab  Bed 
Brenhin  Cernyw.    (TV.  75.) 

EiNiAWN  ap  Arthal  ap  Morudd  was  the  name  of  the  40th 
King  of  Britain,  which  was  about  200  years  before  the  birth  of 
Christ. 

Einion  ap  Maelgwn  Gwynedd. 

Einion  ap  Gwalchmai. 

Einion  ap  Morgan  ap  Arthel,  King  of  Britain,  the  13th  after 
Brutus. 


158  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

EiNiON  Sais  ap  Ehys  ap  Howel.     Scr. 

EiNiON  Yrth,  lord  of  Caereinion,  one  of  the  eight  sons  of 
Cunedda  Wledig  who  were  drove  out  of  the  country  by  the  Scots, 
A.D.  440.    Llanelngion  Frenin  yn  Lleyn.     Annianus  ? 

EiNON  ap  Owen  ap  Howel  Dda. 

EiNUDD  or  Efnydd  ap  G wemgwy.  See  Ffnydd.  Hunudd  verch 
Einudd. 

EiNWS  ap  leuan  Llwyd. 

EiRA  Mawr  a  barhaodd  o  ddydd  Enwaediad  hyd  Wyl  Badrig, 
yn  amser  Gruff,  ap  Llewelyn.  {MS,) 

EiRCH  or  Erch,  a  river  in  Caernarvonshire.  Abereirch,  vulgo 
Berach.     St.  Cawrda  ? 

[Bwriais  naid  hyd  Abererch, 

Llan  yw  hon  ar  afon  Ercb. — Oro,  Owadn,     W.  D.] 

EiRiF  (n.  pr.  v.),  father  of  Llawr,  and  is  probably  a  Norman 
name.     (IV.  72.) 

EiRiOEW.    Scr. 

EiRYRi  or  EiRYRiw,  Snowdown  Mountains  in  North  Wales. 
Humphrey  Llwyd  writes  it  Eiryri^  and  explains  it  Niyiferos ; 
but  why  did  not  Camden  own  where  he  had  this  derivation  ? 
See  Eryreu,  (See  Brit.  Descr.  Com.,  p.  82).  Llywarch  Brydydd 
y  Moch  seems  to  derive  the  name  of  the  mountain  from  eryron 
(eagles) : 

Dadeni  haelion 
O  hil  Eryron  o  Eryri.  —P.  M. 

ElTTUN,  enw  lie.  Gwenllys  Eittun.  (fir.  Dafydd  ah  Tudur.) 
[Eytyn  o  Eytyn ;  Eyton  of  Eyton,  near  Rhiwabon.  Sion  ab  Elis 
Eytyn,  the  Bosworth  soldier.  He  lived  at  Rhiwabon,  afterwards 
Watstay,  and  now  called  Wynnstay. —  W.  J?.] 

EiTHA  CoTHWYR,  it  secms,  was  the  British  name  of  the  inha- 
bitants of  the  Hebrides,  which  signifies  extreme  old  inhabitants, 
who  might  be  part  of  the  first  planters  of  Britain.  They  are 
called  in  Eumenius'  panegyric  to  Constantius  Atta  Cotti.  See 
BrU.  Dcacr.y  p.  59. 

EiTHON  (Din  Eithon  ?),  a  river.  See  Ithon  and  leithon.  [Caer 
wythochrog  ar  Ian  Eithawn. — W.  2?.] 

EiTHRAS  o  Lydaw.    Sc. 

Elaeth  Frenhin  ap  Meuric. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  159 

Elaeth,  a  poet  of  the  fifth  or  sixth  century.  Mr.  Edward 
Ilwyd  says  he  is  author  of  Englynion  y  Beddau  (he  wrote  near 
the  time  of  Llywarch  Hen) ;  but  in  p.  258,  Englynion  y  Beddau 
are  given  to  Taliesin  by  William  Maurice. 

Elays,  a  river,  qu.  ?  Penrhyn  ar  Elays,  one  of  three  commots 
of  Arberth  in  Dyfed.     (Price's  DescripL) 

Elbeth.    Wiliam  arglwydd  Elbeth  o  Normandi. 

Elbodus  (Elfod).  Leland  says  that  he  quashed  the  Arian 
and  Pelagian  heresies,  settled  the  time  of  Easter,  and  was  Bishop 
of  Gwynedd  (Venetorum) ;  that  he  was  acquainted  with  those 
two  learned  men,  Nennius  and  SamueL  This  was  probably  the 
Elvodugus  whom  Nennius  mentions  as  his  patron. 

Eleias  Ledwyr  0  Lydaw. 

Elemon.     Caer  Elemon  {Nennius),    See  Selemion, 

Elen,  a  river  that  runs  into  the  Gwy.  Pont  ar  Elen ;  Cwm 
Elen.  [JElain  (a  doe),  swift  or  rapid.  Pont  ar  Elain  ;  Cwm 
Elain,  near  Ehaiadr  Gwy.-r-  W,  D.] 

Elen  (n.  pr.  f.),  Helena. 

Elen  verch  Eudaf,  Helen,  the  daughter  of  Octavius,  who  was 
married  to  Macsen  Wledig,  Emperor  of  Rome.  She  was  sur- 
named  £len  Lueddog,  or  the  Warlike,  on  account  of  the  vast  army 
sent  over  to  Armorica  in  her  time,  under  the  command  of  Cynan 
Meriadoc.  The  British  copy  of  Tyssilio  mentions  her  by  name ; 
but  the  Latin  of  Galfrid  doth  not,  the  two  Helens,  I  suppose, 
having  confounded  him.  This  last  Helen  is  called  in  the  Triades 
Helen  Zueddog,  and  not  Luryddog,  as  some  ignorant  writei'S  would 
have  it.     See  Eleriy  daughter  of  Coel. 

Elen,  the  daughter  of  Coel,  King  of  Britain,  who  was  married 
to  Constantius  Chlorus,  and  was  the  mother  of  Constantinus 
Magnus,  the  Emperor.  This  Elen  was  called  Elen  Lwyddog,  or 
the  Prosperous,  because  it  is  said  she  found  the  cross  of  Christ. 
She  was  also  called  Elen  Fannog,  i.  e.,  the  Famous  or  Noted. 
She  is  by  some  confounded  with  Elen  Lueddog.  She  was  bom 
about  the  year  250,  at  York,  or  London,  or  Colchester ;  which 
latter  was  called  after  Coel,  her  father,  a  British  king.  Constan- 
tius took  her  to  wife,  and  Constantino  the  Great,  her  son,  was 
born  A.D.  274.  Theodoret  says  {Hist.  Eccl,  1.  i,  c.  14)  that  she 
brought  her  son  up  in  Christian  piety ;  but  Eusebius  (1.  i,  c  47) 


1 60  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

seems  to  say  she  was  not  hei*self  a  Christian  till  her  son  was 
converted  by  the  sight  of  a  cross  in  the  heavens  when  he  marched 
against  the  tjrrant  Maxentius.  She  went  to  visit  the  Holy  Land 
by  divine  instinct,  and  found  the  cross  of  Christ.  {Brit  Sand.) 
Constantine  called  her  to  his  court,  and  declared  her  Augusta 
or  Empress.  Eufinus  (1.  x,  c.  7)  says  she  was  a  most  fervent 
Christian.  St.  Gregory  the  Great  says  (L  ix,  Epist,,  c.  9)  she 
was  incomparable  for  religion  and  goodness.  She  was  buried  at 
Borne  about  A.D.  328. 

Elenis  (n.  L). 

Elerch,  a  river  in  Geneu'r  Glyn,  Cardigansliire,  falls  into 
Eleri. 

Eleki  (St.),  daughter  of  Brychan,  wife  of  Caredig  Ceredigion, 
and  mother  of  Sant,  father  of  Dewi    (Ach  Cynog.) 

Eleri  (fl.),  vulg6  Leri.    Glan  Leri.    Aber  Leri,  Cardiganshire. 

Elerius  (St),  brought  up  at  Uanelwy,  and  founded  a  monas- 
tery at  Gwytherin  in  Dyffryn  Clwyd,  of  which  he  was  abbot. 
He  wrote  the  Life  of  St.  Winifred,  whose  first  name  was  Brewa 
{Brit,  Sanct.)y  recti  Gwenfrewi ;  and  Leland  calls  her  Guenvreda 
{Script,  Brit,  c.  49).     Brought  up  by  Beuno. 

Qu.  whether  liar  (Ilanilar)  be  this  Elerius,  or  perhaps  Geler  ? 
Dr.  Fleetwood  denies  that  Elerius  wrote  her  Life. 

Elestron  ap  Don  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Eleth  Santes.  Cappel  Eleth  in  the  parish  of  Amlwch,  Anglesy. 

Elfael,  a  castle  in  Maelienydd,  belonging  to  Cadwallon  ap 

Madog  ap  Idnerth,  whose  sons  were  drove  out  of  that  country 

by  Balph  Mortimer,  a.d.  1194,  when  he  built  the  castle  of  Cym- 

aron. 

Yn  amwyn  Elfael  pan  wnaeth  Elfed 

Elfydden  grealawn  elfydd  greuled. 

Cynddelwy  in  Marwnad  Cad.  ap  Madog. 
See  Elfed, 

Elfael.    leuan  ap  Rhys  ap  Ivor  o  Elvael. 

Elfan  Powys,  brother  of  Cynddylan.  {Llytoarch  Hen  in  Cyn- 
ddylan.) 

Elfed  (n.  L),  qu.  a  jiwqtI  {Llywarch  Hen  in  Cadwallon's  Elegy.) 
Cynwyl  Elfed,  Carmarthenshire.     See  Elfael. 

Elfyw  (n.  pr.  v.).  Cwmmwd  mab  Elfyw,  one  of  the  four  com- 
inots  of  Cantref  Mawr,  in  Caermarthenshire.     (Price's  Descript) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  161 

Elgan  Wefl  Hwcli  ap  Cynan  Archeuad.     In  another  place, 

Elgan  Wefl  Ffloch  ap  Arthnael. 

Elgno  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Pwjlles  i  pan  las  Elgno. 

Llywarch  Hen^  Marwnad  Urien  Beged. 

Elgud  ap  Cadfarch  o  L^n» 

Elgwy  (fl.),  wrote  anciently  for  Elwj/.    {E.  Llwy^,) 

Eli,  enw  Ue  ym  Mhowys. 

Eryr  Eli,  echeidw  myr. 

Llywarch  HeUy  in  Marwnad  Cynddylan. 
Eryr  Pengarn. — Llywarch  Hen, 
Eryr  EH  ban  i  lief. 

Llywarch  Hen,  in  Marwnad  Cynddylan. 

Eli,  a  river  (Camden  in  Olamorgan) ;  in  Morden's  Map,  Elay  \ 
Elay,  mentioned  in  the  Hist  Land,    (Camden,) 

Eli.  Ynys  Eli,  the  Isle  of  Ely  in  Cambridgeshire  ;  so  called, 
as  Bede  says,  from  the  plenty  of  eels  there.  But  query  whether 
a  British  name,  Elwy  or  Aelwy  ?  See  Eli  in  Marwnad  Cyn^ 
ddylan  by  Llywarch  Hen. 

Elian  (St.).  In  our  old  genealogies  he  is  called  Elian  Ceim^ 
iad  ap  Alldud  Eedegawg  ap  Carcludwys.  Qu.  whether  his  father 
is  the  same  with  St.  EUtyd,  who  was  the  famous  Iltutus  that 
erected  a  college  in  Morganwg,  and  preserved  the  religion  and 
learning  of  the  Britons  from  ruin  upon  the  Saxons  first  coming 
and  conquering  Lloegria ;  and  was  the  instructor  of  St.  David, 
St.  Paul  de  Leon,  St.  Sampson,  St.  Teilo,  Gildas. 

The  Legend  of  St.  Elian  says  that  he  and  his  family  and  effects 

came  by  sea  from  Rome,  and  landed  in  Anglesey  at  Perth  yr 

Ychen,  and  hard  by  there  built  his  church.     Tliis  is  said  to  be 

in   the  time  of  Caswallon  Law  Hir,  the  father  of  Maelgwn 

Gwynedd. 

Elian  a  berai  wjlo 

O  lid  am  ei  fuwch  a*i  lo 

Fe  wnaeth  yn  ddall  Gaswallon 

Arglwydd  mawr  ar  ogledd  Mon. 

See  Rowlands'  Mona  A  niijua. 

By  oral  tradition,  Elian  had  a  young  doe  which  he  brought  up 

tame,  and  the  lord  of  that  country  gave  him  as  much  land  to  his 

church  as  the  doe  would  compass  in  a  day.  The  tradition  doth  not 

21 


162  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

say  how  the  doe  was  drove  to  compass  the  ground ;  but  it  hap- 
pened in  her  marking  out  her  lord's  ground  that  the  greyhound  of 
some  rich  man  of  the  neighbourhood  disturbed  or  killed  the  doe, 
upon  which  St  Elian  in  great  wrath  pronounced  it  a  judgment 
on  the  inhabitants  of  that  parish,  that  none  of  them  should  keep 
a  greyhound  to  the  end  of  the  world ;  and  his  sentence  is  come 
to  pass,  for  none  of  the  parishioners  are  able  to  keep  a  grey- 
hound,— ^they  are  so  very  poor,  the  ground  is  so  very  rocky. 

The  marks  of  the  feet  of  St  Elian's  oxen  are  shewn  in  the 
rocks  where  he  landed,  and  the  history  of  the  doe  is  still  pre- 
served in  painted  glass  on  one  of  the  windows  of  the  church. 

How  this  Elian  came  to  be  called  Hilary  I  cannot  telL  There 
is  a  small  promontory  near  the  church  called  by  seamen  Hilary's 
Point,  but  by  the  natives  it  is  called  Trwyn  y  Balog  or  Balawg, 
which  is  an  ancient  name  (I  don't  doubt)  older  than  Elian.  But 
they  have  also  among  their  coasters  a  bastard  English  name  given 
it  when  the  island  was  in  the  possession  of  the  English,  which 
is  Pwynt  yr  Leinws,  i.  e,,  -^Elianus'  Point ;  and  this  shews  that 
Hilary  hath  no  claim  at  all  to  this  place.  There  is  a  place  in 
the  same  parish  called  Ehos  Manach,  i.  e.,  the  Monk's  Boss,  which 
shews  that  there  was  a  cell  of  monks  at  Llan  Elian ;  a  bog  also, 
called  Cors  Mian,  retains  its  name  to  this  day. 

There  is  in  the  church  (which  is  a  grand  piece  of  building)  au 
appartment  which  to  this  day  is  called  myvyr.,  which  is  an  anti- 
quated word  for  a  library :  from  hence  comes  myfyrdod,  study ; 
myfyrio,  to  study. 

I  have  a  copy  of  a  grant  of  lands  and  privileges  said  to  have 
been  made  by  Caswallon  Law  Hir  to  St.  Hilarius.  It  is  said  to 
have  been  confirmed  by  Edward  IV,  A.D.  1465. 

Elian  seems  to  have  been  his  first  Welsh  name,  and  Hilary  or 
Hilarius  his  ecclesiastical  name  given  by  the  Pope  on  preferring 
him  to  some  high  post  in  the  Church  ;  and  the  addition,  or  sur- 
name, C&imiad,  for  his  being  a  traveller  (k  cammv)  \  so  Beuno 

Geimiad. 

Gymorth  gan  Elian  Geimiad. 

There  are  several  churches  dedicated  to  him :  Uanelian  yn  Rhos, 
a  parish  and  church,  Denbighshire ;  Llanelian,  Anglesey,  formerly 
a  monastery  or  college ;  Mynydd  Elian,  hard  by;  and  Perth  Elian. 


CELTIC  REMAINS,  163 

Elidan  (St).    Llanelidan,  DeDbighshire. 

Elidir,  the  32nd  King  of  Britain,  called  Elidir  Waty  the  mild. 

Elidir  Lydanwyn  ap  Meirchion,  father  of  LlTwarch  Hen. 
(TV.  14) 

Elidir  Mwynfawr,  a  North  Briton  that  claimed  the  govern- 
ment of  Wales  from  Shun  ap  Maelgwn,  and  entered  upon  his 
land  in  Caernarvonshire,  and  was  killed  at  Abemefydd.  Hence 
Oamedd  Elidir,  a  mountain  near  Ilanberis,  took  its  name,  (if /S. 
and  Tr.) 

EuDiR  Sais^  a  native  of  Anglesey,  a  sound  poet  of  the  18th 

century. 

Da  Elidir  gwir  gwarant,  fto. 

Owr  o  ddoethion  Mob,  mynwes  eigiawn. 

Eliter  Gosgorddfawr  {Tr.  Mdrch,  1),  t.  «.,  Elifer  with  the 
great  guard  [clan —  W,  Z>.]  ;  wrote  also  Eliffer  and  Oliver  {Tr.  y 
Meirch,  1),  but  by  Dr.  Davies  (Grram.,  p.  161),  Elider  Gosgorfawr. 
He  married  Eurddul,  sister  of  Urien  Reged,  and  daughter  of 
Cynfarch  Hen,  (TV.  52.)  Gwrgi,  Peredur,  and  Ceindi^ch  Pen- 
asgell,  were  three  children  of  his  at  one  birth,  (TV.  52.)  But 
somebody  told  Camden  it  was  Heliodor,  the  great  Jiousekeeper, 
and  he  turns  it  to  Cosoorvaur, — which  hath  no  meaning  at  all. 
Thus  it  is  when  authors  pretend  to  explain  a  language  unknown 
to  them,  or  take  those  explanations  from  an  ignorant  native 
who  may  know  as  much  of  the  grounds  and  foundations  of  his 
language  as  his  horse  does.     See  Oliver. 

EuFFRi  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Cknt  cant  ei  moh'ant  mal  Eliffri. 

Eign,  ap  Gwalchmai^  to  Nest. 

Elis,  a  modern  name,  and  also  a  surname,  wrote  Ellis. 

Elise  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  common  name  among  the  Britains ;  but 
qu.  whether  from  Ellis  (which  Camden  says  is  corrupted  from 
Elias,  Heb.,  Lord  God)  or  from  Elijah ;  or  perhaps  of  British 
original,  as  Elmur,  Elidir,  Elgno,  &c.  It  is  pronounced  El-i-se, 
in  three  syllables. 

Elisseu,  qu.  an  idem  quod  Elisha  vel  Eliseus  (Heb.)  ? 

Eliwlod  (n.  pr.  v.).  Eliwlod,  mab  Madog  ap  Uthur,  a  nephew 
of  King  Arthur,  and  for  his  oratory  called  the  Golden-tongued 
Knight    (TV.  82.)     There  is  a  poem  extant,  a  dialogue  between 


164  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

him  and  Arthur,  where  the  poet  feigns  this  Eliwlod  to  be  in  the 
shape  of  an  eagle,  appearing  to  the  King  after  his  death.  '' Ym- 
ddiddan  rhwng  Arthur  a'r  Eryr." 

Eliwys  ap  Owain  Cyfeiliog. 

Ellemenig  (n.  pr.  v.).    {Tr.  y  Meirch,  7.)     See  Llemenig. 

Elli.    Llanelli,  Caermarthenshire,  a  village.     Fairs  kept  here. 

Elliw  or  EvELLiw  (n.  pr.  f.),  daughter  of  Cadivor  ap  Collwyn. 
{CaradoCf  p*  182.) 

Elliw,  verch  Owain  ap  Dafydd. 

Ellmyn,  Lat.  Alemanni,  Germans.  Dr.  Davies  derives  it  from 
ully  Lat.  alivs.  The  Ellmyn  were  those  Gennans  that  inhabited 
from  the  Ehine  to  the  Danube  and  Main.     See  Allmyn. 

Elltyd  Sant,  i.  e.,  St.  Iltutus,  Abbot.  Qu.,  whether  Alltud 
Eedegwg  ?  Llanelltyd  Church  is  near  Dolgelleu.  He  had  a 
monastery  in  Glamorganshire.  His  acts  are  in  Capgrave.  See 
Usher's  Antiq,,  p.  252.  He  was  son  of  Bicanus,  a  knight,  by  his 
wife  Riemguilida,  daughter  to  a  King  of  Armorica ;  served  in 
the  wars  under  his  kinsman,  King  Arthur ;  then  going  to  the 
court  of  the  King  of  Glamorgan,  married  a  lady  of  quality ;  and 
by  the  persuasion  of  St.  Cadoc,  Abbot  of  Llangarvan,  parted  with 
his  wife,  and  accepted  of  the  tonsure  of  St.  Dubricius,  and  resided 
on  the  sea-coast  at  Llan  Iltud,  now  called  Lantwit,  where  he 
founded  a  monastery  and  opened  a  school.  His  scholars  were 
Samson,  Maglorius,  St.  Paul  de  Leon,  Gildas,  and  St.  David. 
Left  his  school  to  a  disciple,  Isam ;  retired  to  a  cave,  thence  to 
Armorica,  and  died  at  Dole.     {Brit  Sand.,  Nov.  6.) 

Ellyll  Ednyuedawc  Drythyll  (ZV.  70),  un  o'r  tri  Gwydd 
Ellyll.  Qu,  what  this  Ellyll  was  ?  Gwydd  Ellyll  may  be  one 
of  the  spirits  of  the  wood,  in  the  nature  of  the  Dryades,  or  per- 
haps a  wood-rover. 

Elmur,  mab  Cadeir,  one  of  the  three  Tarw  Unben.  {Tr,  13.) 

Elnoc  Sant  o  Gaergybi.     Qu.  whether  Elvot  ? 

Elphin  ap  Gwyddno  Goronir,  lord  of  Cantre  Gwaelod,  was  the 
patron  of  the  poet  Taliesin. 

Ac  yn  armes  Taliesin 
Drad  yn  Llys  Faelgwn  fu'r  drin 
Pan  olljngawdd  medrawdd  mwy 
Blphin  o  eurin  aerwy. — LI,  M,  y  Paidrl, 
See  Elphm  in  LI.  H. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  165 

Elphin  ap  Urien  ap  Cynfarch. 

Elisabeth  and  Elsbeth  (and  so  they  pronounce  in  the  north 
of  England),  id.  quod  Angl.  Elizabeth. 

Eluned  (Sant)  verch  Brychan  yngorsebawl,  neu  Crug  gors- 
eddawL 

Eluned,  cariad  Ywein  ap  Urien.  Modrioy  Eluned  was  one  of 
the  13  tlws  Ynys  Prydain.  The  stone  in  it  had  the  virtues  of 
Gyges'  ring.  It  would  conceal  the  man  that  would  conceal  it ; 
meaning  secresy  in  love  affairs. 

Eluther,  the  name  of  a  Pope  said  to  be  at  Eome  when  Lies 
ap  Coel,  King  of  Britain,  sent  to  him  for  preachers  to  propagate 
the  Christian  faith.  This  was  before  the  year  156,  as  the  British 
copy  of  Tyssilio  has  it.  Latin  writers  call  him  Elutherius  or 
Elutherus.     See  Usher's  PHmordia,  p.  34. 

Elved,  name  of  a  place.  Cynwyl  Elved,  a  place  in  Caermar- 
thenshire.  See  the  quotation  of  Cynddelw  in  Elfaeh  Llywarch 
Hen,  in  Marwnad  Cadwallon,  mentiona  a  place  of  this  name. 
Nennius  says  (c.  65)  that  Edguin  reigned  seventeen  years,  occu- 
pied Elmet,  and  turned  out  Certec,  King  of  that  country.  See 
Tyssilio,  in  Braint's  speech  to  Cadwallon.  Gale,  in  his  notes  on 
Nennius,  says  that  Elmet  is  in  Yorkshire,  near  Leeds,  and  that 
Bede  mentions  it.  Bede,  in  1.  xv,  c.  14,  at  the  end,  mentions  a 
monastery  in  Elmcie  Wood,  which  Dr.  Smith  says  was  a  large 
forest  including  Berwic  and  a  great  part  of  Yorkshire ;  and  the 
English  annotator  says  it  took  its  name  from  elms  abounding 
there,  which  wants  proof.  For  the  Britains,  drove  by  Edwin 
from  the  country  called  Elfed,  north  of  the  Humber,  carried  that 
name  with  them,  and  gave  it  to  places  in  Wales ;  and  according 
to  Nennius  it  was  called  Elmet  before  Edwin  conquered  it  and 
turned  out  King  Certec,  who  must  have  been  a  Briton.  See 
Tyssilio,  who  calls  him  Ceredic  in  Braint's  speech  to  Cadwallon. 
The  transcribers  of  Nennius  have  made  Ceredic  and  Elved  into 
one  word  through  ignorance,  Gerdicselmet, 

Elyel  or  Elvael,  a  cantref  between  Wy  and  Severn,  belong* 
ing  formerly  to  Powys,  in  which  are  the  commots  of  Uwch 
Mynydd,  Is  Mynydd,  and  Llechddyfnog.  They  were  the  lands 
of  Ralph  Mortimer  in  Powys  r.  Elfael.     See  Tralhong  Elfael. 

Elfod,  Elbiiod,  and  Elbod  (n.  pr.  v.) ;  Lat.  Elbottis,  Elhodus, 


1  66  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

or  Elvodugus  as  Nennius  has  it,  and  Dr.  Davies  (Pref.  Gram.) 
Elbodius,  was  Archbishop  of  Wales,  and  died  a.d.  809.  (Powel, 
Caradoc,  p.  21.)  He  changed  the  time  of  Easter  about  the  year 
755.  (Powel,  Oar.,  p.  17.)  But  Caradoc  makes  him  Archbishop 
oi  North  Wales  (p.  211),  which  I  suppose  is  a  mistake,  for  that 
he  was  bom  at  Caergybi  in  Anglesey.  (Achau'r  Saint.)  App. 
MS.  TyssUio  calls  him  Elvod  Esgob  Gwynedd  (Bishop  of  North 
Wales,  wliich  probably  means  chief  Bishop),  and  tliat  he  died 
A.D.  811.  In  the  margin  of  Gildas  Nennius  (c.  65),  Eeuchidus 
and  Elbodus,  Bishops,  are  mentioned.  Nennius,  the  historian, 
says  that  he  was  the  disciple  of  St.  Elbotus  (or  Elbodugus  as  he 
names  him  in  another  place)  ;  and  in  the  sixty-third  chapter  he 
calls  one  Beulanus,  a  presbyter,  his  master, — perhaps  Saml. 
Beulan  his  interpolator. 

Elvyw. 

Elwy,  river :  hence  Llanelv?y,  St.  Asaph. 

Elwtdden  or  Elwyddan,  Elwyddyn  or  Elwyden  (fl.).  Tom 
Elwyddan  mentioned  in  Ilywarch  Hen's  Marwnad  Cyndylan, 
and  in  Englynion  y  Beddau. 

Elysmer,  Elesmere  in  Shropshire, 

Llys  Elysmer  bei  flfer  bu  ffwyr  gno 

Llwyr  llosged  ei  tbudwed  ai  tho. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  L.  ap  lorwerth. 
Elystan  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Elystan  Glodrydd,  larll  Henflfordd,  one  of  the  Five  Eoyal 
Tribes  of  Wales  (un  o  Bum  Brenhinllwyth  Cymru). 

Em,  a  woman's  name. 

Emerchret  (n.  pr.  f.).  Emerchret,  gwraig  Fabon  ap  Dewen 
Hen,  noted  for  a  chaste  wifa    (Tr.  55.) 

Emlyn,  nomen  loci  in  Pembrokeshire  ;  one  of  the  eight  can- 

trefs  of  Dyfed.  Y  Castell  Newydd  yn  Emlyn,  got  by  fihys,  1215. 

Glyn  Cuwch  yn  Emlyn  {Tr.  30),  the  country  of  Pendaran 

Dyfed. 

Ifor  deg  yw  ei  frawd  ynn 

I  roi'n  ami  aur  yn  Emlyn. — O,  ap  leuan  Hen. 

Emral,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  [Flintshire]. 
Emreis.     Cantref  Emreis,  mentioned  by  Cynddelw,  where 
Hywel  ap  Owain  Gwynedd  fought  a  battla 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  167 

Embus  and  Emreis  {Tr.  90  and  91),  in  the  present  orthography 
Emrys  (n.  pr.  v.)  ;  Latinized  Ambrositis, 

Emrys  Wledig,  the  98th  King  of  Britain,  son  of  Constantine, 
an  Armorican  Britain,  called  Cwstenin  Fendigaid  (Tr.  90),  bro- 
ther to  Aldwr,  King  of  Armorica.  This  Constantine  had  three 
sons :  Constans  or  Cwstenin  Vychan  (Tr,  90),  Emrys,  and  Uthur 
Bendragon.  They  burnt  Gwrtheym's  castle  in  Wales  about  a.d. 
480.     See  Dinas  Emrys. 

Emtr  is  a  very  common  name  of  men  in  Armorica ;  and  Emyr 
Llydaw  was  the  name  of  the  Prince  that  reigned  there  in  Uthur 
Bendragon's  time,  and  whose  son  Hywel  was  cotemporary  with 
King  Arthur,  as  appears  by  the  Triades,  No.  83. 

Eneas,  a  Trojan  Prince,  son  of  Venus  and  Anchises,  married 
Lavinia,  daughter  of  King  Latiniis.  In  the  British,  Eneon  or 
Einion  (and  not  Evan,  as  Ainsworth,  for  Evan  is  but  a  very 
modem  name). 

Eneirchawc  (n.  L).  Gwyr  Eneirchawc  (Rai.  Myrddin),  some 
of  the  northern  pirates. 

Pan  dy£fon  dros  vop  gwyr  Eneirchawc. 

Enerys  (n.  faem.)     {H.  ap  Owain  Owynedd) 

Enethan  ap  Cadrod  Calchfynydd.     (Rhys  Goch  Eryri.) 

Enethan  ap  Siap :  qu.  ap  Carwed  ap  Marchudd  ? 

Eneuddon  (n.  pr.  f.).     (Dr.  Davies.) 

Enddwyn  Sant.    Uanenddwyn, 

Enfael  (n.  pr.  v.).     (Tr.  24.; 

Enfail,  ferch  Brychan. 

Enid  (n.  pr.  f.). 

Enid,  verch  Yniwl  larll  Dyfnaint,  cariad  Geraint  ap  Erbin, 
un  o'r  tair  rhiain  ardderchog.     (Tr.  78.) 

Enid,  verch  lamys  Arglwydd  Awdle. 

Enlli  (Tnsulam  Entili  sive  Berdseyam),  the  Isle  of  Bardsey 
on  the  headland  of  Caernarvonshire,  called  Ueyn.  Mr.  Leland, 
for  want  of  better  acquaintance  with  our  ancient  British  writers, 
hath  committed  a  slip  in  endeavouring  to  explain  this  name ; 
but  these  slips  are  less  common  in  him  than  any  other  English 
writer.  He  writes  the  name  of  this  island  (where  Dubricius 
retired  from  the  archbishoprick  of  Caerllion  ar  Wysg)  Enis 


168  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Enthle,  which  he  takes  to  be  a  corruption  of  EnisViin,  because  it 
lies  against  a  country  called  Llin  in  Venetia  (Gwyuedd),  which 
others  write  Venedotia.  All  this  is  wrong.  The  island  is  not  called 
by  the  natives  Enis  Entlile,but  has  been  always  called  Tnys  JSnlli; 
and  the  II  has  a  sound  which  no  English  letters  can  express ; 
therefore  it  is  impossible  for  an  Englishman  to  guess  at  the  deriva- 
tion of  the  word  I  know  that  Latin  writers  have  turned  it  into 
Insulam  JEntili,  which  was  to  show  that  they  could  do  something, 
but  really  nothing  to  the  purpose,  and  they  might  as  well  have 
wrote  it  with  any  other  letters  of  the  alphabet :  Enbili,  Encili, 
Endili,  EnflSli,  etc.,  etc.  Myrddin  Wyllt,  the  Caledonian  Pictish 
poet  about  twelve  hundred  years  ago,  wrote  it  YTilli ;  for  in  his 
Hoiane,  wrote  after  the  battle  of  Arderydd,  between  Ehydderch 
Hael  of  Aelclwyd  (Dunbritton),  Prince  of  the  Cumbrian  Britons, 
and  Aeddan  Vradog,  one  of  the  Princes  of  the  Southern  Picts, 
he  has  these  words  : 

Er  gwaith  Arderydd  mi  nim  dorbi 
Gyn  syrthiai  awyr  i  lawr  Llyr  Ynlli, 

And  the  poet&  from  that  time  to  this,  and  the  natives  at  this 

day  all  over  Wales,  pronounce  it  Enlli 

The  famous  satirical  Cywydd,  wrote  anciently  on  an  abbot  of 

that  monastery,  part  of  which  is  in  everybody's  mouth  to  this 

day,  though,  perhaps,  not  to  be  found  in  writing,  is  abo  a  proof 

of  this : 

AbadEnUi 

•  «  «  • 

«  «  «  « 

Abad  ffwt  flFat  lygatgoch 

Abad  ni  fyn  roi  bwyd  i*w  foch. 

This  passage  alone  proves  the  pronunciation  of  both  Enlli  and 
Lleyn  as  to  the  sound  II,  and  also  tells  us  a  piece  of  secret  his- 
tory, that  either  the  abbot  had  a  wife,  called  here  dbades  (abbess), 

or  that  there  was  a  nunnery  on  the  island but  he  was  a 

lay  abbot     See  Cyliau  Ihwri, 

Dr.  Davies,  author  of  the  British-Latin  Dictionary,  about  one 
hundred  and  twenty  years  ago  published  a  handsome  reward  for 
anybody  that  could  bring  him  a  perfect  copy  of  this  poem  ;  but 
it  was  not  to  be  found.     It  was  at  first  so  well  known  that  it 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  169 

was  neglected  to  be  wrote,  and  perhaps  it  was  not  safe  to  commit 

it  to  paper  in  the  time  when  abbots  had  a  power  here. 

Lewis  Glyn  Cothi  in  one  place  writes  it  JEnUif,  which  induces 

me  to  think  that  it  had  its  name  &om  being  situated  in  the 

middle  of  strong  tides,  as  they  certainly  are  there  as  strong  as 

any  about  Britain ;  q.  d.  Yn  y  llif,  i.  e.,  in  the  stream.    But  Zleyn, 

the  name  of  the  headland  or  promontory,  is  plainly  of  another 

original. 

Llawer  hyd  yn  nhir  Lleyn 

Llwyn  hesg  yn  llawen  o  hyn. — Perri's  Rhetoric^ 

In  the  legend  of  St.  Cynhaval  there  is  mention  of  a  fabulous 
giant  called  Enlli  Qatar,  who  gave  name  to  this  island ;  but 
that  fiction  took  its  rise  from  Benlli  Gawr,  the  tyrant  mentioned 
in  Nennius,  who  was  no  giant  though  called  Catvr,  but  a  Prince 
oflal. 

This  Enlli  is  probably  one  of  the  four  islands  which  Ptolomy 
in  his  account  of  Ireland  mentions  to  be  on  the  east  of  Ireland, 
which,  if  he  had  been  well  acquainted  with  the  place,  he  would 
have  left  to  his  account  of  Albion.  The  four  islands  are: — 
1,  Monaida,  Brit.  Manaw,  i.  e.,  the  Isle  of  Man ;  2,  Mona,  Brit. 
Mon,  i,  e.,  Anglesey ;  3,  Edron,  Brit.  Ynys  Adar  probably ; 
4,  Limnon,  Brit.  Ynys  Enlli.  He  says  these  are  both  heremos 
(ifyqfioL — W,  D),  i,  e.,  deserted  or  uninhabited.  Limnon  might 
have  been  originally  in  the  book  before  Edron ;  then  there  would 
have  been  no  doubt  but  that  Limnon  was  Enlli,  and  Edron  pro- 
bably Bamsey  on  St.  David's  Head ;  but  as  it  is,  Eamsey  isle 
has  a  better  claim  to  the  name  Limnon,  as  the  adjoining  country 
is  also  called  Menew  (Lat.  Menevia),  and  Edron  may  be  inter- 
preted Ynys  Adar,  or  Bird's  Island,  from  whence  it  might  take 
the  Saxon  name  Birdsey  (corruptly,  Bardsey).  But  as  there  is  no 
great  dependence  on  Ptolomy's  geography  of  those  countries,  we 
cannot  build  much  upon  it ;  and  therefore  on  such  uncertain 
grounds  we  cannot  say  that  Enlli  was  in  Ptolomy's  time  called 
Ynys  Adar,  though  it  is  probable  it  might.  As  this  Claud. 
Ptolomy  wrote  about  the  year  of  Christ  230,  and  that  we  find 
a  Christian  monastery  there  about  two  hundred  years  afterwards, 
we  must  look  for  some  other  sense  to  his  heremos  than  what  is 

generally  given  of  it. 

22 


170  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Edron  deserta  est. 
Idmni  deserta  est. 

The  island  of  Enlli  is  two  miles  long,  and  is  at  this  day  held 
by  four  families  who  are  farmers  there,  and  raise  com  and  breed 
cattle  there,  and  hath  a  very  safe  harbour  in  it  for  small  vessels, 
and  the  people  in  it  are  about  forty  in  number.  It  is  very 
improbable  such  a  fruitful  island,  so  near  the  mainland,  should 
be  a  desert,  uninhabited;  therefore  his  ifyqfio^  must  certainly 
mean  that  it  was  a  place  for  recluse  men  or  hermits. 

St.  Dubricius,  the  Archbishop  of  Wales,  when  he  resigned  the 
metropolitan  see  to  St.  David,  would  not  have  gone  into  a  desert 
island  with  a  great  number  of  his  clergy,  as  is  plain  he  did  by 
Taliesin's  (Aneurin's)  account,  who  says  that  most  of  the  synod 
of  Brevi  accompanied  him  to  that  island.  This  was  about  the 
year  5. . .,  as  Usher  places  it. 

In  Caerllion  ar  Wysg  there  was  a  museum  of  rarities  in  King 
Arthur's  time,  which  Myrddin  ap  Morfran,  the  Caledonian,  upon 
the  destruction  of  that  place,  carried  with  him  to  the  house  of 

glass  in  the  Isle  of  Enlli  or  Bardsey.    {MS) 

» 

Myrddin  aeth  mawr  ddawn  ei  wedd 

Mewn  gwydr  er  mwyn  ei  gjdwedd. — l&iuin  Byfi, 

Y  13  tlws  aethant  gida  Myrddin  ir  Ty  Gwydr.  {Came  MS) 
This  house  of  glass,  it  seems,  was  the  museum  where  they  kept 
their  curiosities  to  be  seen  by  everybody,  but  not  handled ;  and 
it  is  probable  Myrddin,  who  is  said  to  live  in  it,  was  the  keeper 
of  their  museum  at  that  time.  For  these  13  rarities,  or  13  tlws, 
or  admirable  things,  brought  by  Myrddin  there,  see — 1,  Lien 
Arthur ;  2,  Dymwen  ;  3,  Com  Bran  Galed ;  4,  Cadair  Morgan ; 
5,  Mwys  Gwyddno ;  6,  Hogalen  Tudno ;  7,  Pais  Padarn ;  8,  Pair 
Dymog ;  9,  Dysgl ;  10,  Towlbwrdd ;  11,  Mantell ;  12,  Modrwy ; 
13,  Cyllell  Llawfrodedd. 

There  was  a  college  of  Lay  Monks  in  Bardsey  in  those  days, 
which  some  have  ignorantly  called  Colideans,  for  Cyliau  Ihwn, 
black  cowls.  Here  Mjo^ddin  studied,  and  here  he  ended  his 
days,  and  was  buried.     See  Cadvan, 

Ennaint  Baddon,  hot  waters  of  Bath ;  literally  Bath  ointment. 

Ennarawd.    Caer  Ennarawd.  {Tr)   Qu.  whether  this  is  Caer 


CELTIC  KEMAINS.  171 

Anrhod,  said  to  have  been  swallowed  by  the  sea  near  Caernarvon 
Bay? 

Envey  ap  Uychwael. 

En  WIG  and  Anwig  (n.  1.). 

Entny,  enw  gwr.     Tewdric  ap  Enyny. 

Eon,  qu.  ?    Bodeon,  enw  Ue,  qu.  ? 

Eppa,  a  monk  that  poisoned  King  Ambrosius  Aui'elius,  first 
called  Eopa. 

Eppi,  Elizabeth,  now  Betty. 

Erbin  ap  Cwstenyn  Cemyw. 

Erbin,  father  of  Geraint  the  admiral.   (Tr.  20.) 

Erbistock,  church  and  parish  in  Denbighshire,  deanery  of 
Bromfield. 

Ercal,  a  man  [nomen  loci — TF".  D.]  mentioned  by  Ilywarch 
Hen  in  Marwnad  Gynddylan. 

Tywarchen  Ercal  ar  erdywal  wyr 

0  etifedd  Morial 
A  gwedy  Bhys  maerjsonal. — Llytoarch  Hen, 

Qu.  whether  this  be  Aircol  Lawir  [a  person — W.  D.]  mentioned 
in  the  genealogies  in  "  Llyfr  Ilywarch  Oflfeiriad"  (MS.,  Jesus 
Coll.,  Oxon.).  He  was  the  father  of  one  Erbin,  and  was  a  de- 
scendant, in  the  tenth  degree,  of  Macsen  Wledig. 

Ercwlff,  Hercules ;  perhaps  from  erchyll,  horrid ;  or  this 
Erchyll  was  Hercules,  the  son  of  Jupiter. 

Erch,  Orcades,  or  the  Islands  of  Orkney :  hence,  probably  the 
Ersh  language  in  the  Highlands. 

Erch  or  Eirch  (fl.) :  hence  Abererch,  vulgo  Y  Berach,  near 
Pwllheli  in  Ileyn :  hence  also  Nannerch,  quasi  Nant  Erch. 

Erch  a  Heledd,  in  one  copy  of  the  Triades,  for  Arllechwedd 

in  mine. 

As  dne  Daw  yn  ei  dangnevedd 

A  ddnc  trais  tros  Erch  a  Heledd. 

OynddeLw,  i  Owain  Gwynedd. 

Erddig,  a  gentleman's  seat,  (/.  D)   [The  seat  of  Philip  Yorke, 
Esq.,  near  Wrexham,  Denbighshire. — W.  !>.] 
Erddlys  (n.  1.).     llwyth  Erddlys. 
Erddyled,  mam  Llewelyn  ap  Hwlkyn. 
Ereinwc.     This  was  the  country  about  Hereford,  to  which 


1 72  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

the  Loegrian  Britains  were  drove  by  the  Saxons  over  the  Severn ; 
and  these  people  had  princes  of  their  own,  as  appears  by  the 
manner  of  electing  Maelgwn  Gwynedd,  chief  king.  (See  Traeth 
Maelgwn)  In  one  MS.  it  is  called  Ehieinwg,  The  inhabitants 
were  called  Ereinwyr  {H,  Llvyyd),  and  the  country  Ereimoch 
{H,  Llwyd),  See  Urging.  Camden  derives  it  from  Ariconium, 
and  also  Arcenf eld  [Urchenfield — W,  D,],  and  Hariford,  as  he 
writes  it.  Ariconium  he  supposes  to  be  at  Kenchester,  just  by 
Hereford.     (Camden  in  Herefordshire.) 

ERnN  (fl.) — ^hence  Cwm  Ervin,  Blaen  Cwm  Ervin,  Cardigan- 
shire— falls  into  Clarach. 

Ergengl,  the  same  with  Erging,  a  part  of  Herefordshire,  called 
Urchenfeld  or  Irchenfield  ;  called  anciently  Ereinwc.  (H,  Lhvyd,) 

Erging  (n.  1.),  qu.  Ergyn?  now  Irchenfield;  in  Doomsday, 
Archenfeld,  in  Herefordshire.  (Oamden.)  Erging  ac  Ewyas  was 
one  of  the  commots  of  Cantref  Iscoed  in  Gwent,  but  is  now  in 
Herefordshire.  (Price's  Descr.)  Gwrtheyrn  GwTtheneu,  larll  oedd 
hwnnw  ar  Went,  Erging,  ac  Euas.  (Tyssilio.)  Cwstenyn,  larll 
Erging  ac  Euas.     See  Unas,  Evryas. 

Ergyr,  a  river,  Cardiganshire  (Cwm  Ergyr),  falls  into  Castell 
river. 

EuiVED,  a  gentleman's  seat.  {J,  D)  Troverth  Foulkes  of 
Erived. 

Erlleon  (n.  pr.  v.).  Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Urien  Beged. 

Llawer  ci  geilig  a  bebog  awyrenig 

A  lithiwyd  ar  y  Uawr 

Cyn  bu  Erlleon  Lyweddrawr. — Llywarch  Hen, 

Erlyn,  a  place  in  Gaul.     Qu.  whether  Arlon  in  the  Austrian 

Netherlands  ? 

Lie  w  ffyrfder 

Wyd  o  Erlyn  hyd  Orliawns. — Hytoel  Swrdwal. 

Erof  Greulon  (n.  pr.  v.),  qu.  Her9d  ? 

Erot,  the  ancient  way  of  writing  the  name  of  Herod. 

Seren  heblaw  llys  Erot 
A  roddes  gyfarwyddyt. 

Ersu,  the  language  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland,  as  it  is  called 
by  the  English,  from  Erch,  the  old  Celtic  name  of  the  Orcades. 
See  Erch 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  173 

Eryn,  in  Tr.  40,  for  Geraint,  a  King  of  Britain  about  300  years 
before  Christ. 

Eeyreu,  Eryri,  Eiryriw,  or  Eiryri,  or  Yryri.  Creigiau  Eryreu. 
Camden  (in  Caernarvonshire)  calls  them  in  English  Snowdon, 
and  says  the  British  name  signifies  snowy  mountains,  as  the 
Niphates  in  Armenia  were  called,  from  snow.  If  this  had  been 
the  derivation,  should  not  they  have  been  called  Creigiau  'r 
Eiry  ?  But  see  Eryri.  Nennius  calls  them  Heriri  {E,  Zlivyd), 
having  a  view  probably  to  the  Hebrew  word  Harerei.  See 
Wyddfa, 

Erw  or  Erow,  vulg.  Wrw.  Eglwys  Erw  in  Cemmaes,  Pem- 
brokeshire. 

EsABEL,  Angl.  Isabel. 

Esc,  a  river  in  Devonshire ;  another  Esc  in  Scotland,  and  the 
vale  about  it  called  Esk  Dale.  Oaer  Esc,  in  the  Triades,  is  Exe- 
ter.   (E.  Llwyd,)     See  Wysg. 

EsGAiR,  river  (Aberesgair  or  Aberisker),  falls  into  the  Wysg. 

EsGAiR  is  an  ancient  Celtic  woYd  prefixed  to  the  names  of 
mountains  in  Britain  and  Ireland,  and  signifies  a  ridge  of 
mountains  like  a  shin-bone;  whence  esgair  in  Wales  is  also  a  leg. 
Esgair  Oerfel,  yn  y  Werddon ;  Esgair  Galed ;  Esgair  Gwyngu ; 
Esgair  Weddar,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Meirion, — ^Pryse ;  Esgair  Hir ; 
Esgair  Milwyn ;  Esgair  Goch,  in  Llanvair  y  Bryn,  Carmarthen- 
shire ;  Esgair  Angell,  a  gentleman's  seat, — ^Pugh.  {J,  D)  [Esgair 
Ivan,  in  Uanbrynmair. —  W,  i>.] 

EsGOTTLOND,  used  in  the  British  copy  of  Tyssilio  for  Scotland, 
See  Ysgwydiaid  and  Ysgodogion. 

EsGUD  AuR  or  EsGUDAWR  ap  Owain  Aurdorchog. 

EsMAS  and  Dismas,  according  to  the  British  tradition,  were 
the  names  of  the  two  thieves  that  were  crucified  with  Christ. 

Bhoed  ar  groes  o  wydd  Moesen 

Bhwng  Dismas  ag  Esmas  hen. — Hywd  Bafydd. 

EssiDLO,  nomen  loci. 

EsTEROLEF,  One  of  the  three  commots  of  Arberth,  in  Pembroke- 
shire.    (Price's  Descript) 

EsTYLL.    Pentre  Estyll,  Glamorganshire.- 

ESYLLT,  daughter  of  Cynan  Dindaethwy  ap  Idwal  Iwrch  ap 


1 74  CELTIC  REMAIKS. 

Gadwaladr  frenin,  wife  of  Merfyn  Frych,  and  mother  to  Rodri 

Mawr.    (Price's  Descript) 

EsYLLT  Fyngwen,  gwraig  March  Amheirchion,  merch  Culfyn- 

awyt  Prydain ;  aniweirwraig  (TV.  56),  a  gordderch  Trystan  ap 

Tallwch,  yn  amser  Arthur.  Clustiau  march  i  Farch  Amheirchion 

a  ganai  pibau  am  dano.  (D,  /.)     See  March, 

Ethlyn. 

Pan  bebyllo  Lloegr  yn  tir  Ethlyn 

A  gwnenthnr  Diganwy  dinas  dygyn. — ffoiane  Myrddin, 

Ethni  Wyddeles,  gwraig  Gwynawg  ap  Clydawc. 

EcTARTH^  a  gentleman's  seat. 

Ettas  ap  Morgan  Hir  ap  lestin  ap  Gwrgi. 

Eqas  (n.  1.)  in  Hereford  and  Gloucestershire ;  Latinized  by 
some,  Geuisda ;  and  this  caused  Jo.  Major  (Hist,  Scot,  lib.  ii, 
c.  3)  to  say  that  Vortigem  was  Comes  de  West  Sex,  The  British 
History  by  Tyssilio  says  plainly  that  Gwrtheyrn  (Vortigem)  was 
a  South  Wales  man.  "  larll  oedd  hwnnw  ar  Went,  ac  Erging, 
ac  Euas";  i,  e.,  he  was  Earl  of  Gwent  (Monmouth),  and  Erging 
(Urchenfield),  and  Euas;  which  last  is  now  vulgarly  called 
Ewyas,  Ewyas  Lacy,  etc.     See  Ewyas, 

EUBUL,  secretary  to  Gronw  Ddugu. 

EuDAF  (n.  pr.  v.),  Lat.  Octamus,  father  of  Elen  Lueddog,  wife 
of  MaximuB. 

EUDAF,  the  49th  King  of  Britain. 

EuDAP,  the  88th  King  of  Britain. 

EuDAF  (Caer),  Caer  yn  Arfon.     (Th.  Williams*  Catalogue) 

EuDHA  ap  Cariadawc  ap  Bran  Galed ;  wrote  also  Evdhaf, 

EUDHYN. 

EuLO  or  Eflo,  in  Flintshire.  Qu.  whether  Coleshill?  At 
Coed  Eulo,  Dafydd  and  C3man,  sons  of  Owain  Gwynedd,  put 
part  of  King  Henry  TI's  army  to  flight,  slew  a  great  number, 
and  pursued  the  rest  to  the  King's  camp  on  Saltney  Marsh,  near 
West  Chester  {i,  e.,  Morfa  Caer)  ;  from  thence  Owain  retreated 
to  a  place  called  to  this  day  Cil  Owain,  t.  c,  Owain's  Retreat 
[Ogof  Owen,  or  Cil  Owen,  where  Owen  Glyndwr  was  fed  during 
his  exile. — W,  D.] 

EuGAN.     Bod  Eugan,  qu.  ? 

EuNANT  (n.  1.),  in  Llanwddyn.     Sc.     Wynne  o  Eunant 


CELTIC   REMAINS.  175 

EUNANWY.     Scr. 

EuNEDD  ap  Bledred,  890. 

EuNEDD  ap  Clydawg  died  936. 

EuNTDD  GwERNGWY,  of  DyflFryn  Clwyd,  1135. 

EuRBKAWST,  un  0  daii  gwraig  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 

EuBBEE  Wyddel  :  see  Cormur, 

EuRDDYL,  daughter  of  Cynfarch  Hen  {Tr,  52),  and  sister  to 
Urien  Beged     (Llywarch  Hen.) 

EuRFRON  HoEDLiw  (n.  pr.  f.).  Powel,  p.  183.  Qu.  the  same 
with  Huron  :  see  Tegau, 

EuRFYL  Santes.     Ilanenrfyl  in  the  deanery  of  PooL 

EuRFYL,  verch  Cynferch  Oer,  gwraig  Oliver  Gosgorddfawr. 

EuRGAiN,  daughter  to  Maelgwn  Gwynedd,  married  to  Elidir 
Mwynfawr,  priodawr  o'r  Gogledd,  i,  e,,  a  proprietor  or  prince  in 
the  North,  who  claimed  the  crown  from  Rhun  ap  Maelgwn,  who 
was  but  a  base  son ;  and  Elidir  came  with  a  fleet  from  North 
Britain,  and  landed  in  Anglesey  about  the  year  580,  but  was 
repulsed ;  and  Rhun  carried  the  war  to  Scotland,  which  lasted 
several  years.  (Tr.  and  MSS.  al)  In  one  MS.  she  is  said  to 
have  married  Ethelfred,  brenin  Northhumberland. 

Eurgain  verch  Maelgwn  Gwynedd  a  roes  y  ganwyll  wrth  yr 
adar  gwylltion  i  ddangos  y  fifordd  i'w  chariad.     (2>.  J,,  MS) 

Llaneurgain,  in  English  Northop,  a  church  and  town  in  Flint- 
shire. 

Eurgain  a  gaed  yn  Argoed 

O'r  un  cyff  goreu  'n  y  coed.  — Huw  Gae  Llwyd, 

EURGRAWN.     Scr. 

EuRLLiw  (nom.  fem.). 

EuROG  Gadarn,  King  of  Britain ;  Eboracus,  3969.     G. 

EuRON  (n.  f.).  This  is  Euron  Galon  Galed  (hard-hearted 
Euron),  mentioned  by  Myrddin.     See  Aeron. 

EuROPA,  Europe. 

EusTus  Cruer.    {ff,  C,  p.  151.) 

EuTAWD  (n.  pr.  v.),  father  of  Gwyl,  a  concubine  of  King  Arthur. 

EUTUN.  Davydd  Eutun.  Canys  brawd  un  fam  un  dad  i  For- 
gan  ap  Llewelyn  oedd  Davydd  Eutun. 

[Eyton,  seat  of  a  family  of  that  name  in  Flintshire. —  W,  2>.] 

Evan,  a  modern  nom.  propr.  of  men,  from  letiaf,  which  see. 


1 76  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

EvELL,  a  cognomen ;  as  Einion  EvelL     [A  twin. —  W.  i?.] 
EvELLiw  or  Elhiw,  nom.  fern.     (PoTvel,  p.  183.) 
EvENECHTYD,  a  parish  in  Denbighshire. 
EvERWic,  Eborcuyus,  York.     (Dr.  Davies) 
EvEAUC,  EvRAWC :  See  Efroc, 

EvREAM  0  Faen  Gwynedd ;  id.  quod  Abraham.  [Dr.  Barnes.) 
Madog  ap  Evream. 

EvYRDYL.    {Llywarch  Hen.)    Eurdyl,  merch  Orth.    EurddyL 

Handid  Evyrdyl  aflawen. — Llywarch  JSen,  Mar.  Urien. 

EVIONYDD  or  ElVIONYDD  (n.  1.). 

EwEiN,  for  Ywain  or  Owain. 

EwERDDON,  Ireland^  Hibemia,  Invema,  Ivemia,  lerna. 

EwERDDONiG,  Irish.  See  Iwerddon  and  Ywerddan^  q.  d.  y 
Werdd  Ynys,  the  Green  Island. 

EwERYDD.  Forth  Ewerydd  yn  y  Gogledd,  where  Bhun  ap 
Maelgwn  fought  the  relations  of  Elidir  Mwynfawr;  said  by  some 
to  be  Lancaster ;  others,  Carlisle ;  but  see  Morwerydd. 

EwERYDD,  verch  Cynfyn  ap  Gwerystan  ap  Gwaithvoed,  a 
briodes  Edwin  ap  Goronwy  frenin  Tegengl,  a  sister  of  Bleddyn 
ap  Cynfyn. 

EwRYD  (n.  pr.,  qu.  ?).    Bodewryd  church  in  Anglesey. 

EwYAS  (n.  L)  in  Herefordshire  and  Gloucestershire.  Salter^ 
ennes  in  Ewyas  Land  (Powel,  pp.  142,  148) ;  lands  of  Hugh 
Lacie ;  rect&  Euas. 

Is  Qwent  ag  Euas  a  Gwy. — QwUym  Tew. 

Eydyn  (Tr.  36).  Mynyddawc  Eydyn,  probably  Eyddyn,  i.  e., 
Edenborough  or  Eiddjm. 

V. 

Each  (Y),  an  ancient  Celtic  word  used  in  the  names  of  places, 
signifying  a  hook  or  nook ;  as  y  Each  Ddeiliog ;  y  Ty  'n  y  Each; 
Bachegraig,  i.  e.,  Bach  y  Graig. 

Faenol  (Y),  a  gentleman's  seat  near  Caernarvon. 

Faenor  (Y),  the  Manor.    Maenor  Byrr ;  Maenor  Deifi. 

Fann  (Y).  Cefn  y  Fann,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Caernarvonshire. 
Bwlch  y  Fann ;  Pen  y  Fann ;  y  Fenni. 

Faustus,  a  pious,  godly  son  of  Vortigem  out  of  his  own 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  177 

daughter,  who,  as  Nennius  saith,  built  a  monastery  on  the  river 
Ehymni,  where  he  and  other  devout  men  daily  prayed  for 
his  father's  amendment,  etc.,  and  that  God  would  not  punish 
him  for  his  father's  faults,  and  free  the  country  from  the  Saxon 
war.     (Camden  in  Glamorgan.)     See  Gale's  Nennivs, 

Fedwen  Deg  (Y),'a  gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire.    (J,  D.) 
Felenrhyd  (Y),  a  river  near  Traeth  Mawr,  Meirion. 
Fel  Ynys  (Y),  one  of  the  old  names  of  Britain ;  i.  e.,  the  Honey 
Island.     (Triades.) 

Ef  a  lanwai'r  Vel  Ynys 

O  arian  rhodd  wyrion  Rhys. — Hywel  Dafydd. 

Rhys  o*r  Fel  Ynys  flaenawr. 

Fenis,  Venice.     Caerfenis.    (I.  JT.  Cae  Llvryd,) 

Fens.     Caerfens,  qu.  ?     (/.  JT.  Cae  Llwyd.) 

Fenws:  see  Venus. 

Ferwic  (Y),  a  church  and  parish  in  Cardiganshire.  Qu.  whe- 
ther Y  Faer  Wig  ?     See  also  Berimg,  Aberwig,  and  Caerferwig, 

Festa,  Lat.  Vesta,  the  goddess  of  fire  (Cicero,  Be  Leg.,  ii,  12), 
wife  of  Coelus  and  mother  of  Saturn,  a  Celtic  princess.  Qu,, 
whether  from  oes,  life,  and  taUy  fire  ?  q.  d.  Oestan. 

FoDL  Foel  (Y),  Anglesey. 

FoELAS  (Y),  q.  d.  y  Foel  Las,  a  place  in  Denbighshire,  where 
there  are  small  pillars  with  strange  letters,  supposed  Druidical. 

{Ganfiden.) 

A  Dinbych  wrthddrych  orthoriant  ar  fil 
Ar  Foelas  a  Oronant. 

'  Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Llyw.  ap  lorwerth. 

Foel  Ynys  (Y),  Ceretica. 

Ford  or  Fford  :  hence  Aberford,  a  town  of  Yorkshire,  the 
Roman  Calcaria.    {Ainsworth.) 

FoRWYN  (Y).  Caer  Forw3m,  which  lies  on  the  top  of  a  high 
hill  in  Llanvihangel,  near  the  river  Alwen  [E.  Llwyd) ;  probably 
Caer  Forwydd  or  Forudd. 

Y  mae  eryr  fal  Morndd. — /.  B,  Hir, 
See  Monidd. 

Frenni  Fawr  (Y),  a  mountain  in  Pembrokeshire. 

Fronig  (Y),  St.  Veronica. 

Frutan  (Y),  a  river  at  Beaumaris. 

23 


178  CELTl  C  REMAINS. 

FuDDAi  and  Fuddei.  Caer  Fuddei,  in  the  Triades,  one  of  the 
twenty-eight  cities ;  another  copy,  Caer  J^i^z;  in  Thos.  Williams' 
Catalogue,  Caer  Fuddau ;  Englished  Chichester  ;  the  capital  of 
Sussex.  Caer  Fuddai  signifies  the  merchant's  town  or  city  of 
lucre,  from  hvdd.     See  Bvddai, 

FuRNWY  (Y),  or  Fyrnwy,  a  river  in  Montgomeryshire.  Cantref 
y  Fumwy,  one  of  the  five  Cantrefs  of  Powys  Wenwynwyn,  con- 
taining the  commots  of  Mochnant  uwch  Ehaiadr,  Mechain  is 
Coed,  and  Uannerch  HudoL  Burn  Water,  in  Scotland ;  Hoburn 
or  Holburn,  a  brook  near  London.     See  Efyrmvy. 

FF. 

Ffabiali,  un  o  feibion  Brychan  Brycheiniog  o'r  Ysbaenes.  Y 
rhai  hyn  aethant  yn  ben  rheithiau  (i. «.,  chief  judges)  yn  Ysbaen. 
Vid.  Neffel 

Ffagan  a  DwYFAN,  two  preachers  said  to  have  been  sent  by 
a  Pope  called  Eluther  to  convert  the  Britains  in  the  time  and  at 
the  request  of  King  Lies  ap  Coel,  about  the  year  160 ;  by  Latin 
writers  called  Fayanus  and  Duuianus  or  Deruuianus.  In  the 
British  copy  of  the  History  of  Tyssilio  they  are  called  Ffagan  a 
Dwy wan ;  but  not  a  word  in  the  British  MS.  of  the  Flamines 
and  Archflamines,  which  they  turned  into  bishops  and  arch- 
bishops, as  Galfrid  hath  interpolated  in  his  translation,  who  hath 
been  since  followed  by  all  our  historians. 

[Llansantffagan,  a  parish  and  large  village  on  Llai  river  in  Gla- 
morgan ;  a  good  church  dedicated  to  St.  Ffagan ;  and  at  a  little 
distance  from  it,  Capel  Ffagan  in  ruins.     See  Dyfan, — /.  Jf.] 

Ffakaon,  probably  kings,  from  Pharaoh. 

Mor  gadarn  i  fiwjr  a  fiaraon  Ffrainc 
Ac  ar  ffrawdd  o  wystlon. 

Cynddelwj  i  H.  ap  0.  Gwynedd. 

[Or  from  Pharamond,  first  "King  of  France. —  W.  JP.] 
Ffaraon  and  Ffaran  (n.  1.). 

Ynghoed  Ffaraon  yngbadd. — Rhys  Goch  Eryri, 

The  Triadea  has  it  Dimas  Ffaran,  where  the  dreigiau  were  hid 
by  Lludd  ap  Beli.  {Tr,  45.)  Gwrtheym  a  ddatguddiodd  y  dreig- 
iau 0  Ddinas  Ffaran,  yr  hon  a  elwid  wedi  hynny  Dinas  Emrys. 
(Tr.  45.) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  1 79 

Ffarbras  (n.  pr.  v.).    Ffarbras  Gawr. 

Ffon  yt  trom  a  phen  tramawr, 
Fferf  a  braisg  ail  Ffarbras  Gawr, 

Ehya  NanmoTy  i  Sir  R.  Herbert. 

Ffari  or  Ffarri.  BodfFarri.  This  is  [supposed]  by  Mr.  Cam- 
den [to  be]  the  Varia  of  Antoninus,  a  small  city  of  the  Eomans, 
or  perhaps  a  fort  only.  There  are  ruins  on  a  hill  hard  by,  called 
Moel  y  Gaer.  Mr.  Camden  guesses  Varia  to  signify  in  British 
a  pass,  but  we  know  of  no  such  a  word  in  the  language. 

Ffawydd.  Caer  Ffawydd  (TV.),  Hereford  East.  {Th.  Williams,) 
See  Trefawyth, 

Ffenidwydd.     Caer  Ffenidwydd,  Hwlffordd  {Th,  Williams), 

Fferlex,  the  lands  between  Severn  and  Wye.  [Elystan, 
arglwydd  of  Fferlex  ;  i.  e.,  Athelstan,  lord  of  Fferlex  ;  that  is,  all 
the  lands  between  Severn  and  Wye. —  W,  D.] 

Ffestiniog,  church  and  parish  in  Meirion. 

Ffichti,  which  should  be  wrote  Phichti  (n.  pr.).  They  are 
also  called  Ffichtiaid,  the  Picts  and  Poictons,  but  rightly  Phicht- 
iaid.  Y  Gwyddyl  Phichti,  i,  e.,  the  Irish  Picts,  are  mentioned 
in  the  Triades  (N"o.  41)  to  be  one  of  the  molesters  of  Britain 
that  came  into  the  island  and  never  returned.  These  are  the 
Scots  that  came  over  from  Ireland  to  Argyleshire  about  the 
year  440  after  Christ,  and  there  mixt  with  the  Picts,  driving  the 
princes  of  the  land  to  South  Britain  for  refuge.  By  the  name 
given  them  in  the  Triades,  of  Irish  Picts,  it  is  probable  they  were 
painted  men  as  well  as  the  Pictish  northern  Britains.  See  also 
Vertot  for  Swedenland,  etc. 

Ffili,  a  man's  name.  Caerffili,  a  village  and  castle  in  Gla- 
morganshire ;  the  noblest  piece  of  ruins  in  Britain,  beyond  all 
history.  (E.  liwyd,  Notes  on  Camden,)  Caer  Ffili  Gawr  gynt  oedd 
un  o'r  prif  gaerau,  canys  nid  allai  'r  hollfyd  ei  hynnill  tra  bae 
fwyd  ynddi.  (T.  Williams,  Catalogue  of  Cities,)  Camden  says 
he  doth  not  deny  but  it  might  have  been  a  Boman  garrison,  but 
doth  not  know  under  what  name.  But  what  need  is  there  to 
think  it  a  Eoman  garrison  ?  Might  it  not  be  a  British  ?  Was  it 
impossible  for  the  Britains,  after  the  Romans  left  them,  to  build 
a  castle  after  the  manner  of  the  Eomans?    The  very  name. 


180  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Caer  Phili  Gawr,  shews  it  was  built  by  a  Briton.  No  Roman 
coins,  etc.,  found  here.     (E.  Llwyd's  Notes.)     See  Caer  VwL 

Ffilin.     Bryn  Ffilin,  in  Llanfigel,  Anglesey. 

Ffinan  Sant.  Uanfifinan  Chapel  in  Anglesey.  He  succeeded 
St.  Aidan  as  apostle  of  the  Northumbrians ;  died  a.d.  661.  {Brit. 
Sanct,  Feb.  10.) 

Ffinant,  a  gentleman^s  seat  [at  Llansantfifraid,  Montgomery- 
shire ;  q.  d.  Nant  y  Ffin,  the  boundary  brook. — W.  D.] 

Ffiniog.  Cantref  Ffiniog,  one  of  the  four  cantrefs  of  Caer- 
marthenshire. 

Ffivion  ap  leuan. 

Fflamddwyn,  the  name  of  the  Saxon  general  that  fought  with 

Urien  Reged  at  the  battle  of  Argoed  Llwyfein,  and  was  defeated. 

Qu.  whether  this  be  the  same  that  was  married  to  Bun,  daughter 

to  Culfynawyd  Prydain,  sister  to  Penarwen,  wife  of  Owen  ap 

Urien.   (Triades,  56.)     He  probably  was,  for  in  Marwnad  Urien 

it  is  said, 

Pan  laddawd  Owain  Fflamddwyn 

Nid  oedd  fwy  nog  ef  cysgeid. — Taliesin, 

Fflandrysiaid,  people  of  Flanders. 

Ffleidur  Fflam,  map  Godo,  one  of  the  tri  unben  Uys  Arthur. 

Fflemings.  Castell  Fflemings,  not  far  from  Tregaron,  in  Car- 
diganshire. The  Fflemings,  a  nation  from  the  Low  Countries 
about  Flanders,  were  settled  about  Milford  Haven  by  Henry  1st 
to  curb  the  Welsh.  Camden  says  they  came  to  England  because 
their  lands  were  drowned  in  the  Low  Countries ;  but  William 
of  Malmsbury  says  that  they  came  over  because  of  their  relation 
to  Henry  I's  mother  by  the  father's  side,  and  to  get  rid  of  them 
he  thrust  into  Ross  as  into  a  common  shore,  and  to  curb  his 
enemies  the  Welsh.     See  FJlemysiaid, 

Fflemis  (r.  Price),  Flemings. 

Fflemysiaid,  Flemings. 

Pan  wnaeth  balch  odrndd  bylchu  Fflemysiaid 
Ffleimiaid  graid  gryd  lofrndd. 

Cynddelw,  i  H.  ap  O.  Qwynedd. 

Fflewyn  Sant.    Llanfflewyn  Chai)el,  Anglesey. 
Fflint  (Y).     Caer  y  Fflint,  Flint  town. 

Print  Caer  y  Fflint  corph  y  wlad. — Tudur  Aled. 


CELTIC  REMAINS,  181 

Vixcont  y  Fflint,  a  Dyflfryn  Clwyd,  a  Maelor  Saisnig,  a'r  Hobeu, 
a  Thref  Euddlan,  a'r  Castell,  ac  a  berthyn  wrthai.  {8tat.  Bhudd- 
Ian,) 

Fflint,  Flintshire,  one  of  the  counties  of  North  Wales.  The 
town  of  Flint  was  called  by  the  Britains  Caer  OalUstr,  (T.  Wil- 
liams, Catalogue)  Mr.  Camden  has  not  attempted  to  give  any 
etymology  of  it.     Callestr  signifies  a  flint  stone. 

Ffluk,  river  in  Cardiganshire  :  hence  Ystrad  Ffiur,  which  is 
Latinized  Strata  Florida,  which  see.  Here  was  the  principal 
monastery  of  South  Wales,  where  their  noblemen  and  princes 
were  buried,  and  here  they  recorded  the  acts  and  successions  of 
their  princes.     (Garadoc.) 

It  appears  the  Britons  had  an  ancient  custom  of  giving  the 
names  of  some  famous  persons  to  rivers,  in  order  to  perpetuate 
them,  as  the  ancient  Celtse  gave  them  to  stars  and  planets,  as 
Saturn,  Venus,  etc. 

Fflur  was  the  name  of  Caswallon's  queen,  after  whom  he  went 
as  far  as  Eome.  (Triades.)  See  Gaswallon.  Severn  (i.  e.,  Haf- 
ren)  had  its  name  from  the  beautiful  daughter  of  Lloegrin.  The 
famous  Bran  {i.  e.,  Brennus)  gave  a  river  in  Denbighshire  a  name; 
others  in  Caermarthenshire.  Meurig,  a  river  in  Ceretica,  took 
its  name  from  Meurig,  son  of  Eodri  Mawr,  drowned  there :  so 
Braint  in  Anglesey ;  so  Afon  Einion. 

Fflur,  daughter  of  Fugnach  Gorr,  cariad  Caswallon  ap  Beli. 
(Tr,  53.)  She  either  was  a  Eoman,  or  carried  to  Eome  captive. 
I  suppose  the  last. 

Ffordun,  Forden  church  and  parish,  near  the  Severn,  west  of 
the  Long  Mountain. 

Drudlwyr  i  draffwryr  i  ar  draffun 
Feirch  oi  drafferth  rhag  Ffordun, 

CynddelWf  i  Yw.  Cyfeiliog. 

Ffordtn,  tight  or  thick  furred ;  or  perhaps  Forden  in  Shrop- 
shire.    GruflTydd  Ffordyn  ap  Dafydd  Vychan.     See  Ffordun. 

Ffos,  a  word  used  in  the  ancient  names  of  places,  as  Ffos  y 
Bleiddiau ;  Treffos ;  Ffos  Las  in  Trelech,  Carmarthenshire ;  y 
Ffos  Ddu. 

Ffos  Golmon,  a  deep  and  long  entrenchment  of  that  name, 
thrown  up,  it  seems,  by  some  Irish  general  of  the  name  of  Col- 


1 82  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

man.  It  lies  between  Bodavon  Mountain  and  Tre  Wynn  in 
Anglesey,  and  is  near  the  ruins  of  a  town  called  now  YCarMddi, 
where  some  treasures  have  been  formerly  dug  up ;  and  on  Bod- 
avon Mountain  adjoining,  a  solid  piece  of  gold  was  found  about 
fifty  years  ago,  as  big  as  a  man's  foot. 

Ffosod  (n.  1.).     Llyvjarch  Hen  in 

Ffraid  or  Ffred  Santes.  This  was  an  Irish  lady  and  a  famous 
nun,  to  whom  several  churches  in  Wales  are  dedicated.  She 
died  A.D.  523.  Her  name  is  Latinized  Brigida.  (See  Flaherty, 
Ogygia,  p.  422.)  Llansanffraid  and  Ilansanffred.  She  was  bom 
in  the  village  of  Fochart,  in  the  diocese  of  Armach,  in  Ireland. 
Her  English  name  is  Brigid  or  St.  Bride,  and  called  the  Virgin 
of  Kildare.  Her  father  was  Diptacus  (Dubtach),  a  nobleman 
{lorwerth  Fynglwyd),  and  her  mother  Brocessa  or  Brotseach. 
Her  life  is  wrote  by  Cogitosus,  etc.  {Brit  Sanct,  Feb.,  p.  91.) 
Her  British  legend  is  wrote  by  lorwerth  Fynglwyd.  See  San- 
ffred. 

Ffrainc,  the  kingdom  of  France,  whose  ancient  Latin  name 
was  Gallia,  and  by  the  Britains  Oalvlad,  in  the  present  ortho- 
graphy Gallwlad,  i,  e.,  the  country  of  the  Galls  or  Gauls,  and 
more  anciently  Ceiliait  and  Geiliiaid,  i,  e.,  Celtae.  So  the  Irish 
call  a  Frenchman  GalUa,  It  had  the  name  o{  Ffrainc  given  it 
about  the  time  the  Saxons  came  to  Britain,  when  Clovis,  King 
of  the  Franks  (a  German  nation),  conquered  Gaul,  or  most  part 
of  it,  t.  e.,  about  the  year  500. 

It  is  remarkable  that  the  British  copy  of  Tyssilio  calls  it 
Ffreiiic  before  its  conquest  by  the  Francks,  which  is  a  mark  of 
its  being  since  ihat  conquest  compiled  or  translated  from  the 
Latin ;  and  thus  some  author  inaptly  calls  Britain  England  in 
the  time  of  the  fiomans.  [Do  not  insert  this  to  invalidate  all 
British  history. —  W,  2?.] 

Pezron's  account  of  a  people  called  Franks,  living  about  the 
Seine,  who  were  Gauls,  before  ever  the  present  French  came 
from  Germany,  gives  a  reason  why  our  British  writers  call  Gaul 
by  the  name  of  Ffraingc  before  the  time  of  Clovis.    See  Ffranc. 

Ffrainc  Ddwyreiniol,  Franconia. 

Ffranc  or  Ffrangc,  a  Frenchman  (pi.  -od),  and  sometimes  a 
Saxon  ;  any  enemy  from  the  coast  of  Gaul  or  the  North  called 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  183 

by  the  Britons  Ffranc,    FfraTic,  in  the  Gaulish,  is  free :  hence 
the  name  of  Franks  or  French. 

Ai  gwell  Ffranc  na  ffrawddns  Gymro 

Prydydd  y  lUoch,  i  Ly  w.  ap  lorwerth. 

Ffranc  ar  ffo  fibrdd  no  ofyn. — Myrddin, 

Ffranc,  a  servant. 

Mi  am  ffranc  day  am  callawr. 

Ffranciscinius,  a  saint  mentioned  in  the  Extent  of  Anglesey, 
in  Hen  Eglwys,  com.  of  Malldraeth.  The  inhabitants  say  the 
church  of  Hen  Eglwys  bears  the  name  of  Saint  Ilwydion,  t.  e., 
the  Grey  Saints  ;  and  in  the  Extent  it  is  said  that  the  lands  of 
that  township  are  held  of  the  Saints  Franciscinius  and  Bacelli- 
nus.  Who  these  are  I  cannot  tell,  unless  the  first  be  Francis, 
the  founder  of  the  Franciscan  order  about  A.D.  1208 ;  and  the 
other  St.  Baglan,  from  whom  Uanfaglan  in  Caernarvonshire  took 
its  name.  Whosoever  they  were,  the  inhabitants  of  this  town- 
ship had  surprising  privileges  under  them.     See  Hen  Eglwys. 

Ffkanco  or  Ffrancon.  Nant  Ffranco,  a  brook  in  a  valley  of 
that  name  in  Eryri,  falling,  perhaps,  into.  Ogwen  or  Ogfaen 
[which  runs  by  Bangor. —  W,  i?.] 

Ffrangeg,  lingua  Gallica, 

Ffraw  (fl.) :  hence  AberflFraw,  a  church  and  town  in  Anglesey 
on  that  river,  once  the  seat  of  the  Princes  of  Northmen  [North 
Wales];  Lat.  Gadiva.     {Ain,sworth,) 

Ac  am  ddv^ylan  Ffraw  ffrowyll. — Llywarch  Hen, 

Ffrawns  {Ehys  Nanmor  and  Hyioel  SwrdwaV), 

Ffred  Lei  an  (St.),  daughter  of  Cadwtheg  Wyddel.  {MS,)  See 
Sanffred  and  Ffraid, 

Ffrever,  a  sister  of  Cyndylan.  {Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad 
Cyndylan.) 

Ffridyswtdd.  {MS)  A  gwyl  Ffridyswydd  y  bu  farw  a.d.  1400. 

Ffrwdwr  ap  Gwrfawr  ap  Cadien. 

Ffrydlan  river  falls  into  Dyfi. 

Ffuchdan,  vulg6  BicMan,  nomen  loci  in  Flintshire;  Angl. 
Beighton, 

Ffwg  neu  Ff^c  ;  Angl  Ffoulkes  or  Fulk. 

Ffwyddog,  in  Cwm  lou,  Herefordshire.     [F/aivyddog,  heechy, 


184  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

from  ffor-wydd,  bean-bearing  wood.  See  Survey  of  Sovih  Wales 
by  W.  D.— JT.  JD.] 

Ffyllon.     Cwm  Nant  Ffyllon,  in  Powys  Land.    («/.  D.) 

Ffynnon  and  Ffynhon,  a  spring  properly,  though  used  for  a 
well.  The  first  springs  or  lakes  from  which  rivers  have  their 
beginning,  are  sometimes  called /ynTum;  as  Ffynnon  Vrech, 
Ffjoinon  Las,  and  Ffynnon  Velen, which  are  lakes ;  Ff3mnon  Ber- 
than,  Anglesey ;  Ffynnon  Fedwjrr  [Llywarch  Hen) ;  Treffynnon 
(i.  e.,  the  Well  Town) ;  Forth  y  Ffjmnon,  Fountain  Gate ;  y  Ffyn- 
non Wen ;  Pant  y  Ffynnon. 

Ffynnon  Fedwyr,  in  Llywarch  Hen,  Marvmad  Cadwcdlavm. 
[St  Peter's  Well,  Cardiganshire.  Ffynnon  y  Llyffaint  in  Snow- 
don.—  W,  D.] 

Ffynnon  Las,  a  lake  under  the  highest  peak  of  Snowdon, 
which  Mr.  Edw.  Llwyd  Englishes  the  Green  Fountain,  and  ob- 
serves that  the  water  of  some  lakes  on  the  Alps  inclines  to  that 
colour.    {Notes  on  Oamden,) 

Ffynnon  Lugwy,  or  Llyn  Llugwy,  is  about  a  mile  from  Nant 
Ffranco.     See  Ffranco, 

Ffynnonogion,  a  gentleman's  seat.    («/".  D.)    Price. 

G. 

Gabriel,  one  of  the  seven  archangels;  according  to  the  British 
tradition,  the  chief  keeper ;  Mihangel,  defender  of  the  faith ; 
Raffel,  carrier  of  prayers  ;  Uriel  hath  the  charge  of  fire ;  Sariel 
hath  the  charge  of  waters  ;  Eheiniel  looks  after  animals  ;  Pen- 
achiel  hath  the  care  of  the  fruits  of  the  earth,  (ff.  Dafydd  ap 
leuan.)  Perhaps  a  Druidical  notion.  [It  is  more  likely  a  Popish 
notion,  as  the  Druids  had  no  notion  of  angelical  names  before 
the  use  of  Scripture. —  W.  D.] 

Gadles,  in  Aberdar  parish,  Glamorgan.  [Y  Gadlas. — /.  3f. 
Y  Gadlys,  a  seat  in  Glamorgan,  parish  of  Llangynwyd. — I.  M.]. 

Gadlys  or  Gadles  (Y),  or,  as  some  will,  Y  (Jauadlys,  a  place 
in  Anglesey,  said  to  be  the  seat  of  Maelgwn  (ap  Owain  Gwyn- 
edd,  I  suppose).     See  Cadlys, 

Gadwy,  mab  Geraint.    {Tr,  89.) 

Gafenni,  Avenna  (fl.). 

Gafran  or  Gavran,  mab  Aeddan.    (TV.  34.)     This  name  is 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  1 85 

Latinized  Gabranus.  Teulu  Gafran  mab  Aeddan,  pan  fu'r  ddif- 
ancoll,  a  aethant  i'r  mdr  tros  eu  harglwydd.  This  difancoU  seems 
to  have  been  that  great  battle  where  the  Picts  were  so  utterly 
defeated  that  it  is  said  they  lost  their  very  name.  (TV.  34.)  Bede 
mentions  a  battle  fought  a.d.  603,  between  Ethelfrid  and  Edan, 
whom  he  calls  "King  of  Scots.  In  the  Saxon  Chronicle  he  is 
called  JE^\fBii,  i.  e.,iEgthan ;  in  the  Latin  of  Bede,  Aedanus.  This 
was  Aeddan  Vradwg  mentioned  in  Tr.  46,  who  had  the  civil 
war  with  Rhydderch  Hael ;  and  was  no  Scot,  but  a  British  Pict. 
His  son  Gafran  fought  under  him  in  this  battle. 

Gafran  or  Gavran,  King  of  Scots ;  Mac  Domangard  {Ogygia, 
p.  472)  succeeded  his  brother  Gongall,  A.D.  558. 

Gainor  (n.  pr.  f.). 

Gair  (n.  pr.  v.).  Geyr  mab  Geiryoet  (TV.  50.),  un  o'r  tri  gor- 
uchel  garcharor. 

Galabes.    Llyn  Galabes ;  Ffynnon  Galabes. 

Aber  i'm  grndd  heb  rym  gwres 

Yw  gwlaw  o  wjbr  Galabes. — Leunjs  Morganwg. 
See  Galadea. 

Galades.  Ffynnon  Galades,  yngwlad  Ewias  (or  Evias),  a 
fountain  or  well  frequented  by  Myrddin,  where  he  was  found  by 
Emrys's  messengers  when  he  wanted  his  assistance  to  build  a 
tomb  for  the  slaughtered  Britains  in  Salisbury  Plain.  {Tyssilio.) 
Oalabes  in  the  Latin  of  Galfrid. 

Galath  (a  pr.  v.)     YOreal  apud  Tr.  61. 

Galedlom  (Y),  a  gentleman's  seat  {J.  D.) ;  q.d.  hard  and  bare. 

Galfridus  Arthurius  or  Monemuthensis,  Bishop  of  St. 
Asaph,  translator  of  Tyssilio's  History  of  the  Britons,  called  Bnit 
yBrenhinoedd.  Camden  (in  Monmouthshire)  says  that  he  was  born 
in  Monmouth,  and  corrupted  the  British  history,  and  was  well 
skilled  in  antiquities,  but  not  of  antique  credit,  having  inserted 
ridiculous  fables  in  that  work,  and  was  censured  by  the  Church 
of  Bome.  This  is  pretty  modestly  said  by  Mr.  Camden,  and  not 
of  the  same  stamp  with  the  character  he  gives  Galfrid  and  the 
British  History  in  other  parts  of  his  Britannia,  to  make  room 
for  his  own  plan.  It  is  observable  that  one  of  the  heavy  charges 
exhibited  or  put  by  Mr.  Camden  in  the  mouths  of  his  learned 
men  against  Tyssilio's  British  History  translated  by  Galfrid,  viz., 

24 


186  CELTIC  REMAINS 

that  it  (together  with  his  Merlin)  stood  condemned,  among  other 
prohibited  books,  by  the  Clmrch  of  Borne,  hath  actually  happened 
to  himself  as  a  just  judgment  for  that  invidious  remark ;  for  we 
read  in  his  life,  in  Gibson's  edition  (1695),  that  his  zeal  against 
Popery  lost  him  a  fellowship  in  Oxford,  brought  most  of  his 
works  under  the  censure  of  the  Church  of  Bome,  and  exposed 
him  to  the  lash  of  Parsons,  Possevisius  [Possevinus  ?]  and  others. 
Why,  then,  is  the  British  History  to  be  worse  looked  upon 
because  Galfrid's  translation  stood  condemned  by  the  Church  of 
Eome  ? 

Leland  says  Galfrid  was  a  learned  man  in  prose  and  verse,  as 
learning  then  went;  and  that  there  was  hardly  any  learning 
then  but  among  the  monks,  and  that  he  believed  he  was  a  faith- 
ful translator,  and  that  he  translated  also  into  Latin  the  pro- 
phecies of  Myrddin  Emrys ;  that  he  divided  the  History  into 
eight  books ;  that  in  some  copies  there  are  but  four ;  but  that 
the  British  History  contained  nine  books.  Mr.  Leland  was  mis- 
informed ;  for  the  original  British  History  hath  no  divisions  of 
chapters  or  books  at  all,  which  is  a  proof  of  its  antiquity. 

Leland  says  he  also  saw  Merlinus  Caledonius'  Life  in  verse, 
wrote  by  Galfrid,  etc.,  etc. ;  and  besides  the  British  History,  he 
translated  out  of  the  British  into  Latin  a  book  of  the  £xile  of 
the  British  Clergy. 

The  native  Welsh  know  nothing  of  either  the  names  of  Jeffrey 
or  Galfrid,  and  never  heard  that  a  person  of  such  a  name  ever 
meddled  with  their  history,  so  little  has  been  the  repute  of  his 
Latin  translation  among  them  who  have  the  original  British 
History  under  the  title  of  BnU  y  Brenhinoedd,  wrote  by  Tyssilio 
ap  Brychfael  Ysgithrog.  On  the  contrary,  among  the  English, 
French,  and  other  nations,  the  history  is  known  by  no  other 
name  but  Galfridus  Monemuthensis,  or  Jeffrey  or  Geoffrey  of 
Monmouth,  or  Geoffrey  ap  Arthur,  or  the  Monk  of  Monmouth ; 
or  sometimes,  when  it  is  quoted  by  a  moderate  man  without 
abuse,  it  is  called  the  British  History,  or  the  Britan  History. 
Infinite  pains  has  been  taken  to  depreciate  it,  and  its  defenders 
but  few,  which  shews  the  strength  of  the  building  at  first. 

See  Wynne's  Preface  to  his  edition  of  Caradoc's  Chronicle ;  see 
also  Thompson's  Preface  to  his  English  translation  of  Galfrid 's 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  187 

Latin  translation  of  the  British  History ;  and  Sir  John  Pryse's 
Defence  of  the  British  History ;  and  Dr.  PoweL  Bishop  of  St. 
Asaph,  1151 ;  died,  1165.     (MS.) 

Galgagus,  a  King  of  the  North  Britons,  mentioned  by  Tacitus. 
His  British  name  was  OwdUawc  or  Gwallog,  See  Camden's 
blander  in  Caledonia.  There  is  a  place  called  Gwallog  near 
Aberystwjrth  in  Ceredigion ;  and  a  bank  in  the  sea  there  called 
Sam  Wallogy  i.  e.,  Gwallog's  Causeway.     See  Qwalhg. 

Galon,  Oalli. 

Gals,  an  island  in  the  Grecian  sea,  where  Urp  Luyddog  and 
his  British  auxiliaries  settled  after  destroying  Macedon  and 
Greece  and  the  Temple  of  Apollo  at  Delphos.  This  was  Brennus' 
and  Belgius'  expedition.  {Tr,  40.)     See  Avencu 

Gall  or  Gwall  (n.  pr.  v.).  Gall,  mab  Dysgyfedawc,  one  of 
the  three  iinben  Deifr  a  Brynych,  t.  e,,  chief  hetuls  of  Deira  and 
Bemicia.  (2V.  16.)  He  killed  Gwenddolau's  two  birds,  which 
were  yoked  together  by  a  gold  chain,  and  devoured  two  bodies 
of  the  Cymru  for  their  dinners,  and  two  for  their  suppers.  Un 
o'r  tair  mad  gyflafan.  (?V.  37.)  What  the  meaning  of  this  story 
is  is'hard  to  determine,  unless  this  Gweuddolau  gave  the  bodies 
of  the  Cambrians  killed  in  battle  to  feed  vultures  or  eagles. 

Gallgo  (St.):  hence  Llanallgo,  Anglesey.  See  Gildaa  ap  Caw. 

Gallgwn,  the  Gauls.  {TyssUio.)  Nant  Gallgwn,  Gaul-brook, 

Gallgwn.    Henry  ap  Gallgwn  Ddu  o  Feilienydd. 

Gallt  y  Celyn,  a  gentleman's  seat    {J.  D.) 

Gallt  Gadwallon,  where  a  battle  was  fought  by  Ywein  Cyf- 

eiliog. 

Gwaed  ar  wallt  rhag  Allt  Gkdwallawn 

Yn  Llannereh  yn  Lleudir  Merviniawn. 

OynddeLWf  i  Yw.  Cyfeiliog. 

Gallt  y  Teyfan. 

Gwrdd  y  gwuaeth  uch  Deudraeth  Dryfan. 

LI.  Br.  Mock, 

Gallu,  father  of  St.  Hian  or  Elian  Ceimiad ;  in  the  Pedigrees 

called  Alltud  Bedegawg. 

A'i  gyllell  y  gwnaeth  Galla 

Torn  i  ben  nid  hir  y  bu. — (?.  ap  Gweflyn. 

See  mUyd  and  AUUid. 


188  CELTIC   REMAINS. 

Gallwyddyl,  in  Taliesin  Oallwyddely  the  most  ancient  Ganls, 
first  planters  of  Britain,  called  by  the  Irish  Oall  Oaidelia,  the 
people  of  the  Hebrides.  The  Irish  call  the  Hebrides  {Ogygia^ 
p.  360)  Inse  Gall,  i,  e.,  Ynysoedd  Gall,  the  Islands  of  the  Gauls ; 
Cambro-British,  ffeledd.  Erch  a  Heledd,  the  Orcades  and  Heb- 
rides. I  wish  to  find  in  what  the  language  of  those  islanders 
difiers  from  the  Irish. 

Gam  or  Gam,  one-eyed ;  the  surname  of  a  valiant  Cambro- 
British  captain,  Syr  Davydd  Gam,  who  served  in  France  under 
Henry  V,  and  was  there  killed  a.d.  1414.  His  expression  to  the 
King,  who  sent  him  to  reconnoitre  the  French,  is  well  known : 
"Enough  to  kill,  enough  to  be  taken,  and  enough  to  run  away." 

Ganllwyd  (Y),  peth  o  dir  Phylip  Dorddu.  Mae  Ue  o'r  enw 
ger  llaw  Dolgellau.  [Brenhinbren  y  Ganllwyd.  Triugeinllath  y 
Ganllwyd.—  W.  R] 

Gannoc,  a  blundering  name  given  by  some  Saxon  writers  to 
Diganwy,  when  rebuilt  by  Henry  III.  {Mdtth,  Paris,  p.  924.) 
See  Teganwy. 

Gar,  qu.  Uangar  [Llan  Garw  Gwyn. —  W,  D!\,  a  church  and 
parish  in  the  deanery  of  Edeimion,  Merionethshire. 

Garanawg  Gloywddigar  ap  Cwnnws. 

Garanie.    Gwyddno  Garanir,  lord  of  Cantref  Gwaelod. 

Cwynfan  Gwyddno  Garanir 
Y  trees  Duw  y  dwfr  tros  dir. 

Q.  Glyn,  i  Rys  Abad  Tetrad  Fflur. 

Gardd,  properly  a  garden.  Yr  Ardd  Ganol,  one  of  the  two 
commots  of  Gwent  Llwg,  Monmouthshire. 

Gardd  y  Medd,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Abergeleu. 

Garddun  Arddunig,  mother  of  Tyssilio  ap  Brochvael.  (Cyti- 
ddelw) 

Garddwr,  a  headland  in  the  north  of  Anglesey  (i  gardd  and 
dwr,  or  garth  and  dwr^  or  rather  garwddwr,  i,  e.,  rough  water). 
A  gentleman's  seat  in  Denbighshire,  qu.  ?  Evan  Oethin  of  Gar- 
ddwr and  Glascoed  [or  leuan  Gethin  of  Gartheryr  and  Glasgoed. 
—  W.D,-] 

Gared  (Y),  peth  0  arglwyddiaeth  Syr  Roger  Vychan. 

Gargoed,  a  place  near  Ystrad  Fflur  (q.  d.  gardd  goed). 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  189 

Garmon,  St.  Germanus.  This  was  German  the  Gaul  that 
came  to  Britain  with  the  title  of  Legate  from  Pope  Celestine  I 
in  the  year  429,  and  was  pitched  upon  by  a  synod  of  Gallican 
bishops  to  suppress  the  Pelagian  heresy.  He  was  made  by  the 
Emperor  Honorius  Visitor  of  Auxerre,  made  Bishop  against  his 
^U.  and  succeeded  Amator.  In  his  British  journey  he  queUed  a 
storm  at  sea,  stopped  fires,  etc.,  put  to  flight  the  Picts  and  Saxons 
without  fighting,  and  having  confuted  the  Pelagians,  returned 
home ;  but  was  called  to  Britain  a  second  time,  cured  the  son 
of  Elaphius,  preached,  and  returned  home.  {Brit,  Sanct)  There 
was  another  Gannon,  Bishop  of  Man.  Bede  says  he  was  a 
Prince  of  Auxerre  in  Burgundy,  and  his  comrade.  Lupus  of 
Troyes  in  Champaign.  It  is  a  wonder  Lupus  had  not  a  church 
dedicated  to  him  as  well  as  Gannon.  [Ilanfleiddan  or  Llan- 
bleiddian,  which  see,  was  dedicated  to  him.  He  is  called 
Bleiddan  Sant  in  61d  Welsh  MSS. — LM,]  See  Bede's  supersti- 
tious account  of  these  men.  Germanus  AUisidorensisj  a.d.  470. 
[MS.) 

St.  Garmon  ap  Redcus  o  Ffraingc  a  ddaeth  yma  yn  oes  Gwr- 
theym  Gwrtheneu.  {MS.)  Garmon  died  a.d.  435.  (K  Llwyd, 
Notes  on  Camden,  Flintshire.)  How  comes  he  to  be  in  Britain 
in  the  time  of  Gwrtheym,  about  the  year  460  ? 

Llanarmon,  a  chapel  in  Lleyn ;  Ilanarmon  yn  lal,  a  church 
and  parish  in  the  deanery  of  lal,  Denbighshire ;  Llanarmon,  a 
parish  in  Dyfliyn  Ceiriog,  Denbighshire ;  Cappel  Garmon,  in  the 
parish  of  Llanrwst.  [Ffynnori  Garmon  in  Mechain  is  Coed. — 
W,  D.]    See  Nennius. 

Garn  (Y),  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Bhos  (Roose)  in  Pem- 
brokeshire. 

Garneddwen  (Y),  a  gentleman's  seat  [inLlanwddyn  parish. — 
J.  2>.,  W.  D.] 

Garth,  a  word  used  in  the  composition  of  names,  signifying 
a  promontory  generally,  a  mountain,  or  sometimes  an  island-hill 
on  a  river. 

Garth  Eryr,  a  gentleman's  seat ;  Garth  Beibio ;  Garth  Gar- 
mon, a  gentleman's  seat ;  Garth  Gwidol,  in  Emlyn ;  Garthmael, 
a  gentleman's  seat  (Jones);  Garth  Grugyn  Castle  (Oararfoc,  p.  308); 
Garth  Lwyd,  a  gentleman's  seat ;  Garth  Branan,  a  headland  near 


190  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Bangor  Vawr.  Llanfair  Oarth  Branan  was  the  ancient  name  of 
Bangor.  Garth  Gogo  manor,  Caermarthenshire ;  Garth,  a  gentle- 
man's seat,  Brecknockshire ;  Garth,  a  place  near  Bangor  Vawr ; 
Gogarth,  a  headland  near  Conwy;  Ilwydiarth,  a  gentleman's 
seat  in  Anglesey  and  Montgomeryshire ;  Garth  Angharad,  near 
Dolgelleu.  Gorarth  (k  gor  and  garth),  Llanvihangel  ar  Arth, 
Caermarthenshire. 

Gabth  Bbibo,  lands  given  by  Cynan  (Wledig)  to  Tydecho,  the 
abbot  of  Mowddwy,  in  atonement  for  an  attempt  to  ravish  Teg- 
fedd  his  sister ;  he  and  his  followers  having  been  struck  with 
blindness  in  the  attempt,  or  lost  themselves  in  a  fog. 

Garth  Beibio  is  a  church  and  parish  in  the  deanery  of  Welsh 
Poole,  on  the  river  Twrch,  in  Caereinion  Ymhowys,  now  Mont- 
gomeryshire.    See  Tydecho, 

Garth  AN,  qu.  ?    See  Arrvnjyn, 

Gakth  Branan,  a  headland  near  Bangor.  Llanfair  Garth 
Branan,  the  name  of  Bangor  Church,  which  Br.  Willis  fancifully 
makes  to  be  Edgarth  Frenin. 

Garth  Celyn,  the  place  where  Prince  Llewelyn  ap  Gruffyth 
dated  his  letter  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  defence  of 
his  proceedings  against  the  English  who  oppressed  his  people 
{IT,  Llwyd,  1281.)     See  Abergarth  Celyn. 

Garth  Ertr,  a  gentleman's  seat. 

Garth  Garmon,  a  gentleman's  seat. 

Garth  Geri,  where  Tudur  Aled  the  poet  lived.  See  TvdurAled, 

Garth  GtOGO  Manor,  Caermarthenshire. 

Garth  Grugyn,  a  castle  rebuilt  by  Maelgwn  Vychan,  a.d. 
1242.     {Caradoc,  p.  308.) 

Garth  Gwidol,  in  Emlyn,  qu.  ?  Arglwydd  Garth  Gwidol 
See  Gwidol  river. 

Garth  Gynan,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Dyflfryn  Clwyi 

Garth  Lwyd,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (/.  D.) 

Garthmael,  a  gentleman's  seat.    Jones.    {J,  D) 

Garth  Maelawc,  a  place  in  North  Wales,  where  there  was 
a  battle  fought  between  the  Britains  and  Saxons,  a.d.721.  ((7ar- 
adoc)  Qu.  whether  Garth  Maelan  near  Dolgelleu,  or  perhaps 
Garth  Meiliog,  a  gentleman's  seat  ?  {J,  D)  Wynne  of  Cwm- 
mein  and  Garth  Meiliog. 


CELTIC   REMAINS.  191 

Garth  Mathrik,  nunc  Brecheiniog. 
Garth  t  Neuadd^  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Bhuthyn  land. 
Garth  Orbren  (n.  1.). 

Garth  Ynghegidfa,  a  gentleman's  seat.    Wynne. 
Garthyniawo  (n.  L). 
Garw.    Idris  Arw  ap  Gwyddno  Garanir. 
Garwen,  daughter  of  Henyn,  a  concubine  of  King  Arthur. 
{Tr,  60.) 
Garwy  (n.  pr.  v.),  cariad  Creirwy. 

Nid  wyf  ddi  hynwyf  hoen  Creirwy 

Hoywdeg  am  hndodd  mal  Garwy. — H.  op  Einion. 

Garwyn.     Cynan  Garwyn. 

Gavelford.  Here  a  cruel  battle  was  fought  between  the 
Britons  and  the  West  Saxons  of  Devonshire,  a.d.  828,  and  after 
a  great  slaughter  of  many  thousands  the  victory  uncertain. 
(Powel,  Car.,  p.  25.)  And  the  next  year  Egbert  brought  all  the 
Saxon  kings  under  his  dominion,  and  changed  the  name  of 
Britain  into  England. 

Gavelkind  or  Gavalettum,  a  kind  of  ancient  tenure  in  Britain 
where  the  father's  lands  were  divided  equally  among  the 
children ;  a  custom  proper  enough  in  a  young  colony,  but  de- 
structive in  an  ancient  settlement.  English  antiquaries  have 
puzzled  themselves  to  derive  the  word  from  the  Saxon  tongue, 
when  they  might  with  great  ease  have  found  it  in  the  British. 
Oavad  is  a  hold ;  and  gynt,  of  old  time ;  so  gavadgyrU  is  ancient 
tenure.  Or  if,  upon  the  first  plantation  of  the  island,  Keint  (i,  e., 
Kent)  was  the  first  country  inhabited,  as  the  name  infers,  then 
gavelgeint  meant  the  Kentish  tenure,  which  is  still  of  the  same 
signification,  and  means  plantation  tenure, 

Gaulon,  enw  lie  (Ceretica),  signifying  a  deep  shore.  Dafydd 
Goch  o  Gaulon. 

Gawnt,  Gaunt,  the  metropolis  of  Flanders. 

Gynt  a'i  law  esgnd  Gawnt  a  losgodd. — 8ion  Tudur. 

Gawen  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Gawy  (n.  pr.  v.)  {Dr.  Davies.)  Caer  Gawy,  an  old  British 
camp  near  Prysgage,  Cardiganshire. 

Gawran  or  Gafran,  tad  Ayddan  Vradog. 


192  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Gefni  :  see  Oefni, 
Geifr,  river.    Aber  y  Geifr. 
Geiriol  ap  Cenau  ap  Coel.     (Rhys  Ooch  Eryri.) 
Geieionydd,  qu.  Uyn  Geirionydd,  a  lake  about  two  miles  from 
Trefriw  in  Eryri  Mountains.     It  is  mentioned  by  TaUesin. 

A  wn  i  enw  Anenryn  Wawdrydd 

A  minnen'n  trigo  nglan  Llyn  Geirionydd. 

It  is  ako  mentioned  in  the  eighth  battle  of  Ilywelyn  ap  lor- 
werth,  if  not  falsely  transcribed  for  Meirionydd : 

Engiriawl  rnbeth  am  rybydd  angerdd 
Ar  gerddgerdd  Geiryonydd. 

Gelbenefin  (n.  pr.  v.),  cog  Elidir  Mwynfawr.    {Tr.  Meireh,  1.) 

Geleu  (fl.) :  hence  Abergeleu,  a  village,  church,  and  parish,  in 
Denbighshire. 

Gell  (Y),  qu.  whether  contracted  from  Oelli.  Coed  y  Gell 
(q.d.Coed  y  Gelli),a  rock  above  Dulas  Sand  in  Anglesey,  fonneriy 
abounded  with  hazle-trees :  the  sand,  in  digging,  is  found  full  of 
them.     Qu.  whether  it  would  not  make  good  manure  ? 

Gelleu  river  runs  by  the  town  of  Dolgelleu,  through  a  valley 
of  that  name  (Meirion). 

Gelli  Auk,  the  Golden  Grove. 

Gelli  Dabvawc,  a  place  where  the  men  of  G^yr,  Brecheiniog, 
and  GwentUwg,  met  the  English  and  Normans,  and  fought  them 
and  put  them  to  flight,  A.D.  1094     {Caradoc,  p.  153.) 

Gelli  Dywyll,  in  Cenarth,  Carmarthenshire. 

Gelli  Felgaws,  Glamorganshire. 
'  Gelli  Gandryll  (Y),  The  Hay,  Brecknockshire. 

Gelli  Gar,  a  parish,  Glamorganshire.  [ffeHi  ffaer,  where  there 
is  an  old  Soman  fort,  from  which  the  place  takes  its  name. — 
/.Jf.] 

Gelli  Gariad,  Love's  Grove,  Cardiganshire. 

Gelli  Gogau,  Cardiganshire. 

Gelli  Gynan,  a  township.     (/.  D,) 

Gelli  Iorwerth,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Trawsfynydd. 

Gelli  Onnen.  Mynydd  Gelli  Onnen  in  the  parish  of  lian- 
gyfelach ;  a  monument  found  in  a  earn.     {E,  Llwyd,) 

Gelli  Wastod  al.  Wastrawd,  in  Llangyfelach,  Glamorgan- 
shire. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  193 

Gelli  Wen,  in  Trdech,  Caermarthenshire. 
Gelliwig,  one  of  Arthur's  palaces  in  Cornwall.     G^Uiswick 
in  MiKord  Haven  seems  to  be  of  the  same  origin. 

I  Gelli  Wig  ag  i'w  Uys.— 2V.  46. 

Y  Wig,  near  Bangor,  and  another  near  Aberystwyth. 

Gelokwydd.  Cefn  Gelorwydd,  a  place  mentioned  by  Llygad 
Gwr  in  an  ode  to  Lly welyn  ap  Gruflfydd. 

Gemeirnon  Hen,  father  of  Geraint  Hir.    {Tr.  62.) 

Genee  DiNLLE,  q.  d.  Geneu'r  Dinlle.  Phylip  Gruffydd  o  Ene'r 
Dinlle. 

Generys,  verch  Madog  ap  Gronwy. 

Generys  Vechan  ap  Rotpart. 

Geneu'r  Glyn,  a  pass  on  the  borders  of  South  Wales,  near 
Aberdyvi  At  a  place  called  now  Uanvihangel  Genau'r  Glyn 
there  was  a  castle  of  Walter  Espec  the  Norman,  called  to  this 
day  Castell  Gwallter.  There  is  a  manor  or  lordship  here  that 
goes  by  the  name  of  Arglwyddiaeth  Geneu'r  Glyn  (Powel,  Oar,, 
p.  189);  perhaps  meaning  Glyn  Ystwyth,  Glyn  Eheidiol,  or 
Glyn  Aeron. 

Oeneu*r  Glyn  is  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Penwedig 
in  Cardiganshire.  (Price,  Descr.)  There  are  several  forts  or 
castles  in  the  pass ;  as  Castell  Caletwr,  C&stellan,  etc. 

Geneu'r  Glyn  signiiSes  the  mouth  of  the  valley ;  perhaps  of 
Glyn  Dyfi. 

Geneuwy,  Geneva  (n.  L). 

Genhillyn  (n.  pr.  v.).    Cadifor  ap  (Jenillin. 

Genhylles  (Lat.  Venilia),  daughter,  or  an  adopted  daughter, 
of  Claudius  Caesar,  married  to  Gweyrydd,  King  of  Britain,  upon 
a  peace  and  an  alliance  made  between  them ;  so  that  this  accounts 
for  Claudius*  success  and  short  stay  then  in  Britain,  as  he  was 
assisted  by  Gweyrydd  to  subdue  the  northern  islands,  which 
Tyssilio  calls  Ore.  This  Gweyrydd  is  called  in  Latin  Arviragus, 
and  some  British  writers  call  him  Gwerydd  Anoyneddog  and 
Adar  Weriedog, 

Genilijn  ap  Gwaithvoed  ap  Elffin. 

Genissa  ach  Gloyw,  married  to  King  Gweirydd. 

Genoa,  Geneu  wy  or  aw ;  but  rather  Geneva  is  Geneuwy. 

Geraint  (n.  pr.  v.);  Lat.  Gerontius.     (H.  Llwyd.) 

25 


194  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Geraint  Caerwys Spaen, 

Geraint  ap  Elidir  was  the  43rd  King  of  Britain. 

Geraint  mab  Erbin,  one  of  the  three  Llynghesawg  (admirals) 
of  Britain,  or  owners  of  fleets,  in  King  Arthur's  time.  {Tr,  20.) 
A  prince  or  nobleman  of  Dyfnaint  {E,  Llwyd,  from  Marwnad 
Geraint  by  Llywarch  Hen.)*  Geraint  ab  Erbin  ab  Cynfawr,  the 
7th  after  Eudaf  Hen,  about  a.d.  530. 

Geraint  Hir  ap  Gemeimon  Hen,  in  King  Arthur's  court. 
(2V.  62.) 

Geraint,  a  prince  of  the  Britains  who  fought  Ina  A.D.  716. 
Kil  Charan  in  Scotland.    Gil  Geraint  (n.  L),  Dyfed. 

Gerardus,  Bishop  of  Llandaf. 

German,  or  St.  Garmon,  a  disciple  of  St.  Patrick  and  the  first 
Bishop  of  Manaw  (the  Isle  of  Man),  a  Briton  brought  from  Bri- 
tain by  St.  Patrick,  a.d.  447.    {MS.  Ghron,  ap.  Usher,  p.  335.) 

Gernerth  Castle.  {Jo,  Major,  1.  i,  c.  5.)  This  is  Gwrtheyrn- 
ion  Castle,  where  Aurelius  Ambrosius  burnt  Gwrtheym  and  his 
family. 

Gerontius.  {BedCy  1.  i,  c.  11.)  He  is  called  Count  Gerontius, 
and  belonging  to  Constans,  son  of  Constantine,  was  Qwrtheyrn 
Gwrtheneu,  who  is  called  by  Tyssilio  larll  ar  Went  ac  Erging 
ac  Euas ;  and  who  killed  (or  contrived  the  death  of)  Constans, 
whereby  he  got  the  crown.  {TyssUio)  Bede  was  quite  in  the 
dark  about  this  affair,  though  the  next  king  of  Britain  he  names 
is  Vortigem,  who  called  in  the  Saxons.  Why  would  Count 
Gerontius  kill  Constans,  after  he  had  made  him  king  of  a  monk, 
but  to  succeed  him  as  king  ?  And  so  the  British  history  says 
Gwrtheym  Gwrtheneu  did,  which  was  the  real  name  of  this  person 
called  here  by  Bede  by  the  names  Of  Gerontius  and  Vortigem. 
Others  say  Gerontius  kiUed  himself  after  he  had  killed  his  friend 
Alanus. 

Gerwerth,  qu.  ?  IlanvihaDgel  Gerwerth,  a  church  and  parish 
in  Gaermarthenshire. 

Gerwryd  (n.  1.).  Gorthir  Gerwryd,  a  place  where  Llywelyn 
ap  lorwerth  encamped  with  the  prime  men  of  Gwynedd. 

Qorthoei  drai  draws  a  hjd 

Gorthir  y  gelwir  Gerwryd. — Cylch  Llywelyn, 

Gerwyn  ap  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  195 

Gerwyn  Fawr  (Y),  a  gentleman's  seat.     (/.  D) 

Geta,  the  81st  King  of  Britain. 

Gethin  :  vide  Cethin. 

Gevenni  or  Gavenni  (fl.),  Gdbannium :  hence  Abergavenni, 
now  Aberganni  (Lat.  Abergennium  and  Abergavennium),  i.  e.,  Os- 
tium Gobanii,  the  fall  of  Gevenni  into  the  Wysg. 

Gevisse,  Bede's  name  for  the  West  Saxons  Q..  iii,  c.  7);  whe- 
ther from  Suas  or  Eimas  ? 

Gilbert  (n.  pr.  v.),  a.d.  600.  Gilbert  mab  Cadgyffro,  one  of 
the  three  yscymydd  aeran.     {Tr,  29.) 

GiLDAS  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  name  famous  among  the  ancient  Britains, 
of  which  there  were  four. 

GiLDAS,  the  British  poet  and  historiographer.  He  is  men- 
tioned by  TyssQio  in  his  British  History,  by  Ponticus  Virunnius, 
by  Lilius  Greg.  Giraldus,  and  by  Leland.  He  lived  in  the  time 
of  Claudius  the  Emperor,  a.d.  47 ;  conveyed  to  Italy  by  Blasius, 
says  Robert  Vaughan  {Gomman-Place  Book,  MS,). 

Ponticus  Virunnius  says  (p.  10)  that  Gildas  the  poet  and  his- 
torian turned  the  Molmutine  Laws  into  Latin,  and  King  Alfred 
into  English.  So  Galfrid's  Latin  edition  in  the  reign  of  Belinus ; 
but  in  the  British  copy  only  plain  Gildas.  The  same  Ponticus 
Virunnius  says  that  Gildas,  the  noble  British  poet,  who  lived  in 
the  time  of  Claudius,  turned  certain  verses  out  of  Greek  into 
Latin, — "  Diva  potens,"  etc.  He  also  (p.  14)  says  the  account  of 
the  contention  between  Lludd  and  Minniaw  is  wrote  by  Gildas 
the  famous  poet  and  historian ;  and  also  (p.  7)  says  that  GUdas 
the  poet  wrote  of  the  prophecy  of  the  partridge  which  spoke  in 
the 

Gildas,  a  British  monk,  who,  being  of  the  Medrawd  faction, 
retreated  over  to  Armorica  after  the  battle  of  Camlan,  and  there 
wrote  that  bitter  invective  against  the  princes  of  the  insular 
Britains  which  is  called  his  epistle  [de]  Eoscidio Britannia,  though, 
from  several  marks  in  it,  it  appears  that  the  succeeding  monks 
have  fingered  it  to  their  own  purpose.  He  was  the  son  of  Caw 
o  Brydyn,  i,  e,,  Scotland,  bom  in  the  valley  of  Clwyd,  near  Dun- 
britton,  says  Caradoc ;  and  Medrawd's  sons,  who  were  killed  by 
Cwstenyn,  were  his  ne^liews,  which  was  the  real  cause  of  his 
venom .  in  that  epistle  against  the  British  nation  in  general. 


196  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Either  that  epistle  hath  been  corrupted,  or  else  Oildas  did  not 
understand  the  British  tongue ;  for  Cuneglas  doth  not  signify 
Yellow  Butcher,  as  that  epistle  says ;  and  Mr.  E.  Ilwyd  hath, 
out  of  compliment  to  Gildas,  made  Cynglas  of  it. 

He  is  called  Gildas  Badonicvs  because  he  mentions  the  battle 
of  Mons  Badon  to  have  been  the  year  he  was  born,  which  Usher 
says  was  in  the  year  520 ;  others,  493 ;  and  by  his  epistle  it 
appears  that  he  was  cotemporary  with  Gwrthefyr  ap  Erbin,  King 
of  Demetia,  whom  he  abuses  sufl&ciently : — **  Tu  Vortipori**,  etc. ; 
so  that  he  was  alive  in  the  year  564  (-B.  Vaughan),  and  died 
A.D.  570  {Usher),  50  years  of  age.  Arthur  died  542,  when  GLI- 
deis  Badonicus  was  22  years  of  age,  and  under  the  instruction  of 
Iltutus  in  Glamorganshire. 

His  father.  Caw,  was  a  Prince  of  Scotland,  or  of  the  royal 
family,  and  had  a  numerous  family.  He  was  brought  up  by 
St.  Iltutus,  as  some  say ;  others,  by  Cattwg.  Thence  he  went 
to  Ireland,  where  he  taught  in  the  school  of  Armagh ;  thence  he 
went  to  Armorica,  and  founded  the  monastery  of  Eewys  or  Buys, 
and  made  him  an  oratory  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Blavet, 
where  he  is  supposed  to  have  writ  his  epistle. 

Englynion  y  Clywed  mentions  Gildas  ap  Caw,  nulwr  adgas ; 
and  Bangar  ap  Caw,  milwr  clodgar ;  and  Huail  ap  Caw  Cym- 
mwyll  arail.  Henwau'r  Seintiau  hath  one  ...  Wrlai  ap  Caw.  The 
Triades  mentions  one  Huail  ap  Caw  €is  one  of  the  chief  npble 
oflScers  in  Arthur's  army, — "  un  o*r  tri  taleithiawc  cad";  i, «.,  one 
of  the  three  diademed  or  crowned  generals.  In  an  ancient 
British  MS.  I  find  a  note, — "  Gildas  mab  Caw  arglwydd  Cwm 
Cawlwyd",  i  e.,  lord  of  Cwm  Cawlwyd.  Tyssilio  quotes  one 
Gildas  who  wrote  the  wars  of  Emrys  Wledig.    Usher  quotes  the 

same  on  the  authority,  I  suppose,  of  GaUrid,  if  not  of ,  and 

Bishop  Iloyd  seems  to  like  the  quotation. 

There  is  an  abbey  in  Bretagne  at  this  day  which  bears  his 
name.  Some  think  there  was  another  Gildas  aYicienter  than  this, 
viz.,  that  died  about  the  year  5 1 2,  called  Gildas  the  Albanian, 
of  which  number  is  Usher.     {Brit,  Sanct) 

Gildas  ap  Caw  b  Brydyn,  commonly  called  Gildas  Albanius. 
This  Gildas'  Life  was  wrote  by  Caradoc  o  liangarvan.  Caradoc 
says  he  was  the  son  of  Naw,  King  of  the  Scots  in  the  north,  who 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  197 

bad  twenty-four  sons,  valiant  and  warlike,  one  of  whom  was 
Gildas,  who  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  sciences.  In  one 
copy  of  Caradoc,  which  John  Bale  had,  he  is  called  Navus,  King 
of  the  Picts  (not  Scots).  In  Capgrave's  Legend  he  is  called  Oariy 
£jng  of  Albania,  which  should  be  wrote  Cau,  In  an  anony- 
mous writer  of  some  Gildas'  life,  found  in  the  Florence  Library, 
by  J.  k  Bosco  [it  is  stated]  that  Gildas'  father  is  called  Oaurnts, 
and  his  country  Arecluta,  which  joins  on  the  river  Glut  (pro- 
bably the  Clwyd)  in  the  North.  Usher  says  it  is  Argetheliam 
(Argyleshire).  The  same  anonymous  author  says  Caunus  had 
four  other  sons  besides  Gildas,  and  a  daughter.  This,  therefore, 
is  not  the  same  with  the  first  Gildas  that  had  twenty-three 
brothers ;  or  he  was  misinformed  about  the  number  of  his 
children.  The  eldest  son  was  Cuillus,  a  great  warrior,  who  suc- 
ceeded his  father  in  the  kingdom ;  Maelocus,  a  religious,  who 
built  a  monastery  at  Lyuhes  in  Elmael ;  Aegreas,  Allseco,  and 
Peteona,  a  sister,  had  their  oratories  in  the  extreme  part  of  the 
region.     {Usher.) 

This  Cuillus  is  rightly  called  by  Capgrave  Howehis;  by  others, 
Hael,  Hud,  and  Huelinus.  For  that  in  the  monastery  of  Glas- 
tonbury it  is  wrote  in  an  old  register  there  that  King  Arthur 
defeated  Haelus  the  King  of  Scotland,  and  subdued  the  country, 
whose  brother  the  great  historiographer  was.  Gildas  Albanise 
m^ht  be  a  historiographer.  Caradog,  in  Gildas  Albanius'  Life, 
says  that  the  twenty-three  brothers  of  Gildas  rebelled  against 
Arthur,  and  that  Huel,  the  eldest,  a  famous  warrior,  obeyed 
neither  Arthur  nor  any  other  king.  He  often  made  descents 
from  Scotland  on  Arthur's  subjects.  Arthur,  the  supreme  king, 
hearing  of  this^  made  war  on  him  from  place  to  place,  and  at 
last  killed  him  at  Mynaw,  and  was  glad  to  overcome  such  a 
powerful  enemy.  This  Mynmjo  is  Anglesey,  says  Usher;  and 
the  author  of  Mona  ArUiqua  follows  him,  and  says  young  Arthur, 
A-D.  505,  killed  Howel  ap  Caw  in  Anglesey.  Upon  this  Gildas 
came  from  Ireland,  and  pacified  King  Arthur  with  his  tears 
and  the  petitions  of  all  the  British  clergy,  etc.  Usher  places 
this  Gildas  from  a.d.  425  to  512 ;  died  87  years  old ;  he  had  a 
great  school  in  Ireland  ;  concludes  he  is  a  diflTerent  person  from 
Gildas  the  authpr  of  the  epistle  De  Excidio  BritannicB,  published 


198  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

by  Pol.  Virgil,  and  commonly  surnamed  Badonicns.  But  Bishop 
Nicolson  will  not  allow  this,  and  says  that  Gildas  has  been  split 
into  three.     {Hist.  Libr) 

Gildas  Nennius.  Sir  John  Pryse  in  his  Description  of  Wales, 
before  Caradoc's  Chronicle,  quotes  Nennius'  book  by  the  name 
of  Gildas.  In  his  Defence  of  the  British  History  he  also  quotes 
Nennius  and  the  rasures,  in  some  numbers,  of  an  account  of  time 
in  it,  by  the  name  of  Gildas,  and  says  that  Leland  gives  it  to 
Nennius.  This  is  the  Gildas  MS.  in  the  Cotton  Library,  called 
there  Gildas  Minor.  Humphrey  Lloyd,  in  his  Descrvpt  Brit., 
p.  32,  quotes  Nennius  in  it  by  the  name  of  Gildas,  about  Caer 
Vortigem.  In  Hengwrt  Library  the  MS.  of  Nennius,  wrote  by 
the  great  antiquary  Robert  *Vaughan,  and  collated  with  all  the 
copies  in  the  public  libraries,  is  entitled  Gildas  Nennius,  In 
the  account  of  the  tombs  of  the  warriors  of  Britain,  wrote  by 
Taliesin,  one  Caw  is  mentioned  among  the  great  warriors ;  and 
in  Englynion  y  Clywed  three  of  his  sons  are  mentioned.  His 
son  Gildas  is  there  called  the  "  hated  warrior"  ("  Gildas  ap  Caw 
milwr  adgas"),  or  perhaps  the  father  was  "  adcas". 

Lewis  Glyn  Cothi,  who  flourished  about  1450,  makes  Caw,  the 

father  of  the  Cambrian  saints,  to  have  resided  at  Twrkelyn  in 

Anglesey. 

Cynhedda  fab  Gwrda  gwyn, 

Caw  eilwaith  o  Dwrcelyn. — Goxoydd  Ynys  Mofi. 

These  were  two  of  the  three  Gwelygordd  Saint  Cymry ;  and  in 
the  Grenealogies  in  the  Iflyfr  Goch  o  Hergest,  in  Jesus  College,  I 
find  the  three  Gwelygordd  to  be  Plant  Cynedda  "Wledig,  Plant 
Brychan  Brycheiniog,  and  Plant  Caw  o  Frydain;  which  "Fry- 
dain"  is  a  mistake  of  the  transcribers  for  Prydyn,  now  called 
Scotland;  called  formerly  the  Unconquered  Britain.  But  in 
enumerating  the  last  Gwelygordd,  the  same  Genealogies  make 
them  the  children  of  Caw  o  Twrkelyn,  which  is  in  Anglesey.  Is 
it  not  plain,  then,  that  Caw  came  from  North  Britain  with  his 
family,  and  settled  in  Anglesey,  at  Twrcelyn,  since  we  know 
that  Cynedda's  children,  who  came  from  Scotland,  did  settle  over 
all  Wales,  having  whole  counties  to  their  shares,  as  Cereticus 
had  Ceredigion,  etc.,  from  whence  they  had  drove  the  Irish  Scots  ? 
GiLEK  (Y),  a  gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire.     Kobei-t  Price, 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  199 

one  of  the  Barons  of  the  Exchequer  in  King  William's  time, 
w^  owner  of  this  place  ;  as  was  Rhys  Wynne  ap  Cadwaladr  of 
Giler,  who  disputed  in  poetry  with  Thomas  Price  of  Plas  lolyn. 
See  Price's  Poems  (MS.). 

GiLFACH  (Y),  a  house  in  Creuddyu,  Caernarvonshire. 

GiLFACH  Wen  (Y),  a  gentleman's  seat.  {Ow.  a/p  leuan  Hen.) 
Gilfach  Afal,  a  place  in  Cardiganshire. 

GiRALDUS  Cambrensis  :  see  Silvester  Giraldus, 

Glais.   Blaen  y  Glais,  Glamorgan ;  Pen  Glais^  Cardiganshire. 

Glam  Hector,  a  Prince  of  the  Irish  Scots,  whose  sons  invaded 
Britain  about  the  year  440.  Ysgroeth  took  Dalrieuda,  part  of 
the  Alban  ;  Builke  took  the  Isle  of  Man ;  Bethoun  took  Deme- 
tia,  with  Gwyr  and  Cydweli.  (Price's  Append.  Nennius.)  Mr. 
Camden,  in  his  first  edition  (1586)^  calls  this  person,  out  of 
Nennius,  Ilam  Odor  ;  but  in  Gibson's  edition  (1695)  it  is  wrote 
Elam  Hodor,  and  in  the  margin  Clan  Hodor.  Strange  incohe- 
rencies  !     (See  Gale's  Nennivs.)     See  Clam  Hodor. 

Glamorgan,  an  English  name  corrupted  from  Gxolad  Morgan 
or  Morganwg,  a  county  in  South  Wales,  part  of  the  territory  of 
the  Silures,  as  they  were  called  by  the  Romans  for  Iselwyr.  See 
Morganwg. 

Glann,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  signifying  the  side  or  bank  or 
margin  of  a  river,  prefixed  to  the  names  of  several  places ;  as, 
Glann  Hafren  (n.  1.) ;  Glan  Gwy  (n.  L)  ;  Glan'r  Afon  (n.  L)  ; 
Glann  Alaw,  Anglesey ;  Glann  Bran,  Caermarthenshire.;  Glan 
y  Meichiaid  in  Meivod  [this  is  Nant  y  Meichiaid — fF".2?.];  Glan 
Uyfni,  Breknockshire.  In  Scotland:  Glen  Luce  Bay;  Glen 
Shield ;  Glen  Elg ;  Ruther  Glen. 

Glan  Wysg  gwae  galon  ei  wyr. — Bhisiart  lorwerth. 

[Glann,  in  South  Wales,  is  a  hill. — L  M.] 

Glan  Alaw,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Anglesey,  on  the  banks  of 
the  river  Alaw. 

Glan  yr  Annell.    (i.  G,  Cothi) 

Glan  Cynllaith. 

GlaS,  blue,  pale,  or  green,  in  the  names  of  men  and  places,  and 
as  cognomens.  C)mog  Las,  i.  e.,  Cynog  the  Pale,  a  prince  men- 
tioned by  Gildas. 


200  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Y  Marchog  Glaa  o  Wynedd  [o  Wenlr-  JT.  D.],  Sir  William  [ab] 
Thomas  [of  Ehaglan—  W.  !>.]. 

Y  Bardd  Glas  o'r  Gadair. 

Brutus  Darian  Las,  i,  e.,  Brutus  with  the  blue  shield. 

GrufiFydd  Ms  ap  Grufifydd  Frfts  o  Ddyfei 

Ehiwlas;  Bryn  Glas;  Glasgrug;  Cruclas;  y  Maes  Glas;  y 
Uwyn  Glas ;  y  Las  Ynys ;  and  perhaps  Cl<i8  Merdin  in  the  Tri- 
odes.  The  first  name  of  Britain  was  Glas,  q.  d.  the  Green  Island ; 
for  ancient  Latin  writers  called  it "  Insula  Ccerula".    See  Olas. 

Glasgrug,  a  round  gi*een  hill  within  two  miles  of  Abeiyst- 
wyth,  where encamped,  a.d (Potvel,  p.  179.) 

Glasvre  (n.  L). 

Glasvyb,  a  river,  qu.  ?  or  perhaps  glas  voroedd. 

Gorvn  gwynt  gwaeddian  uch  glan  glasvyr 
Gorddwy  clan  tonnau  Talgarth  Ystyr. 

Gleddyf  Hir.  Gwilym  Gleddyf  Hir,  the  surname  given  by 
the  Britons  to  William  de  Longa  Spata. 

Gleis  (n.  pr.  v.).  Trioedd  y  Mdrch,  1.  Hence  Penglais  near 
Aberystwyth. 

Gleisur  o'r  Gogledd,  father  of  Aedenawc.     {Tr,  27.) 

Glenfrinacht,  in  Antrim,  Ireland. 

Glengevin,  a  village  near  Londonderry. 

Glessych,  a  river.    Cwm  Glessych. 

Gyrryd  eifr  bran  deifr  bry  dufrych  a'th  ffon 
Gwynion  a  gleision  o  flaen  Glessych. 

D.  ab  leuan  Du,  i  S.  Eorych. 

Glewisig,  a  lordship  in  Deheubarth,  from  Glywis  ap  Tegid. 
(E.  Llwyd,  Notes  an  Camden!)  Myrddin  Emrys  was  found  by 
King  Vortigem's  messengers  in  the  country  called  Glevising. 
Nennius,  c.  42,  "Ad  Campum  Electi". 

Glewlwyd  Gafaelfawr.  This  seems  to  be  a  nickname  of 
him  that  was  King  Arthur's  chief  porter  or  officer  of  the  gates. 
He  escaped  alive  from  the  battle  of  Camlan  because  he  was  so 
strong  and  big  that  nobody  would  venture  to  strike  him.  (2V.85.) 

Gloddaith,  enw  Ue.    Madog  Gloddaith. 

Gloyw.  Caer  Loyw  {Triades) ;  another  copy,  Caer  Loyv ; 
Dr.  Thos.  Williams  {Catalogtie),  Caer  Loew,  which  he  Englishes 
.  Glocester. 


CELTIC  REMxVINS.  201 

Tyssilio  says  there  was  a  city  called  Caer  Gloew,  built  by 
Gloew  Kessar,  the  Emperor,  on  the  river  Hafren,  on  the  confines 
of  liOegria  and  Cambria,  in  memory  of  the  marriage  of  his 
daughter,  Genhylles,  with  Gweyrydd,  King  of  Britain ;  and  that 
other  writers  say  it  was  built  by  his  son  (i.  c,  grandson),  Gloew 
Gwlad  Lydan,  who  was  born  there,  and  who  was  Prince  of  Cam- 
bria after  Gweyrydd.     See  Genhylles. 

Gloywddigar:  vid.  Garanawg.' 

Gloyw  Imerawtr  or  Ymerodr,  Claudius  the  Emperor.  Caer 
Loyw,  Gloucester. 

Glyder,  a  mountain  in  Eryri ;  perhaps  Y  Gludair. 

Glyn,  a  very  ancient  Celtic  word  prefixed  to  the  names  of 

several  places,  signifying  a  little  valley.     Glyn  in  Dyfynnog 

parish,  Brecknockshire.     Glyn  in  Ardudwy,  a  gentleman's  seat. 

Glyn  Ebron,  the  valley  of  Hebron.    {Bibl)     Glyn  Tawy.     Gen- 

eu'r  Glyn,  Cardiganshire,  a  lordship.     Glyn  Rothney,  a  lordship 

in  Morgannwc.     Glyn  Ilechog,  the  Abbey  of  Aberconwy  here. 

Glyn  Wysg. 

Glyn  Tawy  galont  heol, 

Glyn  Wysg  a  wyl  glaw  yn  ei  ol. — D.  Eppynt 

Gl3mWrthaf ;  yno  'r  ymladdodd  Goreu  fab  Cystenin  Heusor  fab 
Dyfnedig  dros  Arthur.    {E.  Llwyd)     leuan  y  Glyn  ap  Moms. 

Glyn  Achalch  or  (as  some  copies)  Glyn  Achlach,  a  place  in 
Ireland  where  Murchert,  King  of  Ireland,  and  Gruffuth  ap 
Cynan,  afterwards  King  of  Wales,  had  a  meeting  to  settle  the 
Welsh  and  Irish  music.  This  was  about  the  year  1097.  Here 
the  twenty-four  measures  were  made  for  the  harp  and  crwth. 
The  four  masters  who  composed  them  were  Welsh  and  Irish : 
Alban  ap  Cynan,  Rhydderch  Foel,  Matholwch  Wyddel,  and 
Alofif  Gerddwr.  And  these  measures  had  Irish  names  given 
them,  which  we  find  in  our  ancient  music  books  in  Wales  to 
this  day.  Our  Welsh  books  call  this  Murchert  Mwrchan  Wyddel; 
and  some  Irish  writers  call  him  Murchertacus,  and  Murchardo- 
cus,  and  Mariardachus.  This  seems  to  have  been  when  Gruff, 
ap  Cynan  and  Cadwgan  ap  Bleddyn  were  retreated  to  Ireland, 
Hugh  Earl  of  Chester  and  Owen  ap  Edwyn  having  taken  pos- 
session of  their  lands  and  of  the  Isle  of  Anglesey. 

Glyn  Ceiriog. 

2'6 


202  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Glyn  Clwyd. 

Gwychder  galon  cler  Gljn  Clwyd  a  Thegaingl 
Ar  wyth  ng^in  aelwjd. — Tudur  Aled, 
See  Dyffryn  Chvyd. 
Glyn  Cuwch  :  see  Cuwch. 
Glyn  Cyffin,  terfyn  Gwynedd  a  Phowys.  (Dr.  Davies  in  voce 

Glyn  Dyfrdwy,  one  of  the  three  comots  of  Cantre  'r  Barwn 
in  Powys  Vadog,  now  in  Meirionyddshire.  Hence  Owen  Glyn 
Dyfrdwy,  who  was  lord  of  this  place,  took  his  name.  He  gave 
the  English  a  great  deal  of  trouble  in  the  reign  of 

Glyn  Glanoc  (enw'r  gwr),  idem  quod  Glanec ;  taid  Pasgen 
ap  Helic. 

Glyn  Ieithon,  one  of  the  four  comots  of  Cantref  Melienydd, 
between  Wy  and  Hafren.     See  Ieithon  river. 

Glyn  Lufon  (enw  lie),  in  some  places  writ  Cwm  liifon. 
liifon,  avon. 

Glyn  Nedd,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Glamorganshire. 

Glyn  TwYMYN,.in  Cemaes,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Montgomery- 
shire.    See  Tuyymyn  river. 

Glywis  ap  Tegid,  who  gave  name  to  Glewisig  or  Nennius' 
Gleuising. 

GoBANNiUM  (Latin) ;  Gefni  or  Cefni  river.     {E.  Uvryd.) 

GoDDAU.  Cad  Goddau  or  Gwaith  Goddau,  one  of  the  three 
frivolous  battles.  (TV.  47.)  It  seems  Goddeu  was  the  name  of  a 
country  in  the  north  of  Britain,  the  country  of  the  Gadeni.  John 
Major,  in  his  Hist,  Scot,  1.  i,  c.  15,  mentions  a  battle  of  this 
kind  between  the  Scots  and  Picts ;  for  that  the  Picts  stole  a 
(molossus)  mastiff  from  the  Scots,  and  would  not  restore  it 
From  words  it  came  to  blows,  and  to  a  most  cruel  war,  in  which 
all  the  neighbouring  princes  were  engaged.  Major  makes 
Carausius  (or,  as  he  calls  him,  Carentius)  to  be  the  mediator 
between  them  about  a.d.  288,  and  that  they  then  turned  all  their 
arms  against  the  Komans.  The  Triades  says  the  battle  of  Cad 
Goddeu  was  fought  on  account  of  a  bitch,  a  roe,  and  a  lapwing  ; 
and  Tudur  Aled  calls  the  battle  Oioaith  Colwyn  (the  lapdog 
battle). 

Taliesin  hath  an  ode  under  this  title,  which  is  a  battle  of 
trees, — a  banter  ridiculing  the  insignificant  cause  of  it. 


CELTIC  KEMAINS.  203 

Dygryeswyfl  Fflamddwyn 
Ooddan  a  Beged  i  jmddulla. — Taliesin. 
See  Owaith  and  Gad  Ooddau. 

Gwaith  colwjn  yn  dwyn  y  dydd. — Tudur  Aled, 

GoDiR,  borders  of  a  country  {E.  Llwyd) ;  perhaps  godrey  the 
skirts  of  a  country.     It  is  wrote  also  Ooddir  or  Oodhir. 

GoDiR  Dyfnaint,  the  borders  of  Devon  {E,  Llwyd),  mentioned 
by  Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Geraint. 

GoDiB  Pennog,  the  place  where  Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  thinks 
Urien  Beged  lived. 

GoDEBOG  neu  Godhebog  (n.  pr.).  Coel  Godhebog,  a  Prince  of 
North  Britain ;  some  say  Hawk-faced. 

GoDFBYD,  son  of  Harald  the  Dane,  subdued  to  himself  the 
whole  Isle  of  Anglesey,  A.I).  969  (Powel,  Oaradoc,  p.  62) ;  but 
did  not  keep  it  long.  At  this  time  the  Princes  of  Wales  were 
butchering  one  another,  lago  and  leuaf  and  Howel  and  leuaf. 

GoDO  (n.  pr.  v.),  father  of  Ffleidur  Fflam.     {Tr,  15.) 

GoDBis  ap  Wiliam  Goodrider,  arglwydd  Elbeth  jm  Normandy. 

GoEDTBE  (Y)  parish,  Monmouthshire. 

GoGABTH,  a  headland  at  the  mouth  of  Conwy  river,  whibh 
Mr.  Camden  calls  a  vast  promontory  with  a  crooked  elbow,  as  if 
Nature  designed  there  a  harbour  for  shipping ;  and  here,  he  says, 
stood  the  ancient  city  of  Diganwy,  which  was  consumed  by 
lightning ;  and  he  supposes  it  to  be  the  Dictum  where,  under 
the  later  emperors,  the  commander  of  the  Nervii  Dictenses  kept 
guard ;  and  he  says  that  Ganwy  is  a  variation  of  Conwy.  But 
the  city  Diganwy  was  several  miles  from  that  promontory,  and 
Nature  could  not  design  a  harbour  where  it  was  impossible  to 
make  one.  There  remains  of  it  a  gentleman's  seat  called  Dig- 
anwy, and  a  tower  called  Castell  y  Fardi*e  or  y  Faerdref.  See 
Gannoc. 

GoGEBDDAN,  enw  lie. 

GoGERTHAN,  a  gentleman's  seat,  q.  d.  Gogarth  Ann.  Castell 
Ann  just  by. 

GoGOF.    Llywelyn  Gogof  ap  leuau  Uwyd. 

GoGOFAU,  a  noted  place  in  Caermarthenshire  for  its  vast 
niunber  of  caves  or  drifts  in  the  rock,  in  the  nature  of  levels 
for  mines ;  but  some  think  them  to  be  the  station  of  some  army 
or  legion  who  made  these  surprising  caverns  to  secure  themselves. 


204  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

GoGOFAWG,  full  of  caves.  Ty  Crogofawg,  a  place  mentioned  by 
Asser  Menevensis,  in  Alfred's  life,  to  be  in  the  country  of  Mer- 
cia,  which  he  interprets  "  speluncarum  donius". 

GoGON  (idem  quod  Gwgon)  ap  Idnerth. 

GoGYRFAN  Gawk,  or,  according  to  the  Triades,  Ogyrfan  Gawr, 
was  father  of  Gwenhwyfar,  the  third  wife  of  King  Arthur,  who 
was  dethroned  and  ravished  by  Medrod;  pronounced  by  the 
vulgar,  in  their  traditional  stories,  Gogfran  Gawr,  for  Gogrfan, 
the  letter  y  being  but  a  mute  thrust  in  by  the  ancients,  as 
Lloegyr  for  Lloegr.  He  was  a  Prince  of  some  part  of  Cambria,  as 
appears  by  his  title  of  Cawr  (for  Prince),  which  was  not  com- 
monly used  in  Albania,  Loegria,  or  Cornwall,  unless  removed 
there.  (TV.  59.) 

GoLEUBRYD  verch  Meredydd  ap  Ivan. 

(iOLEUDYDD  vcrch  Brychau,  Santes  yn  Llanhesgin,  Gwent. 

GOLIDAN  Fardd,  killed  with  an  axe.  (TV.  39 ;  E.  Lhoyd,)  Gol- 
yddan  Fardd,  Cadwaladr*s  poet,  an.  660. 

GoLVA,  a  gentleman's  seat.  (/.  D)  [Moel  y  Golfa  or  y  Glol- 
fa.—  W.  2?.] 

GOLUCH  :  see  Ihjffryn  Goluch. 

GoLUN.  Caer  Golun  {Triades)  ;  Caer  Colun  in  Nennius ;  Caer 
Colwn  in  Usher,  which  he  interprets  Colchester.  Galfrid  makes 
it  Colchester.     Hence  Ehoscolun  in  Anglesey. 

GoLW^c  ap  Paun  ap  Meirchion. 

GOLYDAN.    (TV.  75.) 

GoLLWYN  (Pymtheg  Llwyth)  ap  Gellan. 

GoLLWYN  GOEG :  SCO  Coeg, 

GoRARTH  (k  gor  and  garth),  Uanvihangel  Orarth,  Caermar- 
thenshire. 

GoRAU  (n.  pr.  v.).  Gorau  fab  Custenin,  King  Arthur's  cousin- 
german,  who  released  him  Irom  three  prisons  {Tr,  50) :  from 
Caer  Oeth  ac  Anoeth ;  from  Gwen  Bendragon,  who  had  him 
three  days  and  three  nights  in  a  concealed  prison  under  the 
stone.   {Tr,  50.) 

GoRBONiAWN,  the  30th  King  of  Britain. 

GORDDINAM  (n.  1.). 

GORDDINOG,  enw  Ue  'n  Uwch  Conwy.     Wynne  Gorddinog. 

GoRDDWFYN  ap  Gwiriawn  ap  Gwynnan  ap  Gwynfyw  Frych. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  205 

GoBDDWK,  enw  He. 

Y  gwr  o  Orddwr  a  nrdda  meneich 
Yn  Maenan  a  Benna. 

GuttoW  Olytij  i  Rys  Abad  Ystrad  Fflup  ag  Aberconwy. 

GoRDDWR  ISAF,  one  of  the  comots  of  Cantref  Ystlyc  in  Powys 
Wenwynwyn. 

GoRFYW  (n.  pr.  v.).     Cappel  Gorfyw  at  Bangor  Fawr. 

GoRGORN :  see  Gwrygion. 

GORGYRN :  see  Ovn^theyrnion, 

GoRLECH,  a  river  that  falls  into  Cothi  at  Abergorlech. 

GoRLLAis,  qu.  or  Golles  ?     Cappel  y  Gorllais,  near  Holyhead. 

GoRLLWYN.    Llanvair  Orllwyn,  Cardiganshire. 

GoRLLWYN  (Y).  Mynydd  y  Gorllwyn,  one  of  the  three  heads 
or  points  of  the  top  of  Eifl  Mountain  in  Caernarvonshire.  See 
Eifl. 

GoROLWYN  (n.  pr.  v.) ;  perhaps  CoUwyn.     See  Colwyn, 

GoRONAUT,  id.  quod  Gronant, 

GoRONWY  (n.  pr.  v.).  Goronwy  niab  Echel  VorddwytwU,  one 
of  the  tri  unben  llys  Arthur.     (Tr.  15.) 

Goronwy  Pefr  o  Benllyn.    {Tr,  35.) 

Grouwy  mab  Pefr  Garanir 

Arglwydd  Penllyn  hoyw  wyn  hir. — D.  op  OwUym, 

GoRSEDD  Orwynnion,  mentioned  in  Lly warch  Hen*s  Marwnad 
Cyndylan.     See  Oorwynion. 

GoRTHiR  Gerwryd,  a  place  where  Uywelyn  ap  lorwerth  en- 
camped with  the  prime  men  of  Gwynedd. 

Gorihoei  drai  draws  a  hyd 

Gorthir  y  gelwir  Gerwryd. — Gylch  Llywelyn, 

GoRWLEDYDD,  foreign  countries. 

Caer  lydan  rhag  gorwledydd. 

'    Huw  Oae  Llwyd^  i  Gasiell  Nedd. 

GoRWYN.  Mr.  Stukely,  author  of  the  Palceographia  BrUan- 
nica,  A.D.  1752^  thinks  this  to  be  the  Gaulish  or  British  name  of 
Onuna,  the  wife  of  Carausius,  who,  Zarabella  says,  was  a  Gaul 
or  of  Gaulish  extraction ;  but  if  he  had  understood  the  Celtic 
tongue  he  would  have  known  that  Gorwyn  cannot  be  the  name 


206  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

of  a  woman,  being  of  the  masculine  gender.  It  should  have 
been  Gorwen,  anciently  Gorven. 

GoRWYNNiON,  an  ode  of  Uywarch  Hen. 

GrOBWTKiON,  One  of  the  sons  of  Lly  warch  Hen :  hence  pro- 
bably Gorsedd  Orwynion  in  Marwnad  Cyndylan  Powys. 

GossELiNUS.  (Jo.  Major,  Hist.  Scot,  L  ii,  c.  3.)  This  Ls  Cyhelyn, 
the  Bishop  of  London,  that  took  care  of  the  sons  of  Constantine, 
— a  strange  transformation  into  Gosselin ! 

GosGOBDDFAWB,  a  sumame.    See  Ulidir, 

GOTLOND  (Tyssilio) ,GotlAnd  or  Gothland,  an  island  of  Sweden, 
in  the  Baltic,  Ghthlandia  ;  and  also  the  country  of  Scandinavia : 
in  Latin,  Ootiscomdia.     {Mareri.) 

GouANUS  and  Elga.  (John  Major,  L  i,  fo.  20.)  These  are 
Gwynwas  and  Melwas,  said  in  Tyssilio  to  have  intercepted  the 
virgins  sent  to  Armorica. 

GowEB,  qu.  ?  Llangower,  a  parish  and  church  in  the  deanery 
of  Penllyn ;  some  say  from  Gwar  y  Llyn,  as  Llanuwllyn  from 
Uwch  y  Uyn.    [Others  from  Gwawr,  mother  of  Llywarch  Hen. 

—  W.'R] 

GowEB  Land  :  see  Ov^. 

GowBES.  Ilys  Gowres.  See  Cawres,  [Llys  Gowres,  in  L  Gl. 
Cothi,  etc.,  means  Cans  or  Caurse  Castle,  near  Westbury,  Salop. 

—  W.D.'\ 
Gbadivel  Sani 

Gradivel  y  del  o*i  dy. — 0,  M. 

Gbaig  Coch  (Y). 

Graianog,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Caernarvonshire,  in  Uwch 
Gwirfau ;  once  a  lordship  given  by  King  Cadwaladr  to  the  Abbey 
of  Clynnog  Vawr  yn  Arvon.    (Wyn.,  Hist,  p.  11.) 

Gramel  ap  Bhiryd  ap  Rhys. 

Grasiak,  the  92nd  King  of  Britain. 

Gbauch  or  Grauth.  Caergrauch  in  Nennius,  by  the  mistake 
of  transcribers.    See  Cfravmt, 

Gbawnt  or  Grant,  a  river  in  Lloegria,  England. 

Grawnt  and  Grant.  Caergrant.  (TV.)  This  is,  by  mistake 
of  transcribers,  called  in  Nennius  Caer  Grauch  for  Caer  Grawnt 
{T.  W,) ;  by  Usher,  Caer  Grawnt.  Dr.  Th.  Williams  makes  it 
Cambridge,  from  the  river  Grant  or  Grawnt. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  207 

Greal,  Sain  Greal  and  St.  Greal ;  St.  Gregory,  says  Mr.  Edw. 
Ilwyd,  p.  265.  This  is  a  supposed  saint,  and  author  of  a  book 
of  divers  stories  wrote  in  the  British  tongue  about  Arthur,  etc., 
wrote  in  the  romantic  style  for  winter  nights'  entertainment.  I 
have  formerly  seen  it  in  MS.  at  Hengwrt  Library,  and  it  is  called 
Llyfr  y  Oreal ;  very  fair  wrote  on  vellum,  and  in  good  languaga 
Dr.  Davies  mentions  it  in  his  Dictionary,  in  the  word  Oreal ; 
and  by  Mr.  Edw.  Ilwyd  in  his  Arch.  Brit,  p.  262  and  265.  In 
an  ancient  table  once  belonging  to  Glastonbury  this  book  is 
quoted  :  "Ac  deinde  secundum  quod  legitur  in  libro  qui  dicitur 
Greal,  Joseph  Arimathea,"  etc.  Usher,  Primard,  (Dub.  edit.),  p. 
16 ;  Capgrave,  in  the  Life  of  Joseph  of  Arimathea,  quotes  a  book, 
"Qui  Sanctum  Greal  appellatur";  and  Vincentius,  in  his  SpeciU, 
Hist.,  mentions  the  same  book  of  histories,  and  says  it  was  called 
Gaal  from  a  Oallice  word  (Welsh,  I  suppose),  gradalis  ot  gradate, 
signifying  a  little  dish  where  sonie  choice  morsel  was  put;  and 
that  it  was  not  to  be  found  in  Latin,  but  common  in  GaUice.  It 
is  also  mentioned  in  the  Triades,  61.  But  hear  what  Archbishop 
Usher  says  of  it :  "  Multa  vero  inde  in  fabulosa  regii  Arthuri 
acta.  Lingua  Anglicana  a  se  edita  transtulit  Thomas  Mailorius 
qui  Sangreal  vocem  hie  usurpat  ad  sanguinis  realis  notionem 
proximo  accedentem."     (Usher,  Prim.,  p.  17.) 

Greddyf  or  Greddf. 

Greidiawl  Galofydd,  one  of  the  three  Galofydd  of  Britain. 

{Tr.  24) 

Argae  Greidiawl  wrhydri. 

Llygad  Qwr,  i  L.  ap  lorwerth. 

Greiglas  (Y). 

Greiglwyd  (Y). 

Greigwen  (T). 

Gresfford  or  Gresford  (perhaps  in  the  British,  Croesffordd), 
a  church  and  parish  in  Denbighshire.  Holt  Chapel  is  in  this 
parish,  but  in  the  diocese  of  Chester.     (B.  Willis.) 

Greu,  Caergreu,  qu.  (Tr.  35),  the  place  where  Gwrgi  and  Per- 
edur  were  killed  by  Eda  Glin  Mawr,  their  men  having  deserted 
them.  The  death  of  Gwrgi  and  Peredur  is  placed  by  the  ^r. 
Catnlyr,  in  584,  and  by  the  Vn.  copy,  596. 

Griccyll,  a  river  in  Anglesey,  now  Grigyll.    Porth  Grigyll. 


208  CELTIC  REMAINS 

Eowlands  says  from  J.  Agricola ;  but  rather  from  craig  hyll,  q. 
d.  Oreigyll, 

Griffki,  a  man's  name  ;  Bishop  of  Menevia.  (Powel,  Caradoc, 
p.  175,  A.D.  1113.)  Tre  Eiffri  in  Anglesey;  also  an  inscription 
on  a  stone  at  Penrhose  Bradwen  in  Anglesey.  Griffri  and  Bryn 
Grifiri  in  Powys.  {Tr.  63.)  In  the  battle  of  Meigen,  between 
Cadwallon  and  Edwin,  a,d.  620,  qu.  ?  Griffri  ap  Heilin  o'r  Frou 
Goch  Ymhowys. 

Grifft.    Aderyn  y  grifft,  griffon.    {E,  Llwyd.)     See  Gniff. 

Grisli  verch  Dafydd  ap  Meyric. 

Groeg,  Greece. 

Groeg  Vawr,  Italy  {E.  Lhvyd),  Magna  Grcecia,  It  was  only- 
some  skirts  of  Italy  which  had  Grecian  towns  along  the  sea-coast. 

Gronant,  a  river  in  Anglesey,  and  a  gentleman's  seat ;  and  a 
village  in  Englefield,  from  a  river  there.  It  belonged,  in  William 
the  Conqueror's  time,  to  the  manor  of  Bhuddlan.  {Doomsday 
Book.) 

Gronw,  Gronwy,  and  Goronwy  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Goronwy,  Gruffadd,  gwyr  o  anian  plaid. — L,  01,  Cotht. 

Grudneu  (n.  pr.  v.),  un  o'r  tri  glew.  {Tr.  27.) 
Gruffudd,  non  Gryffydd  (n.  pr.  v.),  k  gruff  and  tidd;  some 
think  from  Gryphtis  or  Gryjps,  a  griffon,  and  udd,  and  not  from 
cry  and  ffydd.  Ffydd  is  a  provincial  Latin  word,  and  so  is  gryps^ 
and  not  from  BufinuB,  as  Camden  thinks.  Hence  Griffith,  Grif- 
fiths, Gruffin,  Griffin,  etc.  It  is  also  wrote  Gruffydd ;  but  mostly 
by  the  poets  wrote  Gruffudd. 

Gruffudd,  qu.  Glyn  ap  Dafydd  ap  leuan  ap  Einion. 

Brig  gwydd  Syr  Gruffydd  a'i  sal. — Sion  Cleri. 
Rhybndd  i  Rnffadd  ryffol. — D.  ap  Qwilym. 
Gruffadd  wallt  melynrhudd  vakn. — 8wn  Ceri. 
Gruffydd  awenydd  nniawn. — D.  LI.  ap  LI.  ap  Gruffydd. 
Gruffudd  Beisrudd  Bowysran. — Tudur  Penllyn. 

Gruffudd  ap  Cynan,  Prince  of  Wales,  was  cotemporary  with 
William  the  Conqueror.  He  died  a.d.  1137,  after  reigning  vic- 
toriously fifty  years.  He  was  a  great  warrior,  and  a  worthy, 
Ivise,  and  valiant  Prince.  I  find  in  an  old  MS.  noted  that  he 
was  Owyn  Gwyarchau  that  Myrddin  prophesied  of.     His  life 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  209 

was  wrote  in  Welsh  by and  translated  into  Latin  by  Nic. 

Robinson,  Bishop  of  Bangor  {J,  D),  and  is  extant.  He  was 
father  of  Owain  Gwynedd. 

Gruffudd  Llwyd  ap  Dafydd  ap  Einion  Lygliw,  o  Bowys,  a 
poet  anno  1400  ;  athro  Ehys  Goch  o  Eryri. 

Grug,  enw  lie.  Salbri  o  Rug  yn  Sir  Feirion.  Recti  Rug ; 
but  qu.  ?     See  Trefy  Grug, 

Grugor  (n.  pr.  v.),  Lat.  Qregorius,  Gregory. 

A'u  gwragedd  hwy  (myn  Grugor). — 8ion  Oeri. 

Grugor,  the  name  of  a  place  in  Anglesey.  Creigiau  Si  Gru- 
gor, St.  Gregory's  Rocks,  near  Aberffiraw. 

Grangcod,  cimychod  y  m6r, 

O  Greigiau'r  hen  Sain  Grugor.— -H.  BemaMt, 

Grugunan,  mentioned  by  Cynddelw  i  Ho.  Owain  Gwynedd. 
[GreginoD,  qu.  Gregynog  ? —  W.  D.] 

Grwst  or  GWRWST,  the  14th  King  of  Britain. 

Grwst  ap  Clydno,  the  55th  King  of  Britain. 

Grwst  vel  Gwrrwst  ap  Cenau. 

Grwst  Sant.  Ilanrwst,  a  town,  church,  and  parish,  in  Den- 
bighshire. 

Grwyn  (Y),  Groeningen,  or  perhaps  Graveling,  in  Flanders ; 
some  seaport  town.     The  Groine  in  Galicia. 

Aethau  oddiar  greirjau'r  Grwyn, — Syr  Dafydd  Trefar, 

GuALH  vab  Dissyvyndod,  un  o'r  tri  unben  Deifr  a  Brynaich. 
(E.  Lhvyd) ;  a  Northumbrian  poet  of  the  6th  century. 

Guic,  old  orthography,  in  composition  uicy  now  Gwig,  a  thicket 
of  wood ;  hence  the  names  of  several  places  in  Britain ;  as,  Wic 
Wair,  near  St.  Asaph ;  Gwair  Wic,  i.  e.,  Warwick 

Gumi  {Bede,  1.  i,  c.  12),  a  city  on  the  east  arm  of  the  sea  which 
divided  the  Scots  and  Kcts  from  the  Roman  part  of  Britain.  It 
was  in  an  island  (by  Flaherty  Caergreic),    See  Oaergrek, 

GuiRlGON.     Caer  Guirigon  in  Nennius.     See  Wrygion. 

GuissANEY,  rectfe  Gwysanau,  a  place  in  Denbighshire. 

GuoRANGON.  Caer  Guorangon.  Mr.  Camden,  out  of  Nennius, 
for  the  city  Worcester ;  and  so  Usher  {Prim.,  c.  5).  Guorcon, 
Caerguorcon.   Mr.  Camden,  out  of  Nennius,  for  Worcester.    But 

27 


210  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

neither  of  these  names  are  to  be  found  in  the  Cambridge  nor 
Cottonian  copy  of  Nennius,  nor  Mr.  Vaughan's :  and  Usher 
makes  Guorcon  to  be  either  Warwick  or  Wroxeter.  (Notes  an 
Camden.) 

GuoRTHiGiENE :  See  Owerthrynion, 

GUOTODIN.  (Nennivs)  See  Manau  OtLotodin  and  Oododin 
Aneurin. 

GuRGYRN :  see  OwHheyrnum.  [Caer  Chirgym,  the  old  name  of 
Llanilltud  Fawr,  according  to  some  MSS. — L  M!\ 

GUMCON.     Oaer  Guricon  in  Nennins.     See  TVyrangon. 

GuKN  Ddu  (Y)  and  Gurn  Gogh  (qu.  whether  it  should  be 
wrote  y  Geym  Ddu,  etc.),  two  mountains  in  Caernarvonshire. 
[Y  Gum,  Pen  y  Gym,  Cum  Moelfre,  Cym  y  Bwch :  W.  Owen 
would  say  Civm,  v.  Geiriadur. —  W.  D,'\ 

GuRMOND,  a  captain  of  the  Danes,  called  Godrun ;  afterwards 
King  of  the  East  Angles,  A.D.  877.     (Garadoc  in  Anarawd.) 

GuTMOND  (n.  pr.  v.),  by  Tyssilio  called  King  of  Afiric ;  by  Sir 
John  Price,  Gurmond  from  Ireland,  who  came  hither  from  Afiric 
{Dr.  Powel,  note,  p.  6)  :  Gurmundus,  arch-pirate,  captain  of  the 
Norwegians,  a.d.  590. 

GuTTYN  Owen,  a  herald,  poet,  and  historian,  anno  Domini,  1480. 

GwAEDERW  (n.  1.),  now  Gwedir  or  Gwydyr,  near  Llanrwst, 
where  Gr.  ap  Cynan  fought  a  battle.  {Meilir  Prydydd.)  [Where 
Sir  John  Wynn,  the  first  baronet  of  that  name,  lived,  who  wrote 
the  history  of  his  ancestors,  etc. —  W,  D.] 

GwAEDNERTH.    Gronw  ap  Gwaednerth. 

GwAETHYRN  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  Saxon  name,  at  the  battle  of  Bangor 
is  y  Coed.     {Tr.  67.) 

GwAiN,  a  river  in  Dyfed ;  hence  a  town  called  Abergwain,  Fis- 
card,  in  Pembrokeshire. 

GwAiR.  Caer  Wair,  Warwick  {Th.  Williams) ;  q.  d.  Gwair 
Wig  or  Gwig  y  Gwair.    Uwyn  Gwair  in  Pembrokeshire. 

GWAITH,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  signifying  a  battle ;  when  pre- 
fixed to  the  names  of  places,  signifying  the  battle  of  such  a  place. 

GwAiTH  (fl.) ;  hence  Abergwaith. 

GwAiTH.  Ynys  Waith,  the  Isle  of  Wight.  H.  Llwyd,  in  his 
Brit  Descr.y  p.  22  (ed.  1731),  says  the  Britons  call  it  Ynys  Wydd, 
i.  e.y  the  Conspicuous  Island.    Ifennius  (c.  2)  or  his  interpolator 


CELTIC  R  BMAINS.  211 

calls  it  With,  which  he  sajrs  the  Britons  call  Oweid  or  Owith, 
and  that  it  signifies  in  Latin  Divartium,  L  e.,  separation.  It  is 
true  6v;th,  in  British,  is  a  thrust ;  but  are  not  all  islands  thrust 
from  the  continent  ? 

GwAiTH  Ardbrydd,  a  battle  fought  between  Ehydderch  Hael 
of  Alclud,  in  Scotland,  and  Aeddan  Vradwg,  both  North  Britons, 
about  the  year  557.  This  battle,  in  the  Trictdes,  is  called  one  of 
the  three  trifling  battles  of  Britain ;  that  is,  occasioned  by  trifles. 
Cad  Goddeu  was  one  of  them,  which  see.  Cad  Gtemlan  was 
another ;  and  this  was  the  third,  and  occasioned  by  no  greater 
a  matter  than  two  shepherds  falling  out  about  a  lark's  nest; 
where  one  killed  the  other,  and  the  quarrel  spread  itself  from 
two  families  to  two  principalities.     See  Owenddolau  ap  Ceidio. 

A  morose  critic  may  observe  upon  this,  that  it  is  no  wonder 
the  Britons  have  lost  their  land  and  power  to  the  Saxons,  Danes, 
and  Normans,  when  they  could  be  such  great  idiots  as  to  have 
a  national  quarrel  about  a  bird's  nest,  a  bitch  and  buck,  or  a 
box  on  the  ear.  But  history  will  shew  us  several  instances, 
among  other  nations,  of  great  wars  and  revolutions  in  empires 
occasioned  by  as  little  trifles.  The  most  prodigious  armament 
in  history,  which  was  Xerxes's  war  against  the  Greeks,  had  no 
greater  a  beginning  than  a  Greek,  who  was  the  Queen's  physi- 
cian, having  a  longing  to  see  his  country,  represented  this  expe- 
dition in  such  a  glorious  light  to  his  mistress,  that  the  King  had 
no  rest  of  her- night  or  day  till  he  undertook  it. 

The  occasion  of  putting  all  Greece  in  arms  to  destroy  the 
kingdom  of  Priam  and  his  Trojans,  was  an  youthful  Queen  gave 
hints  that  she  might  be  run  away  with,  while  the  husband 
thought  she  was  taken  away  by  force. 

Count  Julian's  daughter's  amour  with  Boderic  King  of  Spain 
was  the  cause  of  bringing  over  from  Africa  an  army  of  above 
two  hundred  thousand  Moors,  who  subdued  the  country  in  eight 
months,  and  kept  possession  of  it  eight  hundred  years,  in  which 
were  fought  3,609  battles. 

And  to  conclude  this  head,  Voltaire,  in  his  Age  of  Lewis  14th, 
says  that  the  Duchess  of  Marlborough  refusing  Queen  Anne  of 
England  a  pair  of  gloves  which  had  been  sent  her  from  abroad, 
and  by  an  affected  negligence  spilling  some  water  on  Lady 


212  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Marsham's  gown,  gave  a  decisive  turn  to  the  affairs  of  Europe  ; 
for  upon  this  the  Duke  of  Marlborough  was  called  home  from 
the  command  of  the  army,  and  all  the  British  schemes  knocked 
in  the  head.     (Pens^  Diver,  scr.  d  un  Dod,  de  Sorbonne,) 

GwAiTHFOED  (n.  pr.  v.).  Gwaithfoed  Fawr,  arglwydd  Cer- 
edigion. From  him  the  Pryses  of  Gogerthan,  etc.,  derive  them- 
selves. 

GWAITH  Gabth  Maelawc  or  Garth  Meiliog,  a  battle  fought 
in  North  Wales  by  Bhodri  Molwynog  and  the  Saxons,  in  which 
he  got  the  day.     (Powel,  Caradoc,  p.  14.) 

GwAiTH  GoDDAU  and  Cad  Goddau,  the  battle  or  action  of 
Goddau.    (Tn  47.) 

GWAITHHENGAR  ap  Elffin. 

GwAiTH  Llanfaes,  in  Anglesey,  a.d.  818  {MS.) ;  I  suppose 
with  Egbert,  King  of  the  West  Saxons,  who  at  this  time  spoiled 
Eiryri.     (Caradoe  in  Mervyn.) 

GWAITH  Llwtn  Dafydd,  Ceredigion. 

Dyfod  at  Waith  Llwyn  Dafydd 

Da  fan  gan  bob  dyn  a  fydd. — D.  ap  leuan  Du. 

GWAiTH  Machawy,  a  battle  fought  by  Gruffudd  ap  Llewelyn, 
Prince  of  Wales,  with  Bandulph  Earl  of  Hereford,  when  Gruffudd 
destroyed  Hereford,  and  burnt  the  Cathedral,  and  killed  the 
Bishop,  A.D.  1055.  It  seems  there  were  two  battles  then  fought, 
one  at  Machawy,  where  Bandulph  might  be  an  auxiliary  with 
Gruffudd  ap  Rhydderch  ap  lestyn ;  and  the  other  within  tWo 
miles  of  Hereford,  as  above.  But.  qu.  whether  Machawy  doth 
not  fall  into  the  Wy  near  Hereforf  ?    See  ^r,  Cambr, 

GwAiTH  MoELFRE,  the  battle  of  Moelvre.  [Tal  Moelfre, 
Mon,  qu.?—  TV,  D.] 

GwAiTH  Pencoet  :  see  Pencoet, 

GwAiTH  Vaddon,  A.D.  520  (^r.  Cambr,  M.  W.),  the  battle 
of  Mons  Badonicus  in  Gildas.  This  battle  is  mentioned  in  an 
ancient  MS.  chronology  in  these  words :  "  0  oes  Gwrtheym 
Gwrthene  hyd  waith  Vaddon  pan  ymladdodd  Arthur  a'i  hyneif 
a'r  Saeson  ac  y  gorfu  Arthur*';  i.  0.,  From  the  age  of  Gwrtheym 
Gwrthene  to  the  battle  of  Badon,  when  Arthur  and  his  elders 
{majores,  lieutenants  or  inferior  princes)  fought  the  Saxons,  where 
Arthur  overcame,  etc. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  213 

GwAL  Sever,  Severus's  Wall ;  called  also  Mur  Sever ^  and  by 
the  English  the  Picts'  WalL  Jno.  Major  calls  it  Muro  Tiroali 
(1.  i,  fo.  9) ;  and  in  1.  ii,  c.  3,  he  says  that  some  say  it  was  built 
by  Bilemis,  a  British  King,  meaning,  I  suppose,  Beliniis, 

GwAL  Y  ViLiAST,  a  crpmlech  in  the  parish  of  Ilanboydy,  Caer- 
marthenshire,  called  also  Bwrdd  Arthur.     (R  Llwyd) 

GwALCHMAi  (n.  pr.  v.),  literally  the  Hawk  of  May.  I  am  sur- 
prised how  Galfrid  and  others  could  Latinize  it  Walganvs,  Men 
noted  of  this  name  were — 

GwALOHMAi  AP  GwYAR,  One  of  King  Arthur's  generals,  and,  I 
suppose,  his  sister  Anna's  son  by  Gwyar,  a  second  husband,  and 
so  but  haK-brother  to  Medrod,  who  was  son  of  liew  ap  Cyn- 
farch.  He  is  often  mentioned  in  the  THades  as  a  great  orator, 
Aurdafodiog  {Tr,  82),  deifniawc  (2V.  10).  He  was  killed  in  a 
battle  between  Arthur  and  Medrod,  on  Arthur's  landing  in 
Britain.  (Tysdlio,)  He  was  lord  of  Castell  Gwalchmai  yn  Ehos ; 
i.  e.,  Eoose,  near  Milford  Haven.  About  the  year  1080  the 
sepulchre  of  Walwey  (Gwalchmai),  King  Arthur's  sister's  son, 
was  found  upon  the  sea-shore  in  the  country  of  Eos  (now  called 
Eoose),  and  the  place  is  shewn  between  the  Isles  of  Skomar  and 
Skokham  in  Pembrokeshire.  The  body,  by  estimation,  upon 
viewing  of  the  bones,  was  thought  to  be  14  foot  in  length.  He 
ruled  that  country  which  to  this  day  is  called  Walwethay.  He 
was  a  noble  and  valiant  warrior  of  good  reputation.  (Matth. 
Paris,  p.  17,  apud  Garadoc,  Dr.  PoweL)  Ymddiddan  rhwng 
Trystan  a  Gwalchmai. 

Gwalchmai  [ap]  Meilir  o  Fon,  son  of  Meilir  Brydydd,  both 
excellent  poets  and  warriors.  Meilir  was  cotemporary  with  Gr. 
ap  Cynan,  and  wrote  that  famous  poem  on  the  battle  of  Mynydd 
Cam,  when  Trahaearn,  reigning  Prince  of  North  Wales,  was 
killed  by  Gr.  ap  Cynan,  a.d.  1079.  It  was  by  way  of  prophecy 
after  the  event  had  happened, — the  safest  way  of  prophesying. 
Gwalchmai,  son  of  Meilir,  wrote  in  the  time  of  Owain  Gwynedd, 
Prince  of  North  WjJes.  His  description  of  the  sea-fight  on 
Menai  is  inimitable,  and  it  seems  he  himself  had  a  share  in  the 
action.  We  have  several  poems  of  his  to  Owain  Gwynedd,  who 
began  to  reign  a.d.  1138,  and  died  1169.  In  one  of  them  he 
brings  him  from  iEneas.  This  seems  to  be  one  of  his  first  poems 


214  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

to  Owain  Gwynedd,  for  he  says  as  a  reason  to  come  in  favour 
with  him,  that  his  father  had  sung  the  praises  of  0  wain's  father. 

Prydodd  fy  nhad  ith  fraisg  frenhin  dad. 

GwALLAWG,  GwALLAwc,  or  GwALLOG  (u.  pr.  V.),  Lat.  Galgacus; 
hence  Sam  WcUlog  in  Ceretica,  a  spot  of  foul  ground  in  the  Bay 
of  Cardigan,  where  it  is  said  the  country  of  Gwyddno  was 
drowned.     See  Oalgacus. 

GwALLOG  AP  Llienog  or  GwALLAWG  AP  Llebnawc,  of  Salis- 
bury, a  general  of  King  Arthur's,  was  killed  in  the  battle  fought 
in  Gaul  between  Arthur  and  the  Somans,  a.d.  541.  {TyssiUo.) 
[This  was  the  Galgacus  of  Tacitus,  and  not  Arthur's  general. — 
W.D.'\  He  is  called  by  Camden  (in  his  Description  of  Caledonia 
in  Scotland)  Gralauc  ap  Uiennauc,  and  which  he  Latinizes  Gal- 
^cus.  He  was  not  the  Galgacus  mentioned  by  Tacitus,  as  he 
(Camden)  would  have  it.  He  quotes  in  Caledonia  the  Triadwm 
Liber,  which  by  Gibson,  his  translator,  is  called  the  Book  of 
TripUcities.  But  neither  of  them  knew  anything  of  this  book ; 
and  it  would  have  been  more  to  Mr.  Camden's  credit  if  he  had 
totally  denied  the  authority  of  it,  rather  than  giving  it  the 
highest  encomiums  in  some  parts  of  his  works,  and  denying  in 
other  places  that  very  Arthur  who  this  book  so  aggrandises 
throughout  the  whole,  that  it  appears  to  have  been  wrote  purely 
to  describe  Arthur's  greatness.  But  even  the  great  Camden, 
when  he  acts  out  of  his  sphere,  is  but  like  another  man.  See 
Vaughan's  Genealogical  Tables  at  Hengwrt,  where  Onion  Greg, 
daughter  of  Gwallawc  ap  Ueenawc,  is  said  to  have  married 
Meurig  ap  Idno  ap  Meirchion  ;  and  Uy  warch  Hen,  one  of  King 
Arthur's  privy  council,  was  a  grandson  of  the  same  Meirchion. 

Tri  phost  cad  Ynys  Prydain  (i.  «.,  the  three  pillars  of  battle  of 
the  Isle  of  Britain) ;  Dunawt  Fur  mab  Pabo  Post  Prydain ; 
Gwallawc  ap  Lleenawc ;  a  Chynfelyn  Drwsgyl.  Thus  the  Triades. 
"  PwyUe  Wallog  marchog  trin."  {Llywarch  Hen  in  Urien's  Elegy.) 
See  Galgacus. 

GwALLTER.  Walter  Mappseus,  otherwise  Calenns,  a  Cambro- 
Briton,  Archdeacon  of  Oxford  about  the  year  1150.  Leland 
{Script  Brit,,  c.  157)  mentions  him  with  honour  as  the  person 
that  brought  the  copy  of  the  British  History  over  from  Anno- 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  215 

rica,  and  that  he  made  a  translation  of  it  as  well  as  Galfrid  See 
some  sayings  of  this  Gwallter  in  Camden's  Bemains, 

GwALLT  EuKAiD.  Llewelyn  Wallt  Euraid  ap  Madog  ap  Llew- 
elyn. 

GwALLTWEN,  merch  Afallach,  a  concubine  of  Maelgwn,  and 
mother  of  Bhun  ap  Maelgwn. 

GwANAS,  a  place  in  Meirion.     Here  one  Gwrgi  was  slain. 

{D.  J.) 

Bhifo  gwawn  rh'of  a  Gwanas. — L.  Gl,  Cothi, 

See  "  Englynion  y  Beddau." 

Y  Beddau  Einion  Gwanas. 

GwANiA,  Chirkland,  Tref  y  Waun. 

GwiR.     Elidir  War. 

GwANAR  (n.  pr.  v.),  Gwanar  mab  Lliaws  ap  Nwyfre,  a  general 
of  the  Britons,  sister's  son  of  Caswallon,  that  reigned  here  when 
Julius  Caesar  invaded  Britain.     (Tr.  40.) 

Bbli  Mawb  ftp  Mavooar,  King  of  Britftin 

! 

Llvdd,  King  Nthviaw,    Llevblts,    Caswallon,  ABiABBH0i>==LliftW8 

of  Britain,  killed  by       killed  in          King  of                          j      ap 

killed  by  his  Julius            Gaul             Britain                          I  Nwjfre 

brother,  Cas-  Caasar J 

wallon      I  .                                   I 

GwAHAB,    GwBirwTirwTV  or  Gwbnwtn,  the  two  generals. 

Cfiesar,  in  his  Commentaries,  says  that  the  Britons  had  assisted 
the  Gauls  in  their  wars  with  the  Bomans  before  he  invaded 
Britain.  The  Triades  says  that  Gwenwynwyn  and  Gwanar,  of 
Arllechwedd,  sons  of  Lliaws  ap  Nwyfre  and  of  Arianrhod  their 
mother,  daughter  of  Beli,  went  with  their  uncle,  Caswallon  ap 
Beli,  beyond  sea  after  the  Cadsarians  {i.  e,,  the  Bomans,  or  Caesar's 
people),  with  an  army  of  61,000  men,  and  that  they  all  settled 
in  Gwasgwyn,  and  never  returned.  (2V.  40.)  This  was  when 
Caesar  warred  with  the  Gauls,  before  the  invasion  of  Britain. 
Mr.  Edw.  Llwyd,  in  his  Archceohgia  BrUannica  (Brit.  Preface), 
having  hit  upon  a  bad  copy  of  the  Triades,  was  not  able  to 
imderstand  this  passage,  nor  that  of  the  auxiliaries  granted  to 
Urp  Luyddog.  See  Urp,  But  yet  it  raised  his  curiosity  to  ex- 
amine into  the  language  of  Gwasgwyn  (i.  e.,  Gascony),  and  he 


216  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

found  a  very  great  affinity  between  it  and  the  British,  which 
corroborates  this  passage  in  the  Triades,  and  also  that  passage 
in  the  British  history  where  it  is  said  that  Llefelys,  a  son  of 
Beli  Mawr,  had  the  dominion  of  a  country  in  Gaul  by  marriage ; 
and  it  is  natural  to  think  that  this  very  Llefelys  was  him  who 
Caesar  calls  Divitiacus,  who  had  property  in  Britain,  or  at  least 
a  son  of  his. 

GwAREDDOG  or  GwAREDOG,  in  Arvon,  where  Beuno  began  to 
build  a  monastery,  but  was  hindered  by  a  woman.  Qu.,  Gwt- 
edog  ? 

GwARTHEFYN  Beo  Dynod.  (Llywo/rch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cad- 
wallon.)    Whether  Gw8u*thefin  be  not  the  name  of  the  place  ? 

GwARTHENioN,  in  Nennius.     See  Choortigem, 

GwABTHRENiON,  One  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Ar- 
wystlL     (Price's  Descript)     See  Owrtheyrnion. 

GwARTHTJNioN,  a  name  coined  by  Nennius  [or]  his  interpolator, 
out  of  Gwrtheymion,  the  name  of  a  country,  to  favour  a  silly 
fable  of  a  country  given  to  St.  German. 

GWAS  (Y)  Teilaw  o  Went 

GwASANE  or  GwYSANE,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Denbighshire. 
Davies,  a  noted  botanist  and  antiquary. 

GwASGWYN,  Grasgoigna  The  Triades  mentions  an  army  of 
61,000  Britons  that  w^ent  to  this  country  to  assist  the  Gauls 
against  the  Eomans  under  Caswallon  ap  Beli  Mawr  and  his 
nephews,  Gwenwynwyn  and  Gwanar,  but  never  returned.  (?V. 
40.)     See  Gwanar. 

GWATCIN,  Watkin. 

GwAUN  Breuan,  in  Llanrhaiadr,  Denbighshire  [pronounced 
Breton, —  W,  2>.]. 

GwAUN  Farteg,  in  Badnorshire. 

GwAUNYNOG,  a  gentleman's  seat.  {J,  D)  Middleton's.  Qu., 
Gwenynog  (^  gwenynyi 

GwAUNYSGOR,  a  church  and  parish  (R.),  Flintshire. 

GwAUNYTTYD  (n.  L).  Here  a  battle  was  fought,  ad.  1074, 
between  the  sons  of  Cadwgan  ap  Bleddyn  and  Bhys  ap  Owen, 
King  of  South  Wales,  where  Ehys  was  defeated,  but  still  kept 
the  land.     {Oaradoc  in  Trahaiam.) 

GwAWR  verch  Brychan,  gwraig  Elidir  Lydanwyn. 


CELTIC   REMAINS.  217 

GwEDiR,  a  gentleman's  seat  near  Llanrwst  {S.  Tudur),  com- 
monly pronounced  Gwydyr,  but  rightly  Grwaedei*w  [or  Gwaed-tir. 
See  Gwydir, — W,  -D.]. 

GwEDRAWS  or  GwEDROS,  probably  Gwaedros,  a  place  in  Car- 
diganshire ;  though  I  find  Deio  ap  leuan  Du  writes  it  Gwedraws, 

Ei  gampaa'r  gwyliau  wr  gwiw  liaws  frjd 
O  frodir  Caerwedraws 

Ai  gjwydd  oedd  gaws. 

See  Oaerwedros, 

GwEFLHWCH.  Elgan  Gweflhwch ;  in  another  place,  Gwefl 
Ffloch. 

GwEHELYTH,  a  family  or  clan.  Gwehelythau  a  llwythau 
Cymru. 

GwEiLCHiON,  the  people  and  lands  of  GwalchmaL  {Givelygordd- 
au  Poivys.) 

GWEIR  (n.  pr.  V.)  [Trioedd  y  Meirch,  1);  hence  Llwyn  Gwair, 
Pembrokeshire. 
GwEiRGURYT  Fawr.     (TV.  87.) 

GWEIRVYL,  GWERFYL,  GWERFUL,  and  GWEIRYL  (n.  pr.  f.).  Bet- 
tws  Gweirvyl  Goch,  a  church  and  parish  in  Merionethshire,  in 
the  deanery  of  Edeirnion,  St.  Asaph  diocese. 

Gorwedd  ym  Mettws  Gwerful 
Goch,  hen  oedd  y  wraig  a  chal. 

GwEiRYDD  ap  Cynfelyn  ap  Teneuan  ap  Lludd  ap  Beli  Mawr. 
This  Gweirydd  is  Latinized  by  Galfrid,  Arviraffvs,  which  makes 
me  suspect  the  name  might  be  also  wrote  Arweirydd,  By  some 
of  our  British  writers  he  is  also  called  Gweirydd  Arwyneddog, 

GWELW  GwiNFFRWD  ap  Davydd  Ddu  Taerus. 

GWELYGAN. 

Ac  y  ar  welagan  gynnif  rjssed. 

Gorh/]ffedd  H.  ap  0,  Gwynedd, 

Qu.  whether  a  place  where  a  battle  was  fought  between  Gwynedd 
and  Powys,  where  H.  ap  Owain  Gwynedd  behaved  gallantly  ? 

GwBLL  ap  Llywarch  Hen,  buried  at  Rhiw  Felen.  {Llywarch 
Hen) 

GWEN  (n.  pr.  v.),  one  of  Llywarch  Hen's  sons  killed  by  the 
Saxons  [on  the  banks  of  Morlas. —  W.  7).]. 

28 


218  CELTIC   REMAINS. 

GwBN  ap  Gronw. 

Gwyrda  oedd  Wfin  a  B^n-^^yn. — L.  Q,  Cothi. 

GWENABWT  (n.  pr.  v.). 

A  cbyssul  a  rofi  i  Wenabwy 

Nad  fid  ieaangc  serchog  eyberw  vaocwy. — Hoi.  Myrddin, 

GwANASSEDD  verch  Eeun  Hael. 

GwENDRAETH  Vechan,  a  river  in  Cydweli.  (Camden's  BrUan^ 
nia  in  Caennarthenshire.) 

GwENDDOLEN,  Queen  of  Britain,  and  widow  of  Locrin.  See 
Lloegrin  Gawr. 

GwENDDOLAU,  a  Prince  or  general  of  the  northern  Britons  of 
Celyddon,  in  the  civil  war  when  the  great  battle  of  Arderydd 
was  fought  in  Scotland.  He  was  an  auxiliary  of  Aeddan  Vrad- 
awg.  Myrddin  Wyllt,  in  his  Hoiane,  calls  him  his  lord.  He  is 
mentioned  in  the  Triades  by  the  name  of  Gwenddolau  ap  Ceid- 
iaw,  iin  o^r  tri  tharw  cad  Ynys  Brydain  (one  of  three  bulls  of 
war) ;  and  in  the  34th  Triad  it  is  said  that  his  clan  or  army 
maintained  their  ground  for  six  w^eeks  after  their  lord's  death. 
This  battle  was  fought  at  Rhodwydd  Arderydd,  in  Scotland, 
about  the  year  557,  between  Aeddan  Vradog  and  Khydderch 
Hael  of  Alclud,  etc.  Gwenddolau  had  two  vultures  which  he 
fed  with  the  bodies  of  South  Britons.  They  were  killed  by 
GaU,  mab  Dysgyfedawg.   {Tr.  37.) 

GwENDDWR,  a  parish  and  village  in  Brecknockshire. 

GwENDDYDD  (n.  pr.  f.).     Also  the  morning  star,  Venus. 

GwENDDYDD,  sister  of  Myrddin  Wyllt,  some  of  whose  poems 
are  by  way  of  dialogue  between  him  and  her.  Some  hint  that 
she  was  not  his  sister,  but  his  mistress,  which  I  believe  is  a 
mistake. 

GwENDDYDD  verch  Brychan,  Santes  Tnhowyn  Meirionydd ; 
eraill  a'i  geilw  Gwarddydd. 

GwENEDOTA  {Nennitis),  Gwynedd. 

GwENER  (n.  f.),  the  name  of  several  of  the  princesses  of  the 
ancient  Celtse,  adored  by  the  Romans^  &c.,  by  the  name  of 
Venvs;  genitive  case.  Veneris;  and  is  derived  from  gwin  bSr, 
i.  $.,  a  sweet  smile, — the  smiling  goddess :  hence  Dydd  Owener 
in  the  British,  i.  e.,  Du$  Veneris.    If  her  name  came  fropi  gwefna^^ 


CELTIC  BEMAINS.  219 

white  or  fair,  it  would  have  been  Gwenner  or  Gwenno»  which  in 
the  name  of  Juno. 

Doeth  ooeth  cywrennin  gwin  a  Gwener  (wine  and  Yenus). 

Ein.  ap  Gwgan,  to  Lhi.  ap  lorwerth. 

GwENEU  ap  Edvedd  o  Frecheiniog. 

GwENFKEWi  Santes,  daughter  of  Biychan,  abbess  at  Gwyth- 
erin  (MS,) ;  in  English,  Winifred  Saint.  Eobert,  Prior  of  Shrews- 
bury, hath  wrote  her  life,  and  before  him  Elerius,  Abbot  of  Gwyth- 
erin,  as  saith  Brit,  Sanct  She  is  said  to  have  lived  in  the  time  of 
King  El  with  (qu.,  who  was  he  ?),  and  was  daughter  to  a  British 
lord,  Thewith  or  Trebwith,  who  granted  Beuno  lands  to  build  a 
church,  under  whose  care  she  was  brought  up  a  nun.  Caradoc, 
son  of  Alain,  Prince  of  that  country,  cut  off  her  head,  because 
she  would  not  consent  to  lie  with  him.  Beuno  put  it  on,  and 
brought  her  to  life.  A  well  (Holywell) — Ffynnon  Gwenfrewi — 
sprung  out  where  her  head  feU^  etc.  In  her  time  Deifer  was  an 
anchoret  at  Botaver  (Botvari),  and  Satumus  at  Henthlant  (Hen- 
Uan) ;  and  Elerius  Abbot  of  Gwytherin,  who  buried  her,  and 
where  St.  Kebius  and  St.  Senan  were  buried,  and  the  Abbess 
Theonia,  after  whom  Winifred  became  abbess.    {Brit,  Sand,) 

In  the  legend  of  the  British  Saints  we  have  the  life  of  a  lady 
of  this  name,  called  Santes  Gwenfrewi ;  but  no  author  of  note 
mentions  any  such  a  woman.  Tudur  Aled,  the  poet,  about  the 
year  1450,  hath  versified  her  legend  as  believed  in  those  days. 
We  have  no  such  name  in  our  ancient  British  history  as  Gwen- 
frewi.    See  Winifrtd  and  Beuno, 

GwENFFRWD,  a  river  in  Pervedd. 

GwENFEUON,  daughter  of  Tutwal  Tutclut,  noted  for  her  chastity. 
{Tr,  54.) 

GwENHWYFACH  or  GwENHWYACH,  the  Wife  of  Mcdrawt  ap 
Llew  ap  Cynfarch.  A  quarrel  about  two  nuts  (says  Tudur  Aled) 
between  Gwenhwyfar  (verch  Ogyrfan  Gawr),  King  Arthur's 
Queen,  and  this  Gwenhwyfach  {Tr,  47)  gave  Medrawd  a  colour 
of  dethroning  Gwenhwyfar  {Tr,  46),  King  Arthur  having  left 
him  lieutenant  of  Britain  while  he  followed  his  Gaulish  con- 
quest. (Tr,  90.)  This  quarrel  or  pal/awd  (t.  e.,  a  box  in  the  ear) 
about  two  nuts  was  the  occasion  of  the  civil  wat-between  King 


220  CELTIC  KEMAINS. 

Arthur  and  Medrawd,  and  both  were  killed  at  Cad  Gamlan. 
{Tr.  47.) 

GWENHWYFOK,  or  GWENHWYFAWR,  or  GWENHWYFAR  (n.  pr.  f.). 

King  Arthur  had  three  wives  successively  of  this  name.  The 
first  was  daughter  of  Gwythyr  ap  Greidiawl,  probably  a  Nort4i 
Briton  ;  the  second,  the  daughter  of  Gawryd  Ceint,  which  seems 
to  have  been  a  Loegrian  Briton  of  Kent ;  the  third,  the  daughter 
of  Ogyrfan  Gawr,  a  Cambro-Briton  (TV.  59)  dethroned  by  Medrod 
(2V.  46) ;  Cawr,  in  Wales,  then  signifying  a  prince  or  great  com- 
mander,— Cawr  Idris,Cawr  Othrwm,Benlli  Gawr,  and  Rhuddlwm 
Gawr  (Tr.  32).  My  reason  for  the  first  being  a  North  Britain  is 
that  Arthur,  when  he  followed  his  conquests  in  the  island,  left  her 
at  home,  and  she  having  a  former  intimacy  with  Melwas,  a  Prince 
of  North  Britain,  they  contrived  it  so  that  she  with  her  maids  of 
honour  went  to  the  wood  a  Maying,  where  Melwas  was  to  lie 
in  wait  for  her  among  the  bushes  with  a  suit  of  clothes  on  him 
made  of  green  leaves  of  trees.  When  the  Queen  and  her  maids 
came  to  the  place  appointed,  Melwas  started  up  and  carried  the 
Queen  away  in  his  arms  to  his  companions ;  and  all  the  maids 
of  honour  ran  away  in  the  fright,  taking  him  to  be  a  Satyr,  or 
wild  man  of  the  wood.  He  took  the  Queen  with  him  to  Scot- 
land, and  kept  her  for  a  while.  Our  English  writers  (MUton, 
etc.)  wonder  how  a  little  Prince  could  take  away  by  force  the 
Queen  of  such  a  valiant  King  as  Arthur  is  said  to  be ;  but  the 
wonder  ceases  when  it  is  considered  that  the  King  was  abroad, 
and  the  Queen  willing  to  be  ravished  by  an  old  acquaintance. 

Fal  Melwas  yn  y  glas  gl6g. — B,  ap  Gwilym. 

See  Caradoc's  Life  of  Gildas. 

GWENHWYNWYN  ap  Ywain  Cyfeiliog,  rectfe  Gwenynwyn  (alias 
Gwynwenwyn),  ap  Owain  Cyfeiliog, 

GwENHWYSEG,  the  dialect  or  language  of  Gwenwys. 

GWENHWYTAR. 

GwENLLiAN  and  GwENLLiANT,  euw  merch ;  from  lliant,  the  flux 
or  tide  of  the  sea  or  stream  of  a  river.  "  Idem  quod  Gwenllinan 
yidetur."     {Dr.  Davies.) 

GwENLUW,  enw  merch. 

6.\VENi.{.w.G,  recti  GwentUwg,  one  of  the  cantrefs  of  Mor- 
ganwg,  now  in  Monmouthshire.     (Price's  Descr-ijyt,) 


{ 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  221 

Pob  man  blaenan  Morgan wg 

A  deunaw  llan  hyd  Wenllwg. — L.  Gl.  Cothi, 

GwENLLWYFO  or  GwENLLWYDDOG  Saint.     Uanwenllwyfo,  a 
church,  Anglesey. 
•  GWENN  (n.  pr.  f.),  dim.  Gioenno,  Juno. 

GwENNAN,  King  Arthur's  favourite  ship  of  this  name,  cast 
away  on  a  bank  of  sand  near  Bardsey  Island,  whence  the  place 
is  called  to  this  day  Gorffrydau  Casivennan,  i  e.,  the  streams  of 
Caswennan.     See  Gasrvennan, 

GwENNi.     Brogior  [Aberogwr — /.  M,]  wrth  Wenni. 

GwENOG  Sant.  Ilanwenog  in  Cardiganshire.  Fairs  kept  here. 
[Uanwnog  in  Montgomeryshire. —  TV,  I).] 

GwENONWY  (n.  pr.  f.).     B,  ap  Gwilipn, 

GwENOLWYN.  Bodwenolwyn,  Mon.  Abergwynolwyn.  Also  a 
river  in  Brecknockshire. 

GwENT,  Lat.  Venta  SUurum,  one  of  the  six  parts  or  swyddau 
of  tlie  territory  of  Dinefwr,  now  (with  Eadnorshire)  called  South 
Wales.  Gwent  is  now  in  Monmouthshire,  and  contained  three 
commots,  viz.,  Cantref  Gwent,  Cantref  Iscoed,  and  Cantref  Coch. 
(Price's  Descript)  Caerwent,  Chepstow.  {Thos,  Williams)  Os 
Dwy-went  is  y  deau  {J.  D.).  The  Upper  and  Lower  Gwent. 
Gwent  is  Coed  (Tr.  30) ;  Gwent  uwch  Coed.  Castell  Gwent  and 
Casgwent,  Chepstow.     See  Giortheym. 

GwEN  Teirbron  verch  Emyr  llydaw. 

GWENSI  verch  Howel  ap  Gronw. 

GwENW^EUN  Befr,  a  place  where  llywelyn  ap  lorwerth  had 
his  fourth  camp.     {Gylch  Llywelyn) 

GWENWYN,  the  same  with  Gwenwynwyn.     See  Gwanar. 

GWENWYNWYN  (n.  pr.  v). 

Gwenwynwyn  ap  Naw  or  Naf,  one  of  the  three  admirals  of 
Britain  in  King  Arthur's  time  (Tr.  20) ;  also  a  Prince  of  Powys 
(part  of)  of  this  name,  whence  Powys  Wynwynwyn. 

Gwenwynwyn  ap  Lliaws  ap  Nwyfre,  a  general  of  the  Britons 
under  Caswallon  ap  Beli  Mawr  and  his  nephew.  {Tr,  40.)  See 
Gwanar. 

m 

Gwenwys.  Cadwgan  Wenwys.  Gwenwys,  arglwydd  Bron- 
iarth. 

Gwenwys,  name  of  a  country,  GwentlanJ  or  Monmouthshire. 


222  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Mathafam,  in  Montgomeryshire,  seems  to  be  in  one  Gwenwys, 
for  liywelyn  ap  Quttyn  calls  D.  lioyd  of  Mathafarn, 

Wrfch  hwnnw,  arth  o  Wenwys. — LL  ap  OtUtyn, 

GwENWYS,  the  inhabitants  of  Gwent,  q.  d.  Gwent  weision, 
Gwent  men ;  as  Lloegrwys=Lloegrians,or  the  people  of  England. 

GwENYNOG  or  GwAUNYNOG,  a  gentleman's  seat  near  Denbigh; 
likewise  a  place  in  Anglesey.  [Another  in  Caereinion  in  Powys. 
—  W.D.] 

GwEPPRA,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Flintshire.  Cwtter  Weppra. 
Llyn  Gweppra. 

GwERCLYS,  a  gentleman's  seat.  Hughes.  [Near  Corwen,  Meri- 
oneth.— W,  D,] 

GwERN,  a  place  of  alders,  in  the  names  of  places,  as,  Gwyddel- 
wem ;  Pengwern ;  Glan  y  Wern ;  Pen  y  Wern ;  y  Wern  Ddu, 
etc.,  etc.     [ Y  Wern  Las. —  W,  J9.] 

G  WERN  AN  or  GWERNEN  (n.  1.). 

GwERNAN  ap  Ifan. 

GwERN  Y  Brechdwn,  a  gentleman's  seat.  (/.  2>.)  [Robert 
Llwyd  0  Wern  y  Brychdwn. —  W,  D.] 

GwERNEN  ap  Clydno,  al.  Clydro,  an  ancient  poet.  (E.  Llwyd.^ 

GwERN  Y  FiROGL  {Vinogyl  in  E.  Evans*  transcript  of  Llyfr 
Coch  0  Hergest),  a  battle  fought  between  Owen  Amhadawg  and 
the  sons  of  Owen  Cyfeiliog.  It  is  near  Castell  Carreg  Hova  in 
Shropshire,  near  Oswestry,  A.D.  1187.  Owein  was  killed  by 
fraud  in  that  castle,  in  the  night,  by  Gwenwynwyn  and  Cad- 
wallon  ab  0.  Cyfeiliog.     {Caradoc,  p.  241.) 

GwERNGWY.  Ilys  Gwemgwy  in  Dyfifryn  Clwyd,  the  seat  of 
Efnydd  ap  Gwemgwy. 

GwERNGWY  {Pymtheg  Llwyih)  ap  Gwaeddvawr  neu  ap  Gwaedd- 
gar  (Gwaeddgawr). 

GWERNGWYGID,  where  Gruff,  ap  Cynan  fought  a  battle. 

Qwern  Gwygid  gwanai  bawb  yn  ea  gilydd. 

Meilir  Brydydd^  i  Gruff,  ap  Cynan. 

GwERNLAN,  Watliugford,  qu.  ? 

GwERNYFED,  Gwern  Hyfed,  Gwern  Hyfaidd,  or  Gwem  Nyved, 
a  gentleman's  seat  in  Brecknockshire.    Sir  Herbert  Mackworth. 
GwERSYLLT,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  223 

GwERTHEFiN.  CacT  Werthefin,  a  town  in  the  Forest  of  Cale- 
donia, in  Scotland,  the  native  place  of  Myrddin  ap  Morfran  or 
Myrddin  Wyllt,  the  Pictish  poet ;  supposed  to  be  Dunkeld  in 
Scotland.     See  Cyfoesau  Myrddin  a  Gwenddydd.  (JE,  Llwyd) 

GwERTHRYNiON,  a  castle  and  a  territory  on  the  river  Gwy, 
first  built  by  Gwrtheym  Gwrtheneu,  and  should  be  wrote  Gwrth- 
eymion.  It  hath  been  often  in  the  hands  of  the  Normans, 
English,  etc.  In  the  year  1254  it  was  taken  by  Llewelyn  ap 
Gruflfudd  from  Sir  Eo.  Mortimer  (Powel,  a.d.  1201),  says  Cam- 
den, and  erased  This  is  that  which  in  Usher's  Catalogue  is 
called  Caer  Gwrtheym ;  and  in  the  Triades,  Caer  Gorgyrn  and 
Caer  Gurgym ;  and  in  Nennius'  Catalogue,  Caer  Guorthigime. 
Mr.  Camden^s  account  of  it,  out  of  Nennius,  is  a  monkish  tale 
pretending  a  grant  of  lands  to  St.  Garmon  because  of  the  like- 
ness of  the  name  Gwrtheymion  to  Gtmrth  Union,  two  words 
which  cannot  be  wrested  to  signify  anything  but  reproach  right 
or  right  reproach,  which  is  nonsense. 

Gwrthrynion,  in  my  MS.,  is  also  one  of  the  three  commots  of 
Arwystli,  once  in  Meirionydd. 

GwERYDD  ap  Rhys  Goch,  lord  of  Tal  y  Bolion,  in  Anglesey,  in 
the  time  of  Davydd  ap  Owain  Gwynedd,  anno  1170.  Bore 
argent,  three  leopards'  heads  or  on  a  bend  sable. 

GwERYSTAN  ap  Gwaithvoed  Fawr. 

GwESTUN.    Twr  Gwestun,  a  castle  so  called. 

Dinas  gwestifiant  gostyngws  mal  gwr 
Owestun  dwr  dorradwy. 

GynddelWy  i  Tw.  Cyfeiliog. 

Gwestun  or  Gwestyn,  a  place  mentioned  in  Hirlas  Ywein 

Cyfeiliog. 

Ar  lawr  Gwestun  vawr  gwelais  irdant. 

GwESTYD  (Y),  nomen  loci. 

A  gair  o  ben  gwjm  y  byd 
Gwyr  gystal  ag  o'r  Gwestyd  ? 

8ion  Ceri^  i  Ifan  Goch  o  Gmg  Bryr. 

GwBSTN  or  GwESSiN,  a  river.  Abeigwesyn  in  Brecknockshire. 
GwEUNLLWc,  qu.  GwentUwg  ? 
GwEURFTL,  enw  merch. 


224  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

GwBUEUL  verch  Gwrgeneu,  the  wife  of  GruflFudd  ap  Meredydd, 
and  mother  of  Ywain  Cyfeiliog. 

GwEWENHYR:  see  Wewenhyr. 

GwEYRN  Mawr  (nomen  loci). 

GwEYRYDD  ap  Cynfelyn,  the  76th  Kiug  of  Britain;  rectA 
Gwairydd  or  Gweirydd. 

Nith  gair  yn  llai  na  Gwairydd 
Ni  mynnai  dwyll  mewn  y  dydd. 

D.  M,  Tudur,  i  How.  Colanwy. 

GwEYTHAN,  GwiTHAN,  or  GwiDDAN,  a  battle  fought  at  Gweyth- 
an,  between  the  Britons  and  the  Saxons,  A.D.  867.  Tre  Weithan, 
in  Montgomeryshire ;  qu.,  whether  Forth  Gweythan  in  Cardi- 
ganshire ?     See  Blaen  Forth  Gwithan  and  Tre  Weithan. 

GwGAN,  GwGAWN,  GwGON,  an  ancient  British  name  of  men. 

GwGAN  (Prince  of  Cardigan)  ap  Meuric  ap  Dyfnwal  ap  Arthen 
ap  Sisyllt,  drowned  by  misfortune,  A.D.  872. 

GWGAN,  the  son  of  Gwyriad,  the  son  of  Rodri  Mawr,  died  A.D. 
958.     {Caradoc,  p.  16.) 

GwGAN  Cleddyfrudd,  One  of  the  tri  Tscymydd  aerau  (7V.29); 
Porthawr  gwaith  Perllan  Fangor  {Tr,  66) ;  Gwgon  Gleifrudd 
[Tr,  y  Meirchy  4). 

GwGAN  Wawd  Newydd,  a  poet.  [A  founder  of  a  new  metre 
or  tune,  qu.  ? —  W.  D.] 

GwGAWN  GwRAWN,  mab  Feredur,  one  of  the  tri  Ueddf  unben. 
{Tr.  14.) 

GwHiR  (ap  Owein  ap  Ceredig),  brother  of  Fedrog  Sant. 

GwiAWN  ap  Cyndrwyn,  un  o  dri  phorthawr  gwaith  Perllan 
Fangor.  (TV.  66.)  The  same  with  Gwion,  brother  of  Cyndylan. 
{Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cyndylan.) 

GwiniGADA  (nomen  loci).     See  Widigada. 

GwiDOL  or  GwiDAWL,  a  river :  hence  Rhos  Widol.  [Tr,  69.) 
See  Garth  Qvndol, 

GwiG,  a  river  on  the  borders  of  Scotland,  that  falls  into  the 
Tuedd  (Tweed),  where  the  ancient  Britons  had  a  town  called 
Aberwic  (Berwic).  Hence  came  the  terminations  of  the  names 
of  many  towns  in  England :  Greenwich,  i.  e.,  T  Wig  JA& ;  Sand- 
wich, Gwig  y  Tywod ;  Keswick,  in  Cumberland.  And  hence, 
no  doubt,  came  the  termination  xiyick  in  the  names  of  places  in 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  225 

Germany,  and  towards  the  Baltic,  where  the  Cimbriana  once 
abounded.  Brunswick ;  Sleswick  ;  Bolwick ;  Danswick  (Dant- 
zick) ;  Larwick ;  Hud  wick's  Wald,  etc.,  etc.  [  Vide  Cluverius,  or 
some  such  author. —  TF.  ]).]  And  this  throws  a  light  on  that 
passage  in  our  British  history  which  says  that  one  Gotmiont, 
King  of  Affiric,  who  had  come  with  a  great  fleet  to  subdue  Ire- 
land, was  called  by  the  Saxons  to  their  assistance  after  the 
death  of  Maelgwn  Gwynedd.  And  Gotmwnt  overran  the  whole 
island  of  Britain,  and  gave  all  Loegria  to  the  Saxons,  and  drove 
Ceredic  over  the  Hafren  (Severn)  into  Wales.  This  Gotmwnt  is 
called  by  Giraldus  Cambrensis  OermuTidvs,  and  [he]  says  he  was 
a  Norwegian.  (Top.  Ireland,  c.  24 ;  see  Ogygia,  p.  13.)  The  above 
Ceretic  is  the  same  name  with  the  Oerdec  Elmet  of  Nennius, 
Elved  being  the  name  of  his  country.  Aflfric  or  Afferwic,  there- 
fore, was  the  name  of  some  country  upon  the  Baltic ;  or  else 
transcribers,  not  used  to  those  northern  names,  might  mistake 
Afiric  for  Sleswick  or  Larwick,  etc. 

[Gwig  Fair,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Flintshire,  vulg6  Wickwer. 
Wickwa/r  (L  n.),  a  town  on  the  river  which  runs  from  Chipping 
Sodbury  to  Berkley,  and  so  to  Severn.  Wdcewar  in  another 
map. — W,  D!\ 

GwiLi  (fl.),  that  runs  through  Cwm  Gwili,  and  falls  into  the 
Towi,  Caermarthenshire.  Hence  Abergwili,  a  village,  and  the 
palace  of  the  Bishop  of  St.  David's ;  q.  d.  Gwy  lif.  See  Aber* 
gwUi. 

GwiLTM,  a  name  used  among  the  Britons  since  William  the 
Conqueror's  time,  and  is  always  Latinized  Oulielmus.  It  seems 
to  have  been  formed  from  the  Germ.  Wilhelm  or  Guildhdm,  now 
William,  if  not  from  the  British  Owaywlym.  I  don't  remember 
ever  to  have  met  with  it  in  any  ancient  MSS.  older  than  the 
Norman  conquest.     It  is  also  wrote  Gwilim.    PI.  Gwilymiaid* 

Gweled  gan  Rhys  a  Gwilim 

Abid  du  heb  wybod  dim. — L.  Oh  Oothi, 

GwiNAU  Daufreuddwyd. 

GwiNER  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  Saxon  name,  at  the  battle  of  Bangor  is  y 
Coed. 
GwiNFFRWD.     Gwelw  Gwinffrwd. 

29 


226  CELTIC  EEMAINS. 

GwiNiONYDD,  a  parcel  of  Cardiganshire. 

Trown  yno  trwy  Winionydd 

Clera  defeitia  da  fydd. — D.  cup  lewm  Du, 

The  borders  of  the  river  Gwy,  q.  d.  Ovnjonydd. 

GwiNLLiw,  a  parish  in  Monmouthshire.  Fairs  kept  here  at 
Stow.     See  Gwynlliw  Filvrr, 

GwiON  and  Gwiawn  (n.  pr.  v.). 

GwiON  Bach,  a  poet  mentioned  by  Taliesin  in  his  transmi- 
gration. 

GwiON  AP  UCHTRYD  {Rhys  Ooch  JEryri).  Croes  Wion  in 
Anglesey.  Gwydd  Gwion,  Montgomeryshire.  [Celli  Wion  in. 
Glamorgan. — J.  if] 

GwiRFAi,  a  hundred  of  Carnarvonshire.  Uwch  and  Is  GwirfaL 
Bangor  Fawr  uwch  ben  GwirfaL     (0.  LI,  Moel,) 

GwiRiAWN  ap  Gwynnan  ap  Gwynfy^  Fr^ch. 

GwLAD,  a  country ;  the  people  of  a  country ;  the  government 
of  a  country ;  the  same  with  the  Saxon  set,  as  Somerset,  Gwlad 
jT  Haf;  Westset,  Gwlad  Gwent  Hence  Gwledig,  a  king  or 
governor :  Cynan  Wledig,  Emrys  Wledig,  etc.  Gkiir  y  wlad,  the 
common  report;  i.  e.,  the  country's  word.  Rhoi  ar  y  wlad, 
referred  to  a  jury ;  t.  e.,  to  put  it  on  the  country  or  people.  Dif- 
ferent from  bro. 

Ach  gwyr  oil,  wlad  Fro  Gadell. — Bhys  Nanmor. 

GwLADUS  (n.  f.),  from  gwlad,  a  country.  Several  worthy 
British  women  of  this  name.  So  gwledig,  an  appellation  in  the 
Loegrian  dialect,  signifying  a  prince  or  ruler,  comes  from  gwlad; 
that  is  as  much  as  to  say,  one  that  owns  a  country  or  governs  a 
country.  Emrys  Wledig,  Cynan  Wledig,  etc.  But  Camden 
squeezes  it  from  Claudia ;  but  might  not  Claudius  and  Claudia 
come  from  Gwledig  and  Gwladus  ? 

Gwlad  yr  Haf,  Somersetshire.  Also  a  province  in  France  of 
that  name. 

GwLEDic  or  Gwledig,  a  surname  or  title ;  "  beUicosus*'.  (JE. 
Llwyd)  Emrys  Wledig,  Aiirelius  Ambrosius.  Cynedda  Wledig, 
Cunedagus.  Cynan  Wledig,  Aurelius  Conanus.  Macsen  Wledig, 
Maximus.  Cylyddon  Wledig.  Gwerthmwl  Wledic  o^r  Gogledd, 
and  Gyrthmwl  {Tr.  69).     Oeuroswydd  Wledig  (Tr.  50).     Am- 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  227 

lawdd  Wledig,  sign.  teym.     Casnar  Wledig.    (MMnogi) .    See 
Prtodawr  and  Carvr  and  Yrth. 

GwLYDDiEN  ap  Howy  ap  Arthen. 

GwNDA  or  GwYNDA  Sant.  lianwnda^  Caernarvonshire.  Bod- 
gynda  in  Anglesey. 

GwNLLB,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (J,  D)     Price's. 
,  GwNNE  (n.  pr.  v.).    Davydd  ap  Gwnne  Ddu.     {Extent  of 
Anglesey  in  Tre  Ddestiniet.)     Hence  Melin  Gwnne  in  the  said 
township. 

GwNNEN.    Llanwnnen  in  Cardiganshire.    Fairs  kept  here. 

GwNNiOG  Sant.  Llanwnniog,  qu.  St.  Winoc,  a  Britain  bishop, 
a  follower  of  St.  Patrick  in  Ireland.  Another,  a  cotemporary  of 
Gregory  of  Tours,  which  he  ordained  priest.  (Hist  IV,,  1.  v, 
c.  21.) 

GwYNNW,  vid.  id.  quod  Cwnnws. 

GwNNWS  Sant.     Llanwnnws  in  Cardiganshire. 

GwONNO  or  GwiNlo.  Uanwonno,  Glamorganshire ;  Llanwinio, 
Caermarthenshire. 

GwoRTiGER  Mawr  :  See  Gfwortigem  and  Oaer  Gwortigem. 

GwoRTiGERN.  Caer  Gwortigem  in  Camden's  Britannia^  which 
he  makes  to  be  the  city  of  Vortigern  in  Maelienydd,  in  a  great 
wilderness  which  never  existed;  and  there,  he  says,  he  W6is 
burnt  by  a  fire  from  heaven,  having  married  his  own  daughter. 
These  are  heavy  charges  without  proper  proof.  Tyssilio  says  he 
was  burnt  in  his  castle  of  Gwrtheymion  ar  Ian  Gwy  by  Emreis 
and  Uthur,  the  sons  of  Cwstenin,  who  claimed  the  crown  from 
him.  So  Gwrthrenion,  Gwarthenion,  and  Gwortiger  Mawr,  are 
mere  dreams,  the  latter  being  a  plain  corruption  of  Gwortigem- 
iawn. 

GwRAN  ap  Cynedda  Wledig,  father  of  Maelor,  who  gave  name 
to  Maeloron^  the  two  Maelors. 

GwRANGON:  see  Wyrangon, 

GwRDDFAN  G  AWR  (n.  pr.  v.).  (Dr.  Davies  in  Bann)  See  Ogyr- 
fan, 

GwRECSAM,  in  English  Wrexham,  a  town  and  church  dedicated 
to  St.  Silin ;  perhaps  the  same  with  St.  GUes.  The  situation  of 
this  town  makes  it  beyond  doubt  that  the  Britons,  in  ancient 
times,  had  a  town  here ;  but  its  ancient  name  is  lost.  [I  have 
an  ancient  name  of  it. — W.  -D.] 


228  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

GwREDOG  or  GwABEDOG,  a  chapel  and  parish,  Anglesey.  B. 
Willis  says  it  was  Locus  refugii,  "which  is  a  mistake.  Noddfa  is 
a  place  of  refuge,  or  sanctuary.  This  Gwai-edog  seems  to  be  a 
proper  name  of  a  man. 

GwREi  ap  Cado  of  Bennystrywed  yn  Arwystli. 

GwRFAWR  ap  Cadien  ap  Cynan. 

GwRFYWDYGU,  the  18th  King  of  Britain. 

GwHFYW  ap  Pasgen  ap  Cynfarch. 

GwRGAN  (n.  pr.  v.). 

GwRGENEU.     Eirid  Flaidd  ap  Gwrgeneu. 

GwRGAN  Farfdwrch,  or  Farf  Twrch,  a  King  of  Britain ;  the 
23rd  King  of  Britain.  Camden  writes  him,  Owrind  harmtruch, 
and  says  it  is  spade-beard.  This  shews  his  entire  ignorance  of 
the  language,  and  he  ought  not  to  have  meddled  with  it.  The 
meaning  of  it  is  Gwrgan  with  the  hog-beard. 

GwRGAN  ap  Rhys  died  a.d.  1157,  the  be^t  poet  of  his  time. 
(Caradoc  in  0.  Gwynedd.)  I  never  met  with  any  of  his 
works. 

Gwrgeneu  (n.  pr.  v.),  commonly  wrote  in  English  Vrgeney. 
It  is  of  the  same  origin  with  Gwrgan  and  GwrgL 

Gwrgeneu,  Bishop  of  St.  David's. 

Gwrgeneu  ap  Sitsyllt,  a  nobleman  of  Wales,  killed  by  the 
sons  of  Ehys  Sais.    {Oaradoc,  p.  114.) 

GwRGi  (n.  pr.  v.). 

GwRGUNAN,  qu.  an  idem  Gwrgeneu  ? 

GwRGi  Sant.     Church  at  Penystrowydd,  Montgomeryshire. 

GwRGi  ap  Hedd  Molwynog. 

GwRGi  Garwlwyd,  the  name  of  some  Pict,  it  seems  a  great 
enemy  of  the  Southern  Britons,  who  made  it  a  custom  to  kill  a 
Briton  for  every  day  in  the  week.  He  was  at  last  killed  by 
Diflfedell  ap  Dysgyfedawc  (2V.  37),  and  this  was  reckoned  a 
notable  good  deed. 

GwRGi  and  Peredur,  twins,  and  sons  of  Elifer  Gosgorddfawr 
(Tr.  35),  killed  in  a  battle  with  the  Saxons,  A.D.  584.  {^ra 
Cambr.) 

GwRGON,  father  of  Etheu.    {Tr.  62.) 

GwRGON  Verch  Brychan,  gwraig  Cadrod  Calchfynydd. 

GwRGUSTU,  or  Llanrwst,  where  a  battle  was  fought  a.d.  952, 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  229 

between  North  Wales  and  South  Wales  men  for  the  government 
of  Wales.    [Note. — ^Llewelyn  buried  at  Llan  Ewst. —  JT.  2>.] 

GWRIG.     Caer  Gwrig  {Usher),  Warwick.     See  Wair. 

G^BiN  Sant.  Ilanwrin,  a  church  and  parish  in  the  deanery 
of  Cyfeiliog. 

GWKISNYDD  ap  Dwywelyth,  or  Grisnydd  ap  Dwywylith  ap 
Tegawc. 

GwRLAis,  larll  Kemiw. 

GwRLi  or  GwRLBU.  Caer  Owrh,  a  castle  and  town  in  Flint- 
shire ;  in  English,  The  Hope.  Fairs  are  kept  here.  A  room 
under  ground,  and  coins  and  books  found  there,  February,  1767. 

GwRNERTH  (n.  pr.  v.),  A.D.  610.  {JE,  Llwyd)  Ymatgreg  Llew- 
elyn a  Gwrnerth. 

GwEON  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Gwrawl  gleddyfial  gwrial  Gwron. 

Cynddelw,  Marwnad  Cad.  ap  Madawo. 

GwRTHEFYR  Fendigaid,  the  96th  King  of  Britain,  son  of 
Gwrtheym  Gwrtheneu,  who  called  in  the  Saxons.  Gwrtheym 
was  dethroned,  and  Gwrthefyr  set  upon  tha  throne.  Latin 
writers  call  him  Vortimerus.     {Tr.  45.) 

Gwrthefyr,  the  103rd  King  of  Britain. 

GWRTHEYRN  GwRTHENEU,  the  95th  King  of  Britain,  Earl  of 
Gwent,  Euas,  and  Erging,  on  the  death  of  Constantino,  King  of 
Britain,  brother  of  Aldwr,  King  of  Armorica,  took  Constans,  his 
son,  out  of  a  monastery,  to  have  a  colour  to  reign,  and  to  main- 
tain his  power  called  in  the  Saxons  against  the  Picts  and  Scots 
on  one  side,  and  the  Armoricans  on  the  other,  who  got  at  last 
the  government  of  the  whole  island  after  a  struggle  with  the 
Britons  of  above  700  years.  He  is  called  in  one  copy  of  Nen- 
nius  Gworthigem  mac  Guortheneu,  and  in  the  Triades  Gwrth- 
eym mab  Gwrtheneu.  He  had,  perhaps^  some  claim  to  the 
crown  after  Eudaf,  who  was  Earl  of  Euas  and  Erging  also,  whose 
daughter  married  to  Maximus  the  Emperor.  He  built  the  castle 
of  Gwrtheymion  in  Wales,  wherein  he  was  burnt  by  Emrys  and 
Uthur,  the  other  sons  of  Constantino.  He  is  caUed  by  Latin 
writers  Vortigemue.  Zosimus  says  that  the  Britons  cast  off  the 
Boman  government,  and  settled  a  commonwealth  after  their  own 
liking  (Zosim.f  1.  vi),  which  Selden  says  was  in  the  year  430. 


230  CELTIO  REMAINS. 

(Selden,  Mar,  Olaus.,  p.  248).  So  they  only  changed  Bomans  for 
Saxons ;  and  these  Sttxons  were  diiven  out  by  the  Danes,  and 
they  by  the  Normans. 

Most  writers  say  that  the  Saxons  came  first  to  Britain  in  the 
year  449,  which  doth  not  agree  with  the  time  of  Gannon's  being 
here  to  confute  the  Pelagian  heresy ;  therefore  Camden  (in  Bri- 
tannia,  p.  95)  places  their  coming  in  a.d.  428),  which,  as  Mr. 
Selden  says  upon  better  consideration  may,  perhaps,  be  allowed. 
(Mar.  Glaus,,  p.  232.) 

GWRTHEYRNION :  SCO  Owcrthrymon, 

OwBTHGAiN  ap  Bhys;  perhaps  the  same  with  Gwigan  ap 
Bhys.     See  Owrgeneu. 

GwRTHKYCHLAD,  properly  Gwrthddrychiad,  an  heir.  Spelman, 
in  his  Glossary,  in  AdelingvSy  reads  this  out  of  a  MS.  of  the  Laws 
of  Howel  Dda,  by  mistake,  Vrch/richiad.     See  JSdlin. 

GwBTHEYMUS.  Idnerth  arglwydd  Elfael,  Maelienydd,  a  Gwrth- 
rymus ;  id.  q.  Gwrthynion,  qu.  ? 

GwBTTD  Sant,  qu.  ?    Uanwrtyd,  Brecknockshire. 

GWRWARED  ap  Cyhelyn  Fardd  ap  Gwynfardd 

GwRWARED  ap  Gwilym. 

GwRYDYR  Drwm  ap  Gwedrawc  ap  Geraint  ap  Garanawch  (an 
id.  quod  Caranawc  ?)  ap  Glewddigar  ap  Cynwae  Eychwain  o  Fed 
Rychwain  yn  Rh6s  (i  gii^  and  hydr), 

GwRYAT  (n.  pr.  v.). 

GwRYAT  fab  Gwryan  yn  y  Gogledd  ( JV.  76) ;  one  who  ad- 
vanced himself  from  a  native  tenant  or  slave  to  be  a  King  of 
some  part  of  North  Britain. 

GWRYGION:  see  Wrygion. 

GwTHERiN,  a  village  in  Denbighshire.     Fairs  kept  here. 

GwY,  the  name  of  a  river  in  Wales,  rising  in  Plumlumon 
mountain,  so  to  Bhaiadr  Gwy,  to  Buellt,  and  to  Boss  in  Here- 
fordshire, and  emptying  itself  at  Chepstow ;  by  the  English 
called  Wye;  hence  Dyfifryn  Gwy,  Glyn  Gwy. 

Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  says  that  guy,  uy,  uys,  ey,  y,  and  i,  are  as 
often  the  final  syllable  of  our  rivers  as  Tarn  or  Tau  is  the  initial. 
In  the  Gothic  and  modern  Swedish  aa  is  a  river ;  and  in  the 
French,  eau  is  water,  to  which  the  British  word  answers.  He 
further  adds  that,  seeing  the  water  between  Anglesey  and  Caer- 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  231 

narvonshire  is  called  Meneu,  and  that  St.  David's  is  called  Meneu, 
it,  according  to  that  sense,  signifies  narrow  water,  because  there 
is  a  narrow  water  at  Kamsey,  near  St.  David's.  But  if  Mr. 
liwyd  had  been  better  acquainted  with  our  ancient  poets,  he 
would  have  seen  that  the  water  of  Anglesey  is  always  called 
Menai,  and  not  MeTuu.  I  agree  with  Mr.  Ilwyd  that  wy  and 
gwy  signified  water  in  the  Celtic,  as  appears  from  the  names  of 
several  rivers,  as  Llugwy,  Colunwy,  Elwy,  y  Vymwy,  Dourdwy, 
Cynwy  or  Conwy,  Mawddwy,  Mynwy,  Trydonwy,  Dyfrdonwy, 
Duwyfawr,Duwyfach,Edwy,Pnwy,Machawy,etc.,etc.;  and  from 
awy  or  aw :  Manaw,  q.  d.  Monaw ;  Alaw.  But  in  nothing  plainer 
than  water-fowl :  gwydd,  hwyad,  gwylan,  gwyaeh,  gvryrain,  gwylog^ 
givylym.  Therefore  this  takes  off  the  strength  of  Mr.  E.  Ilwyd's 
argument  that  the  Gwyddelian  Britons  and  us  had  different 
languages  (see  Wysg  and  Zlwch),  for  Gwy  is  a  river  called  by  the 
name  of  water,  as  he  says  the  river  Wysg  is.  Should  not  we 
rather  conclude  from  these  things  that  the  Gwyddelian  Britons 
were  colonies  sent  from  the  country  now  called  South  Wales  to 
Ireland,  as  several  words  in  their  language  agree  to  this  day  not 
to  be  found  in  North  Wales  ;  as  ysgadan,  a  herring ;  llwch,  a  lake 
or  lough ;  eagair,  a  ridge  of  mountains  ;  arann,  a  kidney ;  clebair, 
a  babbler,  etc.,  etc.  [Tsgadan,  plural,  and  ysgadenyn,  singular,  is 
always  used  in  Montgomeryshire  for  herrings. —  W,  i>.] 

GwT,  a  river  mentioned  by  Uywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cad- 
wallon. 

GwYAR,  father  of  Gwalchmai,  nai  Arthur,  second  husband  of 
Anna,  qu.  ?    See  Ghvalchmai. 

GwYDiON  or  GwDTON,  SOU  of  Don,  Lord  or  Prince  of  Arvon. 
This  Gwdion  was  a  great  philosopher  and  astronomer,  and  from 
him  the  Via  Lactea,  or  Milky  Way,  or  Galaxy,  in  the  heavens 
is  called  Caer  Gwdion.  His  great  learning  made  the  vulgar  call 
him  a  conjuror  and  necromancer ;  and  there  was  a  story  feigned 

that  when  he  travelled  through  the  heavens  in  search  of 's 

wife  that  eloped,  he  left  this  tract  of  stars  behind  him.    (D.  J,) 
See  Math  and  Don,  and  Qronwy  Pefr, 

GwYDYR  ap  Cynfelyn,  the  75th  King  of  Britain. 

GwYDYR  Dbwm,  husband  of  the  chaste  Efiliau.     (Tr.  55.) 

GwYDD,  Gweith,  the  Isle  of  Wight. 


232  CELTIC  BEMAINS. 

GwYDDAiNT,  cousm  gennan  to  King  Cadwallon.  (E.  Llwyd, 
ficom  Vaughan's  MS.  Notes  on  Oamden.) 

GWTDDALUS.  Llanwyddaliis  in  Cardigandhire.  Fairs  kept  here. 

GwTDDEL,  Hibemicus,  an  Irisliman  (from  grvydd,  wood) ;  plur. 
Chvyddyl,  the  inhabitants  of  Ireland.  Ireland  was  originally 
called  by  the  Britons  Qwydd  Ynys,  the  Woody  Island  (by  the 
natives^  in  their  own  dialect,  jiiobimj*;  t.  e.,  Insula  Memorosa^ — 
Flaherty  p.  18) ;  and  it  was  natund  enough  for  the  Britons, 
from  whom  they  were  descended,  to  call  them  Owyddyl  or  Gwydd- 
elod.  Wood  Men,  though  they  named  the  island  Y  Werddon, 
i.  e,,  Y  Werdd  Ynys,  the  Green  Island,  which  is  the  British 
name  of  it  to  this  day ;  and  yet  the  inhabitants  are  never  called 
in  Welsh  Owerddoniaid,  but  Owyddelod  or  Gwyddyl.  Owyddd 
(pL  Owyddyl)  signifies  also  foresters,  wild  men,  woodmen,  out- 
laws, wood-rovers,  thieves  of  any  nation.  In  the  legend  of 
St.  Elian  a  Saxon  wood-rover  is  called  gwyddel,  from  gwydd. 

I  Iwyn  o  goed  dan  len  g^l 

Efo'i  gwjddai  7  Gwyddel,  etc. 

Gwedi'r  Sais  o'r  g^aed  ar  sam. — O.  Owyn. 

And  Owyddelyn  is  the  diminutive  of  Gwyddel. 

Gwyddelyn  mewn  gwe  ddalwyd. 

HwD  Oae  Lhoydy  to  the  Ape. 

Gwyddel  is  also  used  as  a  cognomen.  leuan  Wyddel.  Gwyddel 
in  the  names  of  places;  as,  Pentre'r  Gwyddel,  in  Ehoscolyn, 
Anglesey ;  and  Cerrig  Gwyddel,  near  Malldraeth,  Anglesey ; 
Pont  y  Gwyddel,  in  Llanvair,  Denbighshire ;  Pentre'r  Gwyddel, 
in  Llysfaen,  Denbighshire ;  Cerig  y  Gwyddel,  near  Ffestiniog, 
Meirion ;  Cwm  y  Gwyddel,  in  Penbryn  parish,  Ceretica;  another 
in Llanbadam  Vawr,  Ceretica ;  another  in  Glamorganshire;  Cam 
Phylip  Wyddel,  in  Ilanwenog,  Ceretica.     See  Iwerddon, 

GwTDDELEG,  Kngvu  Hibemica,  the  Irish  tongue ;  called  also 
laith  Werddonig,  Flaherty  {Ogygia,  p.  63)  makes  it  consist  of 
four  dialects ;  i.  e..  Law  Dialect,  Poetry,  Picked,  and  Common. 
So  the  language  of  the  poets  in  the  British  differs  much  from 
common  speech,  which  accounts  for  the  obscurity,  at  this  time, 
of  some  poetical  writers. 

GWYDD  Elen  or  GwYDDELEN.  Uanwyddelcn,  parish  and 
church  in  Cydewain  deanery.     See  Dol  Wydd  Elen, 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  233 

GwYDDYL  GoRR,  the  same  with  Eiddilic  Gorr,  a  noted  hudol 
or  magician  mentioned  in  the  Triades  (31). 

GwYDDELiG.  llysiau  Gwyddelig.  Dyn  Gwyddelig,  a  brutish 
fellow  (Cardiganshire),  or  a  morose,  unmerciful  fellow. 

GwYDDELWERN,  a  place  in  Powys  Land,  where  Beuno  built  a 
church,  the  ground  being  given  him  by  Cynan,  King  of  Powys, 
ap  Brochfael  Ysgithrog ;  called  Gwyddelwern  from  an  Irishman 
that  Beuno  raised  from  the  dead,  who  had  been  murdered  by 
his  wife.  {Buchedd  Beuno,  Jes.  Coll.,  Ox.)  Q.  d.  Gwern  y 
Gwyddel. 

GWYDDEN,    or    GWDDYN,   OF   GWTDDIN,    or   GWYDDYN.      Llan- 

wyddyn  or  Llanwydden,  a  parochial  chapel  in  the  parish  of  Han- 
rhaiadr  ym  Mochnant,  county  of  Denbigh  and  Salop.  [A  church 
in  Montgomeryshire. —  W.  D.]  Llanwydden,  a  house  in  Creuthyn, 
near  Conwy ;  but  no  church  near.    Qu.  whether  Glan  Wydden  ? 

GWYDDFA. 

Gwyddfa  Rbnfawn  Pefr. — H.  cup  0.  Qwynedd. 

GwYDDFARCH  (n.  pr.  V.)  is  Marchwydd  transposed,  says  Mr. 
R  Llwyd.     Gwyddfarch  Gyfarwydd.     (Dr.  Davies  in  Proverbs.) 

GwYDD  GwiON,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Bro  Wyddno.  (0.  Gwyn- 
edd) 

GwYDDNO  (n.  pr.  v.). 

GwYDDNO  GoRONiR  or  Garanir  was  lord  of  Cantre  Gwaelod, 
a  large  flat  country  overflown  by  the  sea  about  the  year  500. 

Cwyufan  G wyddno  Garanir 
Pan  droes  y  donn  dros  ei  dir. 

Mwya  Gwyddno  Garanir  was  one  of  the  thirteen  rarities  of 
Britain.  Meat  for  one  man,  when  put  into  it,  would  be  meat 
for  a  hundred  when  it  was  opened.  This  is  generally  taken  for 
some  kind  of  vessel ;  but  I  suppose  it  was  some  new  contrived 
weir  for  catching  fish.  See  Dr.  Davies  in  Mwys,  [This  is  con- 
firmed by  Taliesin  comforting  Elphin,  the  son  of  Gwyddno  Gor- 
onliir,  when  his  weir  was  robbed.  "  Elphin  deg,  paid  ag  wylo", 
etc.—  W.  D,] 

Forth  Wyddno  yn  y  Gogledd,  or  Gwyddno's  port  or  harbour 
in  the  north,  one  of  the  principal  harbours  of  Britain.  See  Ys- 
ceu^yn  and  Gwygyr, 

30 


234  CELTIC   REMAINS. 

CoTtA  Wyddno  is  in  the  mouth  of  Conwy  river. 

Caer  Wyddno  is  a  spot  of  foul  ground  in  Aberystwyth  Bay, 
which  cornea  dry  on  spring  tides.  See  CaTUref  Gwaelod,  Taliesin, 
and  Elphin. 

GwYDDNO  ap  Emyr  Llydaw. 

GwYDDYL  (anciently  wrote  Gwydyl  or  Chvytyl),  the  inhabitants 
of  Ireland,  the  Irish.  In  the  Irish  tongue,  GoaidhU  is  an  Irish- 
man ;  Odoilag  or  Goidheilg,  the  Irish  tongue.  But  the  original  of 
the  name  is  not  found  in  the  Irish.  These  people,  being  the  first 
inhabitants  of  Britain,  were  called  by  the  conquerors  Gwyddyl, 
from  gwydd,  wood,  as  being  obliged  to  skulk  in  wood ;  or  from 
gibydd,  wild  or  savage  ;  and  from  hence  were  drove  to  Ireland, 
or  obliged  to  transport  themselves  in  colonies. 

Gwyddyl  Alban  (in  Irish,  GaoidhU  Alban,  the  people  of  Ire- 
land that  planted  themselves  in  Alban,  now  called  Scotland. 
(Flaherty,  Ogygia,  p.  346.) 

GwYGYR  (fl.),  the  rivers  Gwygyr  and  Mathanen,  in  Anglesey,  \ 

go  to  Kemaes  harbour.  Qu.  whether  the  Forth  Wygyr  of  the 
Triades  (No.  5),  one  of  the  principal  harbours  of  Britain  ?  Beau- 
maris rather.   See  Forth  Wygyr,  Rhyd  Wygyr,  and  Yseewyn. 

GwYL  (n.  pr.  f.),  one  of  King  Arthur's  concubines.  {Tr,  60.) 

GwYLATHR,  larll  Desmwnt.     Vid.  Osbwm. 

GwYLAWC  ap  Beli  ap  Mael  Mynan. 

GwYLFA.    Bryn  Gwylfa,  a  gentleman's  seat.     (/.  D) 

GWYLFYW. 

GwYLiiON  Celyddon,  the  names  of  the  Caledonians. 

Can  Wyllon  Celyddon  cerddant. 

Prydydd  Mock,  i  Lin.  ap  lorwerth. 

GWYN  (fl.) :  hence  Abergwyn. 
Gwyn  (n.  pr.  v.).     Triad  62. 
GwYN,  appellative ;  as  Rhys  Wyn  ap  Ehys. 
Gwyn  ap  Cyndrwyn.   (Llywarch  Hen,  Marwnad  Cynddylan.) 
Gwyn  ap  Golly^yn  :  vid.  Ywain. 

Gwyn  ap  Nudd.    Adar  Gwyn  ap  Nudd  ydynt  i'r  elyrch. 
Gwyn  Gwyarcheu,  mentioned  by  Myrddin.   See  Qruffydd  ap 
Cynan. 
Gwyn,  father  of  Coleddawg.     (TV.  62.) 
Gwynda  Gyoet  (n.  pr.  v.),  and 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  235 

GwYNDA  Keinyat.    {Tr.  Meirch,  1.) 

GwYNDODES,  a  North  Wales  woman. 

GwYNDODTDD,  a  North  Wales  man. 

GwYNDYD,  North  Wales  men. 

GwYNDOR,  i.  e..  White  Breaks,  the  name  of  a  river  in  America, 
said  to  be  given  it  by  the  Britons  who  settled  there  under  Madoc 
ap  Owain  Gwynedd,  a.d.  1144. 

GwYNEDD,  North  Wales  ;  Lat.  Gwyneddia  and  Ouinethia,  Vene^ 
dotia,  and  Venedocia.  (Zeland.)  Mr.  Camden  thinks  it  to  be 
the  Oermania  of  Pausanias,  who,  in  his  Arcadia,  says  that  Ant. 
Pius  had  chastised  the  Brigantes  for  making  inroads  into  G«r- 
mania,  a  province  of  the  Bomana 

Owen  Gwynedd,  etc. 

Llywelyn  ei  enw  o  eisaillydd 

Gwynedd  gwr  dygorbydd. — Hoi,  Myrddin, 

GwYNFA  (n.  1.),  in  Caermarthenshire.  Mathraval  Wynfa.  See 
Maihraval,     Peillged  o  Wynfa  i  frenin  Aberffraw.    {Gyfraith,) 

GwYNFRYN  (nomen  loci). 

GwYNGAD  ap  Nos  ap  Hoyw. 

GwYNGREGYN  (fl.) ;  hcncc  Abergwyngregyn.   See  Garth  Celyn, 

GwYNHYFAR  (n.  pr.  v.),  maer  Cernyw  a  Dyfnaint.  {Ystori  K, 
ap  Kilydd,) 

GwYNLLiw  (n.  pr.  v.). 

GwYNLLiw  ap  Cjmgor. 

GWYNLLiw  FiLWR,  King  of  the  Demetians ;  in  Latin,  Gund- 
leus,  confessor.  See  his  Life  in  John  of  Tinmouth.  Qu.  whether 
Cynllo,  Llangynllo  ?  He  divided  the  kingdom  with  his  six 
brothers ;  married  Gwladus  verch  Brychan  Brycheiniog,  who  was 
father  of  St.  Cynog  and  St.  Keina.  (Brit.  Sanct,  Mar.  29.)  Gwyn- 
lliw's  son  was  St.  Cadoc.  He  was  attended  at  his  death  by 
St.  Dubricius  and  his  son  Cadoc.     {Brit,  Sanct.)     See  Cattwg, 

GwYNNAN  ap  Gwynawc  Farfsych. 

GwYNNAWC  ap  Gildas  ap  Caw,  arglwydd  Cwm  Cawlwyd.  (MS,) 

GWYNNOG  Sant.  Llanwynnog  in  Arwystli ;  also  the  church 
of  Aberhavesp.  Idem  quod  Gwynnawc  ap  Gildas  ap  Caw,  ar- 
glwydd Cwm  Cawlwyd. 

GwYNODL  Sant.  liangwynodl  in  Lleyn.  Qu.  whether  Guinolo 
in  Vertot. 


236  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

GwYNOGiON.  Swydd  Wynogion,  a  commot  (from  Oicyn,  or 
Owyn  ap  Cyndrwyn  in  Llywarch  Hen,  Marwnad  Cynddylan,  or 
Churynnog  St.  Llanwynnog). 

Amgylch  cyminawc  cymynai  Saeson 

At  Swydd  Wynnogion  yd  wynnygai. — Oyndddw, 

GwTNOLWYN  (fl.).     Abergwynolwyn. 

GWYNT.  Caer  WytUy  Winchester  {Th.  Williams),  A-D.  520. 
jEr.  Oamb,  (M,  Williams)     See  Wynt  and  Caermy^tU. 

GwYNWAS  (n.  pr.  v.),  fair  man  (i  ffTvyn  and  gwas), 

GwYNWYS.     Madog  Gwynwys. 

G^YR  was  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Eginoc  in  Carmarthen- 
shire, but  is  now  in  Glamorganshire.     (Price,  Descript) 

G\Vyr,  Tir  G^yr,  in  English  Oower  land  ;  by  Nennius  (Gale'3 

copy),  Ouhir,  where  he  says  the  sons  of  Keian,  a  Scot,  seated 

themselves  till  they  were  drove  out  by  Kynedhav,  a  British 

Prince.     (Camden,  Glam^organshire.)     But  this  Keian  is  called 

by  Sir  John  Price,  in  his  Desaiption  of  Wales,  Olam  Hector,  See 

Glam  Hector, 

Aberllychwr  yn  nhir  Gwyr. 

G^YR.  Maen  G^^,  a  stone  near  Cappel  Curig  in  Caer  yn 
Arfonshire,  and  a  cist  vaen  near  it  (E.  Llwyd,  Notes  on  Camden 
in  Gaennartheiishire),  where  he  seems  inclined  to  think  they  got 
that  name  from  gwyro,  bowing,  because  places  of  worship  in  the 
Druidical  times,  or  else  because  they  are  crooked,  i.  e,,  bending 
or  inclining.  But  aU  stones  set  on  end  do  bend  or  incline  one 
way  or  other.  [Hence  also  cromlech,  from  crymmu,  to  bend  in 
worship. —  W,  2>.] 

GwYRANGON:  sce  Wyrangon, 

GwYRFAi  (fl.),  a  river  near  Llanfaglan  in  Arfon :  hence  Is 
Gwyrfai  and  Uwch  Gwyrfai,  two  commots  in  Caernarvonshire ; 
in  Cantref  Arfon. 

Gwyr  Werniaion,     {Gwelygorddau  Powys,) 

GwYS.  Castell  Gwys,  De  Guise's  Castle,  a  castle  in  Cantref 
y  Coed,  Dyfed,  taken  by  the  famous  Howel  ap  Owain  Gwyneth 
as  an  auxiliary  to  the  sons  of  GrufTydd  ap  Rhys,  who  made  use 
of  battering-rams  and  machines  to  cast  great  stones,  etc.  {Cara- 
doc  in  0,  Gwynedd,) 

One  of  the  commots  of  Cantref  y  Coed.     (Price's  Descr) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  237 

Cost  oil  yw  gwin  Castoll  Owis 

Coety  yw  lie  i  ceid  dewis. — lor,  Fynglwyd, 

Ag  ar  Oastell  Gwys  gogwys  yd  orfu 
Godwrf  Uu  llachiad  gwrys. 

Cynddelw^  i  H.  ap  0.  Gwynedd. 

Gwys,  the  pi.  of  gwas^  a  servant  or  a  youth.  In  the  termina- 
tion of  the  names  of  places  and  people :  Lloegrwys=Lloegrians; 
Argoedwys= people  of  Argoed,  etc.  According  to  ancient  tenures 
the  lordships  and  the  inhabitants  were  bought  or  sold  together. 
So  in  the  Saxon  tenures  in  Doomsday  Booh  we  find  there  were 
in  the  lordships  more  or  less  of  these  kinds  of  inhabitants  belong- 
ing to  them, — servi,  villani,  bordarii,  presbyteri,  radmani,  bova- 
rii,  faber,  molinarius,  francigenae,  praepositus,  picatores,  ancillse, 
etc.,  etc. 

G\Vyth.  Bryn  Gwyth,  a  hill  near  Salop,  where  Llewelyn  ab 
lorwerth  encamped  when  he  took  the  town. 

Pebylhvys  Llywelyn 

Ym  Mryn  G^yth  yn  Amwythig. — Cylch  Llywelyn, 

Gavtthelyn  (n.  pr.  v.)  Caer  Gwythelyn,  Watlingaceaster. 
{E,  Llioyd.) 

GwYTHERiN  Sant  yn  Rhyfoniog.     (MS.) 

GWYTHERIN,  a  parish  and  village  in  Denbighshire.  The  church 
is  dedicated  to  St.  Winifred,  as  B.  Willis  says. 

Gyfarllwyd  (Y). 

Gyffylliog  (Y),  a  chapel  in  Denbighshire. 

Gyfylciii  :  see  Gyfylchi 

Gymwynas  (Y),or  YFilltir  GymioynaSy  a  road  in  Caernarvon- 
shire, through  very  rocky  ground,  supposed  to  be  a  continuation 
of  the  military  way  of  Sarn  Elen  made  by  Helena,  mother  of 
Constantine  the  Great.  (E.  Llwyd,  Notes  on  Oamden  in  Meirion,) 

Gyrthmwl  or  Gwerthmwl  (n.  pr.  v.),  mentioned  by  Lly warch 
Hen. 

Gyrthmwl  Wledig,  penhyneif  ym  Mhenryn  Ehionedd.  [Tr.l.) 

H. 

Haer,  verch  y  Blaidd  Ehudd  o'r  GSst. 
Haer,  daughter  of  Gyllyn  or  Gillyn,  wife  of  Bleddyn  ap  Cyn- 
fyn.     {Caradoc  in  Bleddyn.) 


238  0£LTIO  REMAINS. 

Hafais  (fl.).  Aberhafaifi.  [It  is  Hafea  (baf  heap) = Summer- 
gild,  or  dry.—  W,  R] 

Hafabt.    lenkyn  Hafart. 

Hafod  {k  haf  and  bod),  a  summer  habitation,  a  summer  dairy- 
house.  Several  places  named  from  hence ;  as,  Hafod  y  Bwch,  a 
gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire, — ^Robeits;  Hafod  Uchtryd,  a 
house  in  Cardiganshire,  once  a  seat  of  the  Herberts ;  Hafod  y 
Goven,  a  house;  Hafod  y  Brain,  a  gentleman's  seat;  Hafod 
Lwyddog,  a  gentleman's  seat ;  yr  Hen  Hafod ;  yr  Hafod  Lorn ; 
Hafod  y  Grarreg,  a  gentleman's  seat, — ^Thomas ;  Hafod  y  Maidd, 
a  gentleman's  seat, — ^Wynne's. 

Hafod  Lwyfog,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (J,  D.) 

Hafod  Unnos,  a  gentleman's  seat  (/.  D.). — Mr.  Lloyd ;  in 
Denbighshire. 

Hafod  y  Wern,  a  gentleman's  seat.     (J.  D) 

Hafon,  qu.  ?  Llanhafon. 

Hafren  (fl.).  The  British  historian's  account  of  the  naming 
of  this  river  is  this :  Lloegrin  or  lAocrin,  the  eldest  son  of  Brutus, 
having  met  with  Essyllt,  a  daughter  of  a  King  of  Germany, 
among  the  spoils  of  Humer,  King  of  Hunawt,  who  had  made  a 
descent  upon  Britain  about  1,000  years  before  Christ,  he  kept  her 
in  a  place  under  ground,  unknown  to  his  Queen,  Gwenddolen, 
and  had  a  daughter  by  her,  which  he  called  Hafren  [q.  d.  Hafn- 
ain,  queen  of  May —  W,  D,'\ ;  and  when  Corineus,  the  father  of 
Gwenddolen,  died,  he  advanced  Essyllt  to  the  throne,  and  dis- 
carded Gwenddolen,  who  going  to  Cornwall,  her  father's  king- 
dom^ got  an  army,  and  gave  her  husband  battle  on  the  side  of 
the  river  Furam,  when  Locrin  was  killed,  and  Gwenddolen 
ordered  Essyllt  and  her  daughter  Hafren  to  be  drowned  in  the 
river ;  and  ordered  by  proclamation  through  her  whole  kingdom 
that  the  river  should  hereafter  be  called  Hafren,  in  eternal 
remembrance  of  the  fair  daughter  of  her  husband  Locrin.  Hafren 
seems  to  be  derived  from  Hafriain,  i.  e.,  the  queen  of  summer ; 
from  whence  the  Latin  Sabriana,  now  Sabrina;  in  English, 
Severn.  Camden  says  he  could  never  learn  whence  this  name 
came,  for  that  it  seemed  that  the  story  of  a  virgin  being  drowned 
in  it  was  of  Jeffrey's  invention.  He  might  have  seen  it  in  the 
British  copy  of  Tyssilio,  before  Jeffrey's  time.    This  river  is  also 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  239 

mentioned  by  Uywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cadwallon  and  Marw- 
nad  Cyndylan. 

Hafren.  Cwmmwd  Hafren,  one  of  the  two  commots  of  Can- 
tref  Cydewaiu  in  Powys  Wenwynwyn.     (Price,  Descr) 

Hafren,  enw  merch  Llocrin  Gawr. 

HAIA.DEN.  Llanhaiaden  in  Pembrokeshire.  Fairs  kept  here. 
Qu.  whether  Uawhaden  ? 

Haiarnwedd,  wife  of  Gleiaiar  o'r  Gogledd,  and  mother  of 
Aedenawc.     {Tr.  27.) 

Hair  ap  Llewelyn  ap  Dafydd  Llwck. 

Halawc.  Penardd  Halawg.  Bod  Halawg.  Coed  Halawg. 
See  Tcdog. 

Halchdyn,  Halchdun.  leiweith  Hilfawr  o  Halchdun.  [Now 
Haughton,  near  the  influx  of  the  Vemiw  and  Severn. —  W.  Z>.] 

Halken,  church  and  parish  in  Flintshire,  E. ;  rectA  Helygen. 
Pentre  Helygen. 

Halterennes,  a  place  mentioned  (in  PowePs  Oarad^,  p.  142 
and  148)  to  be  in  Ewyas  land.  It  is  surprising  that  AlU  yr 
Ynys  should  come  out  of  the  learned  Dr.  Powel's  hands  in  this 
shape.  What  can  we  expect  from  Speed,  Camden,  and  other 
strangers  to  the  language,  when  a  man  so  well  read  in  our  anti- 
quities could  commit  such  a  blunder  ? 

Hamladd.  Uanhamladd,  a  manor  in  Brecknockshire.  Qu., 
Hammwlch  ?  Ilan  Hammwlch  parish  in  Brecknockshire.  See 
Ty  nitud. 

Hamon.    Caer  Hamon,  North  Hampton.     {T.  Williams.) 

Hamtwn.    Tir  Hamptwn,  Hampshire. 

Magwyd  wr  llwyd  o'r  He  hwn 
A'th  rent  ynn  na  thir  Hamtwn. 

Hanker,  a  church  and  parish  in  Flintshire,  in  Chester  diocese. 
Sjrr  Gruflydd  o  Hanmer. 

Haran.    Llanharan,  a  church  in  Glamorganshire. 

Hardd.     Cadrod  Hardd. 
,  Harddlech.     {T.  p.) 

Harfyn,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Ffinioc  in  Caer- 
marthenshire. 

Harlech  or  Arlech,  a  town  and  castle  in  Meirion.  See  Llech 
Ardvdwy. 


240  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Haba  Sant,  i,  e.,  St.  Asaph,  of  noble  British  stock :  hence 
Ilanhasa  in  Flintshire ;  and  in  English  the  town  of  Llanelwy  is 
called  St.  Asaph,  after  his  name,  because  he  succeeded  Cyndeym 
Garthwys  (Kentigem)  in  that  bishopric  and  abbacy,  and  whose 
disciple  he  waa  (Brit.  Sand,,  May  1.)  He  had  965  monks  ; 
300  were  labourers  out  of  doors,  300  were  servants  within  doors, 
and  365  learned  and  religious.     {Brit.  Sanct) 

Hayarden,  a  church  and  parish  and  village  and  castle,  Flint- 
shire (in  Welsh,  Pen  at  Lac,  but  rightly  Penardd  Halawc),  in 
Chester  diocese. 

Haves,  R  Aberhaves ;  qu.  Haf  Hesp,  dry  in  summer  ?  Aber- 
hafesp,  Montgomeryshire ;  parish  and  church  in  Cedewain,  St. 
Gwynnog.     [This  gave  name  to  Bedo  Hafesp,  a  poet. —  W.  2>.] 

Hawau,  Hawai,  or  Hawi,  a  place  in  Badnorshire,  where  fairs 
are  kept  [close  to  Llandrindod  Wells. —  W,  D\ 

Hawcwn  or  Howcv\rN,  a  river  which  falls  into  Malldraeth,  at 
Aberhawcwn,  in  Anglesey. 

Hawdd-dre,  in  Baglan,  Glamorganshire.  Canhawdre  in  Car- 
diganshire. 

Hawff.  Tir  yr  Hawflf  (probably  Ehalff),  peth  o  arglwyddiaeth 
Sir  Eoger  Vychan. 

Hawstyn.     Penrhyn  Hawstin,  a  promontory  in  Cornwall. 

Hawys  (n.  f .,  qu.  an  idem  Hawystl  ?) ;  hence  Caer  Hawys  or 
Caerwys.  Several  noted  British  ladies  of  this  name  in  ancient 
times ;  as,  Hawys  Gadam,  etc.  [hence  it  came  a  proverb  for  a 
gigantic  female,  "0  yr  Hawys  fawr !" —  W,  D.]  Hawys  is  derived 
from  haf  or  hav,  summer. 

Hawys  Gadarn,  i.  e.,  Hawys  the  Proud,  daughter  of  Ywein 
ap  GruflFudd  ap  Gwenwynwyn.  Hawys  Gadam,  canys  balch 
oedd.  {MS^  She  was  married  to  J.  Charleton,  a  Norman,  who 
gave  her  relations  great  disturbance. 

Hawystyl  (n.  pr.  f.),  a  Saxon  name.  Hawystl  Drahawc,  un 
o  dri  phorthawr  Perllan  Fangor  o  barth  y  Saeson.     (TV.  67.) 

Hawystl  ferch  Brychan  Brychelniog,  santes  ynghaer  Hawystl. 
Qu.  whether  Caer  Hawys,  i,  e.,  Caerwys  ? 

Hay,  a  town  in  Brecknockshire ;  in  Welsh  called  Tre  Gelli, 
or  Gelli  OandrylL  Camden  says  it  was  well  known  to  the 
Eomans,  for  their  coins  are  found  there.  It  was  burnt  by  Owen 
Glyndwr. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  241 

Hedd  MoLWYiJOO,  one  of  the  Fifteen  Tribes  of  North  Wales, 
lord  of  Uwch  Aled,  and  lived  at  Ilys  Maes  yr  Henllys.  (D.) 
Bore  vert,  a  hart  passant  argent. 

Heddwch,  a  cognomen.  Madog  Heddwch  of  Bhiwlas.  (J.  D.) 

Heiliarth,  nomen  loci  in  Powys. 

Afal  yr  holl  filwyr  ben 

Dros  Heiliarth  draw  o  Sulien. 

leuan  Da/ydd  Ddu,  i  Fred,  ap  Rhys  o  Geri. 

[Qu.  Yr  Heniarth,  near  Llanfair  ? —  W.  D.] 

Heilyn  (n.  pr.  v.),  k  hail.  {Dames.)  Bryn  Heilyn.  Gwaith 
Heilyn,  which  see. 

Heilyn  ap  Llywarch  Hen.     {Llywarch  Hen.) 

Heilyn  Frych  ap  Cynfrig  Fychan.    [Pentre  Heilyn. — W.JD.] 

Heilyn  (Gwaith),  a  battle  fought  in  Cornwall  between  Adel- 
red,  King  of  Westsex,  and  Ehodri  Molwynog,  King  of  the 
Britons,  A.D.  720. 

Helchenb,  in  Doomsdai/BookyGheslme ;  corruptly  for  Helygen, 
a  village  in  Englefield. 

Heledd  (n.  pr.  v.),  un  o*r  tri  thrwyddedawg  ac  anfoddog. 
{Tr.  71.) 

Heledd,  a  sister  of  Cyndylan.  (Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad 
Cyndylan.) 

Heledd  {Triad),  some  northern  islands  ;  I  suppose  the  Heb- 
rides.    O  Erch  a  Heledd  {Triad),  which  see. 

Heledd  Wen  (Yr),  Namptwich  (i  haUn,  salt).  Gyrru  halen 
i'r  Heledd. 

Helen  :  see  Ekn, 

Heli,  brine,  pickle,  salt  water.  Heli  'r  mfir,  sea-salt  water  (i 
halen,  salt).  Qu.  whether  hence  Pwll  Heli,  a  seaport  in  Caer- 
narvonshire, or  from  EU  ?  One  of  the  mouths  of  the  Ehine  is 
called  Helium,  perhaps  from  heli,  salt  water;  but  is  not  the 
others  also  salt  water  ? 

Heug  ap  Glyn  Glanoc  (vel  ap  Glanoc). 

Hbn.    Yr  Hen  lerwerth.     Llywarch  Hen. 

Hendref,  in  the  names  of  several  places,  signifying  old  tewn, 
old  dwelling,  old  habitation,  anciently  inhabited ;  but  is  properly 
the  inhabited  country  distinguished  from  the  uncultivated 
mountains.     There  are  many  places  of  this  name  in  Wales,  or 

31 


242  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

with  Hendref  prefixed.  Mynydd  a  hendre',  i  e.,  common  and 
freehold ;  the  same  with  gwyllt  a  dof,  i,  c,  wild  and  tame,  or 
uncultivated  and  cultivated. 

Hendref,  name  of  a  house  in  Uandyfrydog,  Anglesey ;  Hen- 
dre Gadog,  near  Malldraeth;  Hendre  Velcn;  Hendref  Howel, 
Anglesey ;  Hendref  Mur,  Meirion,  a  gentleman's  seat ;  Hendre 
Bippa,  a  gentleman's  seat  (J.  D.) ;  Hendref  Mynych ;  Hendref 
Urien,  a  gentleman's  seat, — Iloyd ;  [Hendref  Hen. — W,  2>.] 

Hendre  Vigill,  a  gentleman's  seat  («/".  D,),  See  Gorsedd 
VdgiUy  Anglesey.     See  Elian. 

Hendwr  (n.  1.).     Madog  o'r  Hendwr. 

Heneglwys,  a  township  in  Anglesey,  and  now  a  parish 
church.  It  is  mentioned  in  the  Prince's  Extent  (Edw.  Ill,  1352) 
to  be  a/ree  villa  held  of  the  Saints  Franciscinus  and  BaceUinus. 
The  inhabitants  were  remarkably  free,  for  they  were  exempted 
from  bearing  arms,  and  owed  the  Prince  no  services,  or  suits,  or 
rents,  except  a  suit  to  the  two  grand  turns  [circuits —  W,  JD.]  of 
the  Lord  Prince  yearly,  and  a  suit  to  the  Prince's  mill  at  Tin 
Dryvol.     See  Francisdnvs  and  BaceUinus, 

Henfache,  a  gentleman's  seat.  (/.  D)  [Ilanrhaiadr  Moch- 
nant.—  W.  2>.] 

Hen  Fynyw,  Eglwys  Hen  Fynyw,  near  Aberaeron  in  Cardi- 
ganshire, which  I  take  to  be  the  Old  Menevia ;  so  that  instead  of 
BvJyus  Vetus  (Leland  in  Dr.  Davies'  Dictionary)  you  must  read 
Hvdiis  Veins,  i.  e,,  the  old  rubbish  or  ruins  of  Mynyw,  or  the 
ruins  of  Old  Myny w.     See  Hen  Fenyw. 

Henffig,  near  Margam  (in  Modlen),  Glamorganshire. 

Henffordd,  the  town  and  county  of  Hereford,  also  called 
Hereford  East    It  signifies  Old  Way. 

Henffordd  (GwAiTH),the  battle  of  Hereford, between  Gruflfudd 
ap  Llewelyn  ap  Seisyllt  and  Eandolph,  nephew  of  Edward  the 
Confessor.  He  burnt  the  Cathedral,  slew  the  Bishop,  Loeger, 
spoilt  and  burnt  the  town,  and  killed  500  Saxons,  a.d.  1054. 
See  M^acJiarvy. 

Hengwrt,  a  gentleman's  seat  near  Dolgelleu  in  Meirionydd- 
shire.  Here  is  a  great  collection  of  curious  British  MSS.  con- 
taining poetry  and  history,  collected  by  that  great  British  anti- 
quary, Mr.  Robert  Vaughan  of  Wengraig,  ancestor  of  the  present 
owner,  Mr.  Vaughan. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  243 

HenotSj  one  of  the  commanders  of  the  first  Saxons  that  came 
to  Britain  (TV.  48) ;  by  English  historians  called  Hengist;  by 
Verstigan,  Hengistus. 

Henllan^  near  Denbigh,  a  church  and  parish  (V.)  dedicated 
to  St.  Sadwrn.    {B,  WUlis.) 

Henllan,  on  the  river  Gwy,  where  Dyfrig  had  a  college  of 
1,000  scholars,  among  whom  were  Teilo,  Idan,  Sampson,  etc. 
(Dubricius?  Life.) 

Henllan,  Cardiganshire. 

HenliIan  Amgoed,  a  church  and  parish,  Carmarthenshire.  A 
Eoman  inscription  there. 

Henlleu  (n.  1.).     {Einion  ap  Qwalchmai,  i  Dduw.) 

Boed  ef  yn  diben  bod  yn  diblen 

HeU  yn  Enlli  hyd  yn  HeiiUeu. — (I  Qrist,) 

Henpen  (n.  pr.  v.),  un  o'r  tri  glew.     {Tr.  27.) 
-   Henwen  (n.  pr.).   Henwen,  hwch  Dedlweir  Dalben.   {Tr,  30.) 
This  seems  to  have  been  the  name  of  some  ship  which  Coll  ap 
Collfrewy  went  captain  of,  etc.    (TV.  30.) 

Henydd,  an  id.  quod  Hunydd  ?    Sain  Henydd,  enw  lie. 

Henyn  (n.  pr.  v.),  father  of  Garwen,  King  Arthur's  concubine. 
(TV.  60.) 

Henyr  :  see  Ynyr. 

Herast  (n.  1.). 

Herast.    Llewelyn  ap  Herast ;  hefyd  arglwydd  Herast. 

Herbert,  a  surname  of  several  noble  families  in  Britain.  This 
name  was  here  far  before  William  the  Conqueror's  time,  and 
probably  not  Norman.  It  is  naturally  enough  derived  from  the 
British,  and  may  be  originally  a  British  name.  Sirberth,  in 
British,  signifies  tall  and  beautiful;  anciently  wrote  Hirhert 
Herbeirtion  is  the  plural  formed  after  the  manner  of  the  ancients, 
as  Cynddelw  Brydydd  Mawr  in  William  the  Conqueror's  time, 
in  naming  their  clans ;  so  from  Tyngyr,  Tynghyrion ;  fi'om 
Gwalchmai,  Gweilchion. 

O  Herbardiaid  aur  bnrdaL 

Hercles  {J.  D)y  Hercules.    See  Ercwlff. 

Hergest.    Tomas  ap  Eoger,  arglwydd  Hergest. 

Hergest  (n.  1.),  in  Glamorganshire.    [There  is  a  place  of  that 


244  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

name  in  Glamorgan ;  and  another,  I  believe,  in  Montgomeryshire. 
— /.  M,  Herefordshire,  from  whence  came  the  Llyfr  Coch  MS. 
in  Jesus  College. —  W.  D.'\ 

Hergyn,  some  place  in  Caemarvoushire.  See  Ergirvg  and  Eifl. 

Herwnden  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  Saxon,  father  of  Gweattyrn. 

HiLFAWR,  a  cognomen.  lorwerth  Hilfawr  ap  Mael  Meilien- 
ydd.     {J.  D,) 

HiRADDUC,  nomen  loci  [near in  Flintshire. — W,  B.\ 

Dafyddd  Ddu  o  Hiraddue.y  a  learned  poet  and  grammarian. 
We  have  his  Grammar  of  the  British  tongue  and  several  of  his 
poems  extant,  but  not  in  print.  His  translation  of  the  Te  Deum 
is  curious.  He  lived  about  the  year  1380,  and  from  his  know- 
ledge in  natural  philosophy  and  chymistry  he  got  the  name  of  a 
conjuror  among  the  vulgar,  and  abundance  of  strange  stories  are 
to  this  day  told  of  him  and  the  Devil.  His  shewing  artificial 
snow  in  summer-time  made  them  insist  that  he  was  just  come 
from  the  Alpes  on  the  DeviVs  back.  His  erecting  of  bridges  in 
difficult  places  by  the  Devil's  help,  and  cheating  him  of  liis 
pay,  and  his  outwitting  the  Devil  in  everything,  even  when  he 
expected  his  body  when  he  was  dead,  made  the  poor  Devil,  in 
the  hearing  of  all  the  congregation,  cry  out  at  last,  "Dafydd  Ddu, 
ffals  yn  fyw,  ftals  yn  farw !"  i.  c,  false  alive,  and  false  when 
dead.  These  are  stories  that  very  well  suited  the  age  he  lived 
in,  when  the  monks  made  learning  a  crime. 

HiRADDUG  (GwAiTii),  a  battle  fought  at  this  place,  where  Cws- 
tenin  Ddu,  son  of  Idwal  Foel,  was  killed.  (MS.)  It  was  fought 
between  Uowel  ap  leuaf  and  Cvvstenin  Ddu,  son  of  I  ago,  who 
had  liired  Godfryd,  captain  of  the  Danes,  A.D.  970.    (Caradoc.) 

HiRFLAWDD.  Icrwerth  llirflawdd,  yr  hwn  yn  yn  'r  ach  newydd 
a  elwir  lerwerth  liirymladd. 

HiRFRYN,  a  lordship  in  Ystrad  Tywy.    (Caradoc,  p.  274.) 

HiRFRYN  (Caer),  Longcaster  {Th.  Williams).;  rather  Luncas- 
ter,  from  the  river  Lune  in  Lancasliire. 

HiRiETH,  a  river.  Aber  Hirieth  on  the  Dyfi  river.  Rhiw 
Hirieth,  a  gentleman's  seat  [in  Caereinion. —  JV,  Z>.]. 

Hirnant,  church  and  parish  in  the  deanery  of  Welsh  Poole. 

HiRYMLADD :  see  Hirjlawdd, 

Hispaen,  Hespacn,  Spain. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  245 

HiRAETHOG,  one  of  the  two  commots  of  Cantref  Ystrad  in 
Denbighshire :  from  hence  Grufludd  Hiraethog,  a  sound  poet  of 
the  16th  century,  took  his  name.  He  was  the  teacher  of  Wm. 
Lleyn,  Sion  Tudur,  William  Cynwal,  Simwnt  Vychan,  poets  that 
flourished  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  time. 

HiKELL,  Uriel,  an  angel.     See  Gabriel. 

HoAN,  a  King  of  the  Britons  (probably  the  Northern  Britons), 
mentioned  by  ¥LQheTiy,Offygia,  p.  478,  in  the  year  642,  who  beat 
Domnal  Brec,  King  of  the  Scots,  in  the  battle  of  Ystrad  Car- 
maig. 

Hob  (Yr),  the  Hope.     Mredydd  o'r  H6b. 

HoBEU  (Yr).   Stat.  RJmddlan,     See  Flint, 

HoDNANT  (n.  1.),  qu.  a  river  ?     Llywelyn  Brydydd  Hodnant, 

a  poet  anno  Domini  1360.    [The  little  river  of  Llan-Illtud  Fawr 

in  Glamorgan. 

Hyd  y  nant  loy  w  Hodnant  Iwyd. 

Cywydd  Ultud  8anU — J.  If.] 

H'oDNi,  a  river  which  falls  into  the  Mynwy,  and  together  fall 
into  the  Wye.  In  Giraldus  Cambrensis  called  Hodeni.  It  runs 
by  the  abbey  of  Lantony,  which  was  probably  Llan  Ilodui,  or, 
as  Giraldus  thinks,  Nant  Hodni.  This  is  often  confounded  with 
Honddu,  and  even  by  Mr.  Edw.  Llwyd  on  Camden  (a  marginal 
note),  and  by  Dr.  Towel,  Dr.  Th.  Williams,  etc.  See  Honddu 
and  Bliodni. 

HoEDLYW  ap  Cadwgan  ap  Elystan  Glodrudd.  Gorsedd  Hoed- 
11  w  ar  dir  Carrog,  yn  Llanbadrig,  Mon. 

HoFA  and  HwFA  (n.  pr.  v.) :  hence  Carreg  Hova,  Castell  Car- 
reg  Hova,  and  Caer  Carreg  Hova,  in  Shropshire,  mentioned  in 
the  tenth  battle  of  Llywelyn  ap  lorwerth. 

Pobyll  Llywelyn,  etc. 

Ynghacr  Yngharreg  Hova. 
See  Ilivfa. 

Holt,  in  Denbighshire,  a  town  and  castle,  where  fairs  are 
kept ;  called  })y  the  Komans  Leonis  Casti^m.  So  called,  as  Cam- 
den thinks,  from  the  "  Legio  vicesima  victrix",  which  kept  gan-i- 
son  a  little  higher  on  the  other  side  Dee.  He  means  Westchester , 
called  by  the  Britons  Caerlleon  Gawr  and  Caerlleon  ar  Ddyfr- 
dwy  ;  but  Camden  had  a  mind  to  throw  a  veil  over  the  Leonis 


246  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Castruyn,  lest  the  Welsh  antiquaries  should  claim  it  for  Caer- 
lleon.  Leonis  Oastnim  is  literally  Caerllean,  in  spite  of  all 
glosses  and  shifts,  where  the  name  of  the  ancient  King  Lleon  is 
still  retained. 

HoNDDY  or  HoNDDU  (fl.,  hence  Aberhonddu),  falls  into  the 
Wysg  at  Brecknock ;  hence  the  town  of  Brecknock  or  Biych- 
einiog.  (Price,  Descr.)  This  by  English  writers  is  called  Hodni. 
Caer  Hodni,  Brycheiniog.     (Th.  Williams,  Catalogue.) 

Hodni  a'i  fraint  hyd  nef  fry. — Huw  Cae  Llwyd, 
Aber  hydrfer  Hodni. — Prydydd  y  Mochy  i  Llywelyn. 

See  Bhodni  and  Hodni. 

Hope  (called  in  Welsh  Yr  Hob),  part  of  Powys  Vadog,  one  of 
the  three  commots  of  Cantre  'r  Ehiw,  now  part  of  Flintshire. 
Hope  Castle,  Caergwrle. 

HoRAN.  Llanhoran  or  Glan  Horan,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Caer- 
narvonshire. Timothy  Edwards,  Esq.,^  a  captain  in  the  royal 
navy. 

HoRS,one  of  the  Saxons' first  commanders  in  Britain.  (TV. 48.) 

HowEL,  HoEL,  or  Hywel  (n.  pr.  v.),  k  hy  and  wSl,  i.  e.,  sharp- 
sighted.  There  have  been  several  famous  men  of  this  name. 
Hywel,  by  some  made  the  same  with  Huw  or  Hugh. 

Howel  wyd  Haw  o  Ladin 
Haelaf  o'r  gwyr,  heiliwr  gwin. 

HowLBWCH  neu  Howlbwrch,  qu.  whether  Old  Burgh  f  Uow- 
arch  Goch  ap  Llowarch  Howlbwch. 

HowLFFORDD  {GuitoW  Glyn),  Haverfordwest  or  Herefordwest. 

HowNANT,  in  the  parish  of  Penbryn,  Cardiganshire. 

HoYW  ap  Gloyw  ap  Caw  ap  Cawrda. 

HowMON  (n.  1.).  Yn  Adis  [?]  y  bu  varw  Dafydd  ap  Owain 
Gwynedd  ac  yn  Howmon  y  claddwyd  ef.  {MS)     See  Adis  [?]. 

Hu  Gadarn,  an  Emperor  of  Constantinople  that  held  the 
plough,  and  would  eat  no  bread  but  from  corn  of  his  own  raising. 
(Jolo  Goch) 

HUADAIN :  see  Llanhayaden,    Ilanhuadain,  vulgo  Llanhaden, 

South  Wales. 

Pen  ar  ddigrain 

A  chan  Haw  llndwaw  Llanhnadain. 

Ein,  ap  Qwgan^  i  Ln.  ap  lor  worth,  Anno  1230. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  247 

HuAlL,  mab  Caw,  un  o  dri  thaleithiog  cad  Ynys  Prydain.  {Tr, 
26.)  A  hu  and  ail,  i,  e.,  Hywel ;  Hugo  Secundus.  (Br.  Davies) 
See  GUdas  ap  Caw, 

Hubert,  esgob  Mynyw,  a.d.  876. 

HuDWYDD  or  Hydwydd  (n.  1.).  Carreg  Hudwydd,  a  place  men- 
tioned by  Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cyndylan.  Mr.  E.  Llwyd 
thinks  it  to  be  Beny,  a  hill  in  Shropshire,  near  Wroxeter.  Hud- 
wydd, as  Mr.  E.  Llwyd  reads  it,  is  in  Llyfr  Coch  Eergest  wrote 
Hytwyth,  i.  e.,  Hydwyth. 

Stafell  Gynddylan  nid  esmwyth  heno 

Ar  ben  Carreg  Hydwyth 

Heb  ner  heb  nifer  heb  amwyth. — Llywarch  flow. 

HuGANUS,  lord  of  Dyfed. 

Hugo  de  Lacy. 

Hugo  Lupus,  ad.  1092. 

HuGYN  ap  Pagan  o  Gaenan  H&l  tuhwnt  i  Lwdlo. 

HuNAWD,  Hungaria.    (MS.) 

HuNYDD,  daughter  of  Efhydd  (Einudd,  MS.)  ap  Gwemgwy, 
lord  of  Dyffiyn  Clwyd,  wife  of  Mredydd  ap  Blethyn,  Prince  of 
Powys.    (J.D.) 

HuNYDD  verch  Eoger  arglwydd  y  Drewen. 

Huw,  Hew  (n.  pr.  v.),  Engl.,  Hugh ;  but  is  a  contraction  of 
Hugo.  Huw  Conwy. 

Hywel  wyd  Hnw  o  Ladin. 

HwcH,  qu.,  whether  a  river  or  a  man  ? 

Dym  cyfarwyddiad  yn  hwch 

Ddywal,  dwedyd  yn  ddrws  llech. — Llywarch  Hen. 

See  Unhwck. 

Hwen  Hir,  a  woman's  name,  qu.  ?     (Gr.  Zl.  D.  ap  Einion) 

Huan,  qu.  ? 

HwFA  (n.  pr.  V.) ;   hence  Carreg  Hova.    Ehos  Tre  Hofa,  in 

Anglesey. 

Nid  er  da  i  Hwfa  hen 

Namyn  er  maws  im' fy  hnn. 

Hwfa  ap  Cynddelw,  lord  of  Llys  Llifon  in  Anglesey,  lived  at 
Prysaddfed,  in  the  time  of  GrufFudd  ap  Cynan  and  Owain  Gwyn- 
edd,  AD.  1100.  One  of  the  Fifteen  Tribes  of  North  Wales.  He 
bore  gules,  a  chevron  or  between  three  lions  rampant  of  the 
second.     See  Mona  Antiqua,  p.  130. 


248  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

HwLFFORDD,  Haverford  West,  Pembrokeshire;  wrote  also 
Hereford  West ;  a  town  and  castle  on  one  of  the  branches  of 
Milford  Haven,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  y  Khos  (now 
Roose),  formerly  inhabited  by  Flemings. 

HwLKYN.    Llywelyn  ap  Hwlcyn. 

HwLKYN  ap  Bleddyn. 

HwNTYNTWN,  Angl.  Huntington. 

HwYSGiN  0  Hwland,  neu  Hwysgyn  ;  in  another  I  read  it 
Hwysgwyn ;  qu.  an  id.  Ysgwyn  ? 

HwNDRWD,  corrupt  ior  Hutidred,  Tir  3m  Hwndrwd,  one  of 
the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Cronerth  in  Morganwg.  (Price, 
Descr.) 

Hyarthwy,  a  place  in  South  Wales  where  a  battle  was  fought 
for  the  Principality  of  South  Wales,  in  the  year  1031,  by  Howel 
and  Mredyth,  sons  of  Edwyn  ap  Einion  ap  Owain  ap  Hywel 
Dda,  and  the  sons  of  Bhydderch  ap  lestyn,  who  they  first  had 
killed  in  another  battle.     {Caradoc.) 

Hychan  Sant.     Llanhychan,  Denbighshire. 

Hydwn  Dwn  ap  Ceredig. 

Hyfeid,  or  rather  Hyfaidd  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Hyfeid  ap  Bleiddig  yn  Deheubarth  {Tr.  76),  one  who,  from  a 
slave,  became  King  of  South  Wales.  Pentre  Hyfaidd,  a  gentle- 
man's seat.     (f/.  D.)     See  Maes  Hyfaidd, 

Hyfeidd.  Ilowarch  Hyveidd ;  signifies  beiddio'n  h^f,  or  bold 
adventurer. 

Hymye,  the  Humber.     {Tr,  4.) 

Hynap,  an  elder,  or  the  oldest  in  the  family,  tribe,  clan,  or 
society.  Hence  brenhyn  or  breienhyn,  a  king  (i  h-aint  and  hynaf, 
i.e.,  privilege  and  eldership) ;  and  so  Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad 
Cynddylan  Powys : 

Stafell  Cynddylan  ys  araf  heno 
Gwedy  colli  i  hynaf,  etc. 

Hywel  ab  Emyr  Uydaw  {Tr.  83),  called  Brenhinol  Farchog, 
royal  knight,  in  Arthur's  court.  Camden  derives  it  from  Ilmlius, 
sun-bright. 

Hywel  Dda,  King  of  Wales,  about  the  yejur  940,  began  to  rule 
over  all  Wales,  being  Prince  of  Po^vys  since  914.     He  revised 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  249 

the  Welsh  Laws,  and  adapted  them  to  the  circumstances  of  the 
time  he  lived  in.  We  have  several  copies  of  these  I^aws  in  MS. 
in  Welsh  and  Latin,  and  they  were  lately  published  by  Dr.  Wot- 
ton.  A  little  before  this,  Alfred,  King  of  the  West  Saxons^  with 
the  assistance  of  his  tutor  Asserius,  a  Cambro- Briton,  translated 
the  Laws  of  Dvfnwal  Moel  Mud  into  the  Saxon,  or  at  least 
picked  out  of  them  what  he  thought  fit. 

The  ancient  Saxon  laws  were  rather  customs  and  traditions, 
such  as  are  among  the  North  Americans  and  other  illiterate 
nations,  the  laws  of  Ethelbert,  King  of  Kent,  being  their  first 
written  laws,  which  was  above  a  hundred  years  after  their 
coming  to  Britain ;  and  those  reached  no  further  than  Kent. 
Then  the  West  Saxons,  about  a  hundred  years  after  that  (a.d. 
714),  under  King  Ina,  had  written  laws.  Then,  soon  after,  the 
Mercians  had  written  laws.  Lastly,  Alfred,  grandson  of  Egbert, 
who  in  827  reduced  the  Heptarchy,  did  about  the  year  900  give 
them  a  written  general  law  composed  from  the  ancient  laws  of 
the  island ;,  and  this  was  about  400  years  after  their  conquest  of 
Loegria^  now  called  England. 

Hywel  ap  Owain  Gwynedd,  brother  of  Madoc  ap  Owain,  who 
first  discovered  the  country  called  now  America,  which  should 
have  been  called  Madoca,  This  Hywel  was  an  excellent  British 
poet  and  a  great  general.  We  have  several  of  his  works  extant 
He  flourished  about  A.D.  1140.  See  Powel's  Caradoc  in  Owain 
Gwynedd. 

Hywel  (Castell),  in  Gwinionydd,  qu.  ? 

Hywel  (Cebrig)  or  Crug  Hywel,  where  Hywel  ap  Caw,  brother 
of  Gildas,  was  killed  by  King  Arthur  or  by  his  orders,  which 
wajB  the  occasion  of  Gildas's  inveteracy  against  the  Britons  in 
his  Epistle.  See  Giraldus  Cambrensis,  and  Sir  Jo.  Price,  Defence 
of  the  British  History.     See  Huail  ap  Oaw. 

[Hywel  Ystoryn,  an  ancient  bard  of  the  fourteenth  century, 
lived  at  Cjmffig  in  Glamorgan. — I.  M,] 

HrwYN  ap  Gwyndaf  Hfen  o  Lydaw,  Periglor  yn  Enlli. 

L 

Iabn  (n.  pr.).    [laen  and  Twymyn,  two  riveA  in  Cyfeiliog. — 

W.  D.]    Plant  Cyndrwyn  a  laen. 

32 


250  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Iaco  or  Iago  (n.  pr.  v.).  This  is  rendered  in  the  Bible  trans- 
lation for  James  or  Jacobiis,  and  is  by  some  of  the  old  poets 
used  for  Jacob  the  son  of  Isaac ;  and  the  16th  King  of  Britain 
being  of  this  name  shews  it  to  be  purely  British.  There  was  a 
Prince  of  Wales  of  this  name  in  the  year  948 ;  cmother,  a.d. 
1021 ;  and  yet  the  name  is  not  common  in  Wales,  nor  in  manu- 
scripts, nor  in  names  of  places  or  churches. 

Rhyd  Iago;  T^  Iago;  Digwyl  Iago;  crogen  Iago,  condia 
Veneris,     Myn  Iago,  an  oath. 

Iago,  the  16th  King  of  Britain. 

Iago,  mab  Beli,  killed  with  an  axe.     {Tr.  39.) 

liL,  the  name  of  a  country ;  in  English,  Fa/« ;  one  of  the  com- 
mots  of  Cantref  y  Ehiw,  part  of  Powys  Vadog.  {Dr.  PoweL) 
It  is  in  Denbighshire.  Camden  thinks  1^1  has  its  name  from 
the  river  Alen.  Why  not  from  la,  ice  ?  [Is  not  Idl,  cultivated, 
anial,  the  negative,  being  uncultivated  ? — W,  D.] 

Ian,  qu.  an  id.  quod  Jane  ? 

Ian,  OwBD,  hi  aeth  yn  ddydd. 

The  last  is  pronounced  in  English,  eean. 

Iancyn,  idem  quod  Siangcyn,  qu.  ? 

Ianto,  dini.  ab  leuan,  and  leutyn. 

Tarll,  an  earl ;  in  the  Danish,  eorla,  erle ;  a  degree  of  nobility 
among  the  ancient  Britons.  This  title  Camden  (in  Rem,,  p.  67) 
says  came  hither  with  the  Danes.  The  Saxons  might  receive  it 
from  the  Danes,  but  the  Britons  always  had  it;  and  [it]  is  a  con- 
traction of  arghoyddj  i.  e,,  a  supreme  leader ;  and  from  aril  came 
iarll  and  earl.  But  the  Saxon  word  earl  was  anciently  no  more 
than  an  elder.  See  Canute's  grant.  Spelman  says  the  English 
borrowed  the  word,  but  not  the  degree,  from  the  Danes,  and  that 
the  title  begun  in  Canute's  time,  who  was  a  Dane. 

Iarll  y  Mjmydd  Cadarn,  in  the  time  of  Arthur. 

Iarll  ar  Went  ag  Erging  ag  Euas  oedd  Gwrtheym  (Tyssilio), 
about  A.D.  400. 

Iarll  ag  larlles ;  pi.  leirll.  Eorla  in  Danish  is  the  same  with 
alderman  in  Saxon. 

Ystori  larlles  y  Ffynnon.  Galfrid  translates  Iarll  Cernyw, 
Ditx  CornvMce.  Iarll  Caer  Lundain  a  swydd  Geiut,  Dux  Trino* 
vanti. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  251 

Iarddub  (n.  pr.  v.),  wrote  by  the  ancients  Yarthur  and  lardur. 

Iarddur  ab  Mervyn,  ad.  952.  {Oaradoc  in  leuaf.)  Moses 
Williams,  in  Notes  on  H.  llwyd's  Brit,  Descr.  Com,,  would  have 
it  that  the  words  in  Llywarch  Hen's  Marwnad  Geraint  should 
be  read  *'  Yn  Dongborth  Has  Yarddur",  which  Sir  John  PryBe  in 
his  Def,  Brit,  Hist,,  and  Mr.  Edward  Llwyd,  reads  y  Arthur, 
and  which  last  reading  is  backed  by  the  Triades,  which  makes 
Geraint  ab  Erbin  one  of  King  Arthur's  three  admirals.  Moses 
Williams  is  wrong  in  placing  G.  ab  Erbin  in  the  time  of  Ina. 

Tre  Iarddur,  a  house  near  Holyhead. 

Iasedd  neu  Iaseth  ap 

Iau  or  lou  (signifying  young),  Jupiter,  Jove,  son  of  Sadwni, 
a  Prince  of  the  Celtic  nation  before  the  foundation  of  the  Greek 
and  Boman  empires.  This  is  him  who  his  own  people  having 
deified,  imposed  upon  those  nations  afterwards  as  their  supreme 
god  by  the  name  of  Jupiter  or  lou  Pater.  The  oblique  cases, 
Jovis,  Jovem,  etc.,  shew  him  to  be  the  same,  and  answer  that 
famous  question  of  Cornelius  Agrippa  which  puzzled  all  the 
grammarians,  why  Jupiter  makes  Jovis  in  the  genitive  case  ? 
The  Britons  and  Armoricans  to  this  day  call  Thursday,  or  Jupi- 
ter's day,  Dydd  lou,  Dydd  Iau,  Difiau. 

Cwm  lou,  a  parish  in  Monmouthshire. 

See  Pezron's  Antiquities. 

Ibranc.    Nennii\p  (Li.  Cantab.).    See  Efrog. 

ICENi,  a  people  of  Britain  inhabiting  Suffolk,  Norfolk,  Cam- 
bridgeshire, and  Huntingdonshire.  They  are  called  in  Welsh 
Uwchcynniaid,     See  Keint  or  Cdnt. 

IcH  DiEN,  the  motto  of  the  Princes  of  Wales,  which  they  use 
under  tliree  feathers.  Spelman,  in  his  Glossary,  says  it  is  from 
the  Saxon  Ich  Thien,  I  serve.  Bailey  deriyes  it  from  the  Ger- 
man Ich  Diennan,  But  if  it  is  British  it  is  Ych  Ddien,  you  are 
young ;  or  perhaps  Eich  Dyn,  your  man.  Qu.  whether  it  was 
not  to  please  the  Welsh  this  was  contrived  by  Edward  I  ?  Or 
whether  it  was  taken,  not  by  Edward  the  Black  Prince,  son  of 
Edward  III,  after  the  battle  of  Cressy,  ad.  1346,  it  being  said  to 
be  the  motto  and  arms  of  John  King  of  Bohemia,  who  served  in 
the  French  wars,  and  was  killed  in  that  battle  ?  [Yes. —  W.  D,'\ 
Verstegan,  p.  259,  says  Ih  Thian  is  ancient  English,  and  sig- 


252  CELTIC  KEMATNS. 

Difies  /  serve.  But  if  it  is  true  that  John  King  of  Bohemia  had 
this  motto,  it  is  the  Slavonian  tongue,  the  proper  language  of 
Bohemia,  and  is  neither  German  nor  Saxon  ;  and  it  is  not  very 
probable  that  a  son  of  the  King  of  England  would  make  use  of 
a  Slavonish  motto,  or  that  a  King  of  Bohemia  would  use  a  Ger- 
man motto  to  shew  that  he  served  under  France. 

Iden,  Idan,  or  Aidan  ;  but  qu.  ?  Llaniden,  a  church  and 
parish,  Anglesey.  If  it  was  from  Aidan  of  North  Britain,  it 
would  have  been  pronounced  Aeddan ;  but  this  is  Iden  Sant,  in 
some  MSS.  Nidan. 

Idgwyn,  neu  Iddon,  o  enw  arall.    Vid.  Iddon. 

Idlos  and  Idloes  Sant.     Llanidloes  yn  Arwystli. 

Eos  Tref  Idlos  tra  fti. — Sion  Phylip,  i  lenan  Tew, 

who  resided  here  with  Lewis  Gwyn ;  died  old. 

Idlos  ap  Gwyddnabi ;  rect^  Idloes. 

Idnbrth  ap  Hwfa.    (Rhys  Goch  Eryri) 

Idno  ap  Meirchiawn. 

Idman  Amherawdyr,  Adrian.     (B.  Lhuyd.) 

Idris  (n.  pr.  v.) ;  hence  Cader  Idris,  a  mountain  fortified  in 
ancient  times.  Cader  Idris  Gawr.  (Leland.)  Idris  Gawr.  (Dr. 
Tfios.  Williams,  Caerydd.) 

Idris,  the  third  son  of  Llewelyn  Aurdorchog,  lord  of  liL 
Hence  Bodidris,  a  gentleman's  seat,  laL 

Idris  Arw  ap  Gwyddo  Garanir ;  unde  Oadair  Idris. 

Idwal  (n.  pr.  v.),  falsely  wrote  Edwal. 

Idwal  ap  Edwin,  the  41st  King  of  Britain. 

Idwal  Iwrch,  son  of  Cadwaladr,  last  King  of  Britain.  See 
Cadwaladr, 

Idwallawn  ap  Morgant  Mawr. 

Idwallon,  a  nobleman  of  Wales,  who  died  a.d.  841.  (Powel, 
Oaradoc,  p.  27.) 

.    Iddawg  (n.  pr.  v.).     Iddawg  Com  Brydain  a  wnaeth  brad 
Arthur.    Hist,    (J.  D.) 

Iddig  (n.  pr.  v.).     Madog  ap  Henri  ab  Iddig,  a  poet. 

Iddon  ap  Ynyr  Gwent.  In  Tr.  75  a  battle  is  mentioned  to 
be  fought  by  Maelgwn,  where  the  blood  turned  the  colour  of  the 
river  Severn,  where  this  man  is  mentioned  ;  but  the  passage  is 
dark  and  obliterated,  but  in  Trioedd  y  Meirch  the  name  is  entire. 

Ieithodd  (fl.).     Aberieithodd,  qu.  ? 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  253 

Ieithon  (fl.).  Aberieithon.  Falls  into  the  Wye.  Glyn  leithon. 
(Price,  DescT,) 

Ierwerth,  Angl.  Edward.  lorwerth,  ait  Dr.  Davies.  Chwaer 
John  Edward  un  fam  un  dad  oedd  Elen  verch  Ierwerth.  (Llyfr 
Achau,  fol.  70b.)     Ierwerth  Swdyrgrin. 

Iestyn  Sant     Llanie8t)m  in  Ueyn  and  Anglesey. 

Iestyn  ap  Geraint  ap  Erbin. 

Iestyn  ap  Gwrgant  ap  Ithel  ap  Idwallawn  ap  Morgan  Mwyn- 
fawr,  Prince  of  Morganwg,  that  lost  it  to  the  Normans,  1090. 
Camden  tells  this  story  differently  from  Dr.  Powel  and  Caradoc. 
(Camden,  Britannia,  Glamorgan.) 

Ieufaf,  Ieuan,  Iefan,  Ifan,  and  Ivan  (n.  pr.  v.),  commonly 
Latinized  Johannes.  It  signified  originally  youngest ;  the  same 
with  leuangc,  q.  d.  nxitu  minimus  \  and  there  are  now  family 
names  of  Evan  and  Evans  that  should  not  be  translated  John. 
Hence  Evan,  a  modem  name,  which  by  Anglifying  is  turned  to 
Evans,  as  William  is  to  Williams,  Owen  to  Owens. 

Ieuaf  and  Griffri  were  generals  of  the  Powys  forces  in  a 
battle  fought  between  Cadwallon  Fendigaid  and  Edwin  King  of 
the  Saxons,  and  were  both  killed,  and  succeeded  by  Myngan. 
{Tt.  63.)     See  Tr.  75  ;  and  see  Belyn,  49. 

Ievanawl  ap  Einion. 
•    Ieuan  y  Coed.  Gwyl  Ieuan  y  Coed :  qu.  what  St.  John's  Day  ? 
[John  the  Baptist  in  the  wilderness,  a  festival  to  celebrate  his 
retiring  beyond  Jordan. —  W.  D!\ 

Ieuan,  Eang  of  Alban,  before  Brennus'  time. 

Ieuan  ap  Howel  Swrdwal,  a  poet  of  Ceri,  an.  14G0. 

Ieuangc.    Rhys  leuangc. 

IvoN  (n.  pr.  v.).  Camden  says  the  Welsh  and  Slavonians  use 
Ivon  for  John  ;  but  he  was  quite  out,  for  the  Welsh  never  had 
the  name  Ivon  in  their  language.  The  name  Ieuan,  which  is  the 
same  with  Evan,  looks  like  Ivon,  but  is  not  sounded  the  same. 
It  is  true  the  name  of  St  John  is  pronounced  by  the  common 
people  in  Wales  Ifan  or  Ivan,  which  would  be  in  English  Yevan; 
and  St.  John's  Day  is  called  Dygwyl  Ifan.  But  John,  as  a  com- 
mon name  of  men,  is  always  pronounced  as  if  wrote  in  English 
Shone ;  and  St.  John's  Gospel  is  translated  Efengil  loan,  in  two 
syllables,  as  if  made  from  Johannes.  But  Howel  ap  Syr  Mathew 
has 


254  CELTIC   REMAINS. 

Matbe,  Ifan,  maith  ddefod, 
Marc  a  Lac,  cjmer  eu  clod. 

(To  Davies,  Bp.  of  Menevia.) 

Ifor  or  Ivor  (n.  pr.  n.). 

Ifor  Hael,  lord  of  Maesaleg,  was  Dafydd  ap  Gwilym's  patron. 
If  or  Hael  is  Ifor  the  Liberal 

Ifor,  the  eldest  son  of  Cadwaladr  Fendigaid,  the  other  two 
being  Alan  and  Idwal  Iwrch.     See  Ynyr. 

Ivor  ap  Severws. 

Igmond,  a  captain  of  the  Black  Nation,  or  Danes,  who  made 
a  descent  at  Bhod  Meilon,  near  Holyhead,  a.d.  900 ;  now  Pen- 
rhos  Meilon,  vulg.  Y  Feilw. 

Ikenild  :  see  Ystrad  Ychen. 

Ilar  or  Iler  Sant,  probably  St.  Hilarins  or  Elerius,  abbot  and 
confessor,  of  whom  there  is  mention  in  the  Acts  of  Winifred ; 
educated  at  Llanelwy  and  Ad  Vallem  Clutinam;  founded  a 
monastery,  of  which  he  was  abbot;  and  a  nunnery,  of  which  St. 
Winifred  was  abbess.  (Leland  and  Pitta,  Brit  Sand,,  June  13.) 
He  was  abbot  of  Gwytherin,  where  he  buried  Gwenfrewi. 

Llanilar,  Cardiganshire,  where  their  fairs  are  kept  on  St.  Hilary's 
Day. 

Illan  (n.  1.),  Glamorgan. 

Illtud,  Illdud,  or  Elltud  Sant,  appointed  by  St  German 
head  of  a  college  in  Glamorganshire.  His  scholars,  Daniel,  etc. 
His  name  is  Latinized  Iltutus.  Llanelltud,  Meirion,  and  near 
Neath.     See  Elltyd  and  LlanelUyd,    See  Oerman  Sant. 

Indeg,  merch  Afarwy  Hir,  a  concubine  of  King  Arthur. 
{Tr,  60.) 

Inerth  verch  Edwyn.     (Caradoc,  p.  183.) 

Ingl  (wrote  also  Eingl),  Angli,  Saeson  Doegr ;  the  English 
nation. 

Inglont,  the  manner  of  writing  the  word  England  by  the 
Welsh  poets : 

Ba  yn  Inglont  tenont  taer, 

Bid  i  Inglont  byd  anglaer. — L.  OL  Cothi. 

Inse  Gall,  i.e.,Ynysoedd  Gall,  the  Hebrides  {Flaherty,  p.  323), 
inhabited  by  Gall  Wyddyl,  i  e.,  the  most  ancient  Gauis,  or  first 
inhabitants  bf  Britain,  who  were  thrust  there  by  later  colonies. 


CELTIC   REMAINS.  255 

lo  (n.  v.),  Job.    Golud  lo. 

I6-AN  (in  two  syllables),  from  Johannes. 

Ail  yw  Idan  laa  lonydd. — lolo  Ooeh. 

loDDiON  ap  Idnerth  ap  Edryd. 

loHN  Dafydd  Ehys,  author  of  the  printed  British  Grammar, 
in  foL,  1592,  and  of  a  Dictionary  in  MS. ;  also  of  a  printed  Italian 
Grammar  which  he  published  in  Italy  when  he  followed  his 
studies  there,  and  read  lectures  on  physic.  He  commenced  Dr. 
of  Physic  at  Sienna^  professed  Physic  at  Padua,  was  practitioner 
in  divers  parts  of  Italy,  afterwards  in  England,  and  had  been 
reader  to  most  of  the  Colleges  of  Physicians ;  was  about  sixty 
years  of  age  in  1606.  Fe  ddywedir  mai  mab  i  glochydd  Uan- 
faethlu  ym  Mon  oedd  ef.     See  note  on  Winifred! %  Life. 

loL-LO  and  loLO  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Achau  lolo  ni  cbelir. — QuttoW  Olyu. 

loLO  Gogh,  a  famous  poet  that  flourished  a.d.  1400,  of  whose 
works  we  have  several    Pronounced  lol-lo  and  lolo. 
lOLYN  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Gair  lolyn  gwych  wrol  naf 
Gwr  gwiwnerth  gwir  a  ganaf. 

Hywel  Kilan^  i  L.  ap  Gr.  v.  ap  Gr. 

lOLYN  ap  Gronw  Gethin :  hence  Plas  lolyn,  in  Denbighshire, 
the  seat  of  Thomas  Prys,  Esq.,  an  ingenious  poet  in  Queen  Eliza- 
beth's time. 

lONAVAL,  son  of  Meuric,  right  heir  to  North  Wales,  a.d.  984, 
killed  by  Cadwallon  ap  leuaf. 

lORDDWFN :  vid.  Bywyn. 

lORWERTH  (n.  pr.  V.)     (2>.  ap  Owilym)     From  I6r, 

lORWERTHlAWN  {Owclygorddau  Fawys),  lands  of  lorwerth  in 
Powys. 

lotJ  and  Iau  :  hence  leuan,  lefan,  Ifan,  Ivan,  leuaf  (n.  pr.  v.), 
commonly  Latinized  Johannes. 

Ippo,  Hippocrates.     {leuan  Tew,) 

Irwon  or  Irfon,  a  river  near  Buellt.  Qu.  whether  Dr.  Powel's 
Orefwyn  f    [Vide  Casrau, —  W,  D.] 

IsAERON,  the  country  to  the  south  and  south-west  of  the  river 
Aeron  in  Ceretica.     See  Aeron, 


256  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Isc :  see  ^Vysg, 

ISCBRDIN. 

IscoED,  one  of  the  four  commots  of  Cantref  Gwent.  See  Ban^- 
gar  is  Coed. 

IscoED  is  also  the  name  of  one  of  the  four  cantrefs  fonnerly 
of  Gwentland,  containing  the  comraot  of  Bryn  Buga,Uwch  Coed, 
y  Teirtref,  Erging  ac  Euas.     (Price,  Descr,) 

ISCONWY. 

IsELWYR,  Inferiores ;  hence  the  Silures  in  Latin  writers.  Ise- 
lures,  because  below  the  river  Dyfi.  [Essyllwyr ;  Bro  Essyllt. — 
W.  D.] 

ISHELI. 

IsGENENY,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Ffinioc  in 
Caermarthenshire. 

IsGENNEN.     {LevHs  Olyn  Cothi.) 

IsGWYRFAi,  a  commot. 

ISLONT  (Tyssilio),  Iceland,  an  island  in  the  North  Frozen 
Sea,  belongs  now  to  Denmark,  about  300  miles  long  and  150 
broad ;  said  by  some  to  be  the  Thule  of  the  ancients,  t.  e,,  tyinell, 
dark.  It  belonged  to  Britain  in  the  time  of  King  Arthur,  a.d. 
520  ;  and  Melwas,  or  Gillamwri,  was  king  there,  which,  by  the 
name,  seems  to  have  been  from  North  Britain  or  Ireland.  Quaere 
whether  their  language  be  Teutonic  or  Celtic  ?  Probably  the 
latter.  [Teutonic :  see  Von  Troil's  account,  and  that  of  Sir  Joseph 
Banks. — /.  if.] 

ISMYNYDD,  one  of  three  commots  of  Cantref  Elfael,  between 
Wy  and  Severn. 

IsYRWON,  one  of  the  three  commots  in  Cantref  Buellt.  (Price, 
Descr,) 

Ital  (Yu),  Italy.     See  Eidal. 

Itguallon,  wrote  anciently  for  Idwallon.     {E.  Llivyd,) 

Ithel  and  Ithael  (n,  pr.  v.).  This  name  seems  to  be  derived 
from  vihr  and  hd,  that  is,  a  wonderful  hunter ;  and  probably  by 
the  ancients  was  pronounced  Uthel. 

Aeth  Ithel  fal  mab  Elen. — J.  op  Howel, 

Hawdd  gyda'm  gwahawdd  im'  gael 

I  ihreth  a  bath  Hryr  Ithael.— L.  Gl  Oothi. 

Ithel  ap  Ueien,  the  52nd  King  of  Britain. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  257 

Ithel  6am  ;  neu  letbell  and  IthaeL 
Tthon,  river,  recti  leithon. 

A  chad  Abergwaith  a  chad  laithon. — Ho.  Myrddin, 

luDDEW,  Judceus,  a  Jew. 

luDDEWES  (feem.),  a  Jewess. 

luDDEWiG,  Judaictis. 

lUNO,  the  sister  and  wife  of  Jupiter ;  in  the  Celtic,  Ghvenno. 
See  Venus, 

IWERDDON,  the  kingdom  of  Ireland ;  wrote  also  Exverddon  and 
Y  Werddon  by  the  "Welsh;  anciently  y  Werdd  Ynj/8,i,e,,  the  Green 
Island ;  by  Orpheus,  Aristotle,  and  Claudian,  it  is  called  lema 
(Orph.lepvisi)]  by  Juvenal  and  M-els,,  Juverna;  by  Diodorus  Sicu- 
lus,  Iris ;  by  Martianus  Heracleota,  lovepvia ;  by  Eustathius, 
Ovepvia  and  l&epvui ;  by  the  inhabitants,  Erin ;  by  the  English, 
Ireland  {Caniden)  ;  by  Nennius,  from  a  captain  csdled  Irnalph. 
(flamden!) 

PriiTyrdd  cerdd  o  I  werddon. — Owilym  ap  leua/n  Hen, 
Bbdn  ac  Iwerddon  i  gyd,  i'th  arfoU. — I.  op  H.  Cae  Llwyd, 

See  Ewerddon  and  Y  Werddon. 


L 

Lacharn  (now  Lam) :  see  Talacham. 

Lar^s,  the  spirits  of  the  hearth,  etc.     Duwiau'r  Llawr,  qu.  ? 

Larina,  a  noble  woman  in  Viigil,  En,  ii ;  in  the  Celtic,  Zloer- 
wen. 

Lasar,  Lazarus. 

Lavan  (Y),  Traeth  y  Lavan  or  Olavan,  the  sands  between 
Beaumaris  and  Penmaen  Mawr,  which  some  opinionately  derive 
from  oer  levain,  which  they  back  with  a  tradition  that  all  that 
tract  of  ground  from  the  entrance  of  Conwy  river  to  Bangor 
was  once  dry  land,  but  for  the  wickedness  of  the  inhabitants  was 
overflowed  by  the  sea ;  and  they  pretend  to  shew  the  ruins  of 
houses  now  under  water,  in  a  spot  of  foul  ground  over  against 
Penmaen  Mawr,  which  they  call  Llys  Elis  ap  Glanmor.  Such 
accidents  have  been  caused  by  earthquakes  in  many  places ;  and 
there  are  at  this  day,  in  the  Bay  of  Port  Royal  in  Jamaica,  the 

33 


258  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

ruins  of  houses  and  a  fort  to  be  seen  under  water,  and  great 
valleys  where  mountains  once  stood  in  the  memory  of  man. 

Lawarian  :  vid.  Llaw. 

Lawnselot  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  Gaulish  name.  Lawfiselot  di  L&c. 
{Tt.  61.)  Camden  thinks  it  is  no  old  name,  but  was  invented 
by  the  writer  of  Arthur's  history,  meaning  the  history  of  the 
Eound  Table,  wrote  by  some  foreigner.  But  it  is  1200  year  old 
at  least. 

Legion  :  see  Llion. 

Leil  :  see  CaerleU, 

Lein,  the  British  name  of  Leinster  in  Ireland.  {Camden  in 
Lagenia.) 

Leiuion  ^  see  Lyrion. 

Leri,  a  river  in  Cardiganshire ;  rectfe,  Eleri.  Aberleri,  a  creek 
near  Aberdyfi.     Glan  Leri,  a  gentleman's  seat. 

Lerion  :  see  Lyrrion, 

Lethrigh,  a  battle  in  the  year  590,  in  which  Aeddan  ap  Gaf- 
ran  was  victor.     {Ogygia^  p.  475.) 

LiGACH,  the  name  of  some  Irish  general  or  prince  who  once 
had  possessions  in  Anglesey.  His  gravestone  was  shewn  me  in 
the  high-road  near  Dulas,  and  called  Bedd  Ligach,  where  tradi- 
tion had  it  that  he  was  buried  there  erect  in  his  arms.  Kot 
far  off,  near  Bodavon  Mountain,  there  is  a  place  called  Ffridd 
Ligach,  and  also  Ffos  Golmon. 

LiGUALiD.  Caer  Ligualid  is  the  name  in  the  Cambridge  copy 
of  Nennius  of  one  of  the  twenty-eight  cities  of  Britain ;  but  in 
the  Oxford  copy  it  is  Lualid.  Usher  hath  it  Caer  Lualid,  and 
says  it  is  Carlisle.  It  is  not  in  the  catalogue  in  the  Triades 
under  this  name.  If  LugavalUvm  ad  Vallum  be  Carlisle,  the 
similitude  of  the  name  Ligualid  would  make  one  think  it  to  be 
the  same ;  but  there  is  very  little  dependence  on  the  names  in 
Nennius  or  any  Latin  writer,  the  transcribers  having  murdered 
the  British  names ;  besides  that  the  orthography  of  that  age 
blinds  the  matter  very  much.  Qu.  whether  Luguvallum  from 
Llyw  river  in  Ilywarch  Hen  ? 

LiMNOS  {Ptolemy),  supposed  to  be  the  Isle  of  Kamsey  near 
St.  David's  or  Menew.  Leland  calls  this  island  Limerms,  and 
says  the  name  is  of  Greek  original ;  but  why  not  from  the  British 
Mynyw  ? 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  259 

LiRlON :  see  Lyrrion, 

IisiDiT.  Caer  Lisidit  {Tr,) ;  another  copy,  Lesydit,  one  of  the 
twenty-eight  cities,  qu.  ? 

LoNT  and  Lond,  for  the  Teutonic  Land  in  the  names  of  Islont, 
Gotlont,  Esgottlont,  and  Inglont,  t.  e,,  Iceland,  Gotland,  Scotland, 
and  England,  etc. 

LoYW.    Caer  Loyw.    See  Oloyw, 

LocRiN :  see  Llocrin. 

m 

LowRi  or  LoWRY  (n.  feem.). 

LovAN  Lau  Dhifro  (n.  pr.  v.),  Archceol,  Brit,  p.  260.  Thus 
Mr.  Edward  liwyd  writes  this  name  in  Uywarch  Hen's  Marw- 
nad  Urien  Beged,  which  is  the  same  as  is  wrote  in  the  Triades, 
Llofan  Llawddino,  The  person  who  killled  Urien  Beged.  [Llaw 
DdifrOy  the  desolating  or  lay- wasting  hand. —  W.  D.'\ 

LUALID :  see  Ligvxdid, 

LuDWAL.  Mr.  Camden,  out  of  William  of  Malmesbury,  says 
King  Edgar  imposed  a  tribute  of  three  hundred  skins  of  wolves 
on  Ludwal,  Prince  of  Merionethshire,  or  those  countries ;  but,  as 
is  observed  in  the  margin,  there  has  been  no  prince  of  that  name 
in  Wales ;  and  it  was  leuaf  and  lago,  sons  of  Edwal,  that  were 
Princes  of  North  Wales  in  the  time  of  Edgar,  about  ad.  960. 
And  I  also  desire  it  may  be  observed  that  no  such  a  man's  name 
at  all  occurs  in  Wales  as  Ludwal,  either  in  MS.  or  elsewhere.  So 
this  story  wants  a  bottom.  [Son  oiEdwaL  Camden  might  take 
it  for  LudwaL—  W.  D.] 

Luna,  a  town  and  port  of  Tuscany,  from  the  Celtic  Llwym 

LUNED  (D.  wp  QwUym) ;  perhaps  the  same  with  Elin,  qu.  ? 
See  Muned. 

Lutatia,  the  ancient  name  of  Paris  in  France,  from  the  Celtic 
Llaidwysg  or  Laitusc,  i,  e.,  muddy  water. 

LwLEN,  dim.  of  Lowri. 

LwNDRYS,  Londres,  a  Norman  name  of  London ;  as  if  you 
would  say  lAongdref,  or  the  shipping  town.     See  Llongddin. 

LwYT  Coed.  Caer  Lwyt  Coet  (Triades)  ;  in  Nennius,  Caire 
Lwit  Ooite ;  in  Dr.  Thomas  Williams'  Catalogue,  Caer  Lwyd  Coed, 
Lincoln.  [Llwyd  Coed:  Llwyd  o  Lwyd  Coed,  Llangadfan. — 
—W.  D.] 

Lymnos  of  Ptolemy :  see  Lleyn  and  Enlli. 


260  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Ltbrion.  Caer  Lyrrion.  This  is  in  the  catalogue  of  the 
British  cities  in  the  Triades.  In  Nennius  it  is  Oaire  Lerian  ;  in 
Usher's  catalogue,  Caer  Zeirion ;  in  some  copies  of  the  Triades^ 
CcterZmon,  i.  e.,  the  city  of  the  people  of  Uyr,  t.  e.,  Ilyrion ;  but 
I  presume  it  is  the  same  vf ith  Caer  Llyr  in  Tyssilio,  which  he 
says  Llyr  built  on  the  river  Soram,  and  called  by  the  Saxons 
Leyrcestyr ;  now  Leicester.  Caer  Lyr,  Lyrcester.  (Th.  Williams, 
OatalogvA^ 

LL. 

Lladwm. 

Llaethnant,  a  river. 

Chwecbant  hyd  at  Laethnant  Iwyd. — Tudut  Aled. 

Llafyr,  father  of  Ussa,  a.d.  943.  (Oaradoc  in  Howel  Dda.) 
Llai  (fl.).  AberUai.  (Llywarch  Hen)  Qu.  whether  not  Aher» 
llitv;  or  qu.  whether  Elay  of  Mordens  Map,  Glamorganshire, 
and  Lay  of  Price's  Description,  if  to  be  read  Llai  ?  [Llai  is  the 
Welsh  name  of  the  river. — L  M.]  Coed  y  Llai  in  Flintshire, 
Englished  Leasewood,  as  if  wrote  Llau,  lice.  Qu.  whether  there 
is  a  river  Llai  there  ?  Then  it  should  be  Lesswood  or  Greywood. 

Yn  Aberllai  lladd  Urien. — Llywarch  Hen. 

Pont  ar  Lai,  Glamorganshire.    Fairs  kept  here. 

Llamiwrch,  a  gentleman's  seat.     (/.  D,)    Moi^gan's. 

Llam  Mwri,  a  place  in  Anglesey. 

Llambe,  enw  caseg  Arthur.     (E.  Lhvyd,) 

Llam  yr  Ebol,  a  place  in  Anglesey. 

Llam  yr  Ewig,  a  place  in  Powysland.    See  Lbvchayam, 

Llan,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  used  in  names  of  places  in 
Britain,  etc.,  and  signifies  a  spot  of  ground  or  inclosed  area  for 
any  use  (as  corlan,  a  sheepfold ;  pcrllan,  an  orchard ;  ydlan,  a 
place  of  corn ;  ffmnllan,  a  vineyard,  etc.),  but  chiefly  consecrated 
for  a  church,  and  is  the  same  with  the  Latin  fanum,  a  plat  of 
consecrated  groimd ;  as,  Llanvair,  St.  Mary's  Church ;  Llanbedr, 
St.  Peter's  Church  ;  Llandeilo,  St.  Teilo's  Church,  etc.  And  qu. 
whether  Lambeth,  on  the  river  Thames,  was  called  so  for  being 
St.  Peter's  Church  (the  Welsh  calling  it  Llanbed  to  this  day), 
and  Languedoc  in  Gaul  ?  For  Llanfair  see  Mair;  Uandeilo,  see 
Teilo;  and  so  for  the  rest. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  261 

Llanamddtfri  Castle,  anno  Domini  1204. 

Llanabthne. 

Llanbadabn,  a  collegiate  church  near  Aberystwyth,  a.d.  1144. 
John,  archpriest  of  Llanbadam,  sainted  a.d.  1138.  Sulien  ap 
Bythmarch,  of  the  College  of  Llanbadam,  a.d.  1143. 

Llanbistair. 

Llanbleddian,  a  lordship  in  Morgannwg.  [Llanbleiddian,  in 
Welsh  Llanfleiddan,  a  parish  and  lordship.  In  the  laige  and 
fine  village  stand  the  church  and  two  castles  in  ruins.  In  this 
parish  is  the  town  of  Cowbridge,  with  another  church  and  a 
grammar  school,  a  member  of  Jesus  College  in  Oxford.  Cow- 
bridge has  two  markets  weekly,  many  fairs,  quarter  sessions,  etc. 
At  Aberthin,  a  village  in  this  parish,  Owain  Glyndwr  defeated 
the  forces  of  Henry  IV.    Annual  races. — L  if.] 

Llaxdaf  or  Llandav,  wrote  in  English  Landaff,  a  town  and 
bishop's  see  on  the  river  Tav  in  Glamorganshire.  The  Cathedral 
is  consecrated  to  St.  Teilaw,  once  Bishop  thereof ;  and,  as  Cam- 
den says,  erected  by  Germanus  and  Lupus  when  they  suppressed 
the  Pelagian  Heresy,  But  here  was  an  archbishopric  before  the 
time  of  Germanus.    See  Price's  Defence. 

Llanddinam,  a  church  and  parish  in  Arwystli  and  Tre  New- 
ydd  Ynghedewain.  Here  Owain  Gwynedd  came  to  chastise 
Howel  ap  leuaf,  a.d.  1162. 

Llanddtjlas,  a  church  and  parish  (R.),  from  the  river  Dulas ; 
dedicated  to  St.  Cymbryd.     (B.  Willis,) 

Llanddwy,  in  Breclmockshire. 

Meibion  myr  llenwyr  Llanddwy, 

Meddiant  teg  mae  iddynt  hwy. — Bedo  Phyltp  Back, 

Llanddyn,  a  gentleman's  seat.  (J.  D) 
Llandeilo  Fawe,  a  town  in  Caermarthenshire. 
Llandudoch,  a  village  in  Pembrokeshire,  on  the  river  Teifi, 
between  Cardigan  and  the  sea.  Here  a  battle  was  fought  be« 
tween  the  sons  of  Cadivor  ap  Collwyn  of  Dyfed,  Grufifudd  ap 
Mredydd,  and  Rhys  ap  Tewdor,  their  lord,  a.d.  1088.  Rhys 
defeated  them.  Eneon  fled  to  lestyn,  lord  of  Morgannwc; 
which  Eneon  was  the  cause  of  bringing  an  army  of  Normans 
there,  and  had  battle  near  Brecknockshire,  where  Rhys  was 


262  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

killed ;  who,  after  assisting  lestyn  and  Eneon,  took  possession 
of  the  country  of  Glamorgan,  or  Gwlad  Forgan,  and  whose  issue 
mixed  with  the  Britons^  and  remain  there  to  this  day.  This 
happened  a.d.  1090.     {Oaradoc,  p.  119.) 

Llandudwo. 

Llanegbyn. 

Llanbgwbst  or  Egwestl,  an  abbey  called  also  Valle  Cruets, 
built  AD.  1200  by  Madoc  ap  Gr.  Maelor,  lord  of  Maelor  in  Brom- 
field,  near  Llangollen. 

[LlanfeithTn,  still  standing,  the  College  or  Monastery  of 
St.  Cadoc  ap  Gwynlliw  in  liangarfan  in  Glamorganshire.  It  is 
mentioned  by  Aneurin  in  the  Gododin, — L  Mi] 

Llangadog  Castle,  ad.  1204. 

Llangarfan,  Glamorgan.  [See  LlanfeUhin  above. — L  M.'\ 
Caradog  or  Cradog,  the  faithful  and  impartial  author  of  the  His- 
tory of  the  Princes  of  Wales,  which  he  wrote  by  the  order  of 
-Galfrid  Archdeacon  of  Monmouth,  an.  1155,  was  of  this  place. 
Fairs  kept  here. 

[Nine  villages  in  Llangarfan,  viz.,  Llangarfan^  Pennon,  Moel- 
dwyn,  Ilanbydderi,  Dangadell,  Tre  Gof,  Tre  Wallter,  Castell 
Moel,  and  Heol  Las. — I.  M!\ 

Llangewydd  [a  village  in  the  parish  of  Trelalys  in  Glamor- 
gan, where  lived  Uywelyn  Sion  o  Langewydd,  a  very  ingenious 
bard,  author  of  the  best  treatise  on  Welsh  poetry  extant. — L  if.] 

Llangoed,  a  parish  and  gentleman's  seat  in  Anglesey.  Wil* 
liams.  Also  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Brecon.  Sir  Edward  WiUiams. 
See  Oaihgoed.     See  Tanwyn  Sant. 

Ilakgollen,  in  Denbighshire,  where  Sawyl  ap  Lly  warch  Hen 
was  buried. 

Llangors,  a  castle  in  Brecknockshire,  near  Brecknock  town. 

Llangwm,  a  church  and  parish  in  Roose,  Pembrokeshire, 
where  a  battle  was  fought  between  Mredydd  ap  Owain  and 
Edwal  ap  Meyric,  ad.  992,  and  Tewdor  Mawr  slain. 

Llangwm  Dinmael,  a  church  and  parish  in  Ehose  Deanery 
in  Denbighshire. 

Llangymwch  Castle,  erased  by  Llewelyn  ap  Grufifudd,  a.d. 
1256.    S.  W. 

Llangwstenyn,  in  Creuthyn,  near  Conwy,  a  church  where 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  263 

the  Abbots  of  Aberconwy  and  Cjrmer  summoned  King  Henry  III 
to  appear  before  them  by  a  commission  from  the  Pope  about  a 
dispute  between  him  and  Dav.  ap  Llewelyn  concerning  the 
Principality  of  Wales.  (Powel,  Caradoc,  p.  309.)  But  the  King 
bribed  the  Pope. 

Llangynllo. 

Llanhafon.    Qu.  Llanhafon  or  Uanafon  ? 

Llanhayaden,  one  of  the  two  commots  of  Cantref  y  Coed, 
in  Pembrokeshire. 

Llanhuadain,  a  castle  burnt  by  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth. 

A  chan  Haw  lladwaw  Llanhaiaden. — Einian  ap  Otogan. 

Llanllwch,  Caermarthenshire. 

Llanllwchayarn  (V.),  in  Cedewain,  Powysland. 

Llan  y  Meichiab. 

Llanmeli,  a  gentleman's  seat  {J.  D.),  Denbighshire,  qu.  ? 

Llaknerch,  a  word  prefixed  to  the  names  of  places,  signifying 
an  area  or  spot,  a  bare  spot.     (D.  ap  Owilym) 

Llanerch,  one  of  the  commots  of  Cantref  Dyffryn  Clwyd. 
(Price,  Bescr) 

Llannerch  Bennaf. 

Llannerch  y  Clwydau. 

Llannerch  Euron  or  Aeron,  vulgo  Llanychaeron,  a  place  in 
Cardiganshire. 

Llannerch  Hudol,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  y 
Fymwy  in  Powys  Wenwynwyn. 

Llannerch  Felus. 

Llannerch  y  Medd,  a  market  town  in  the  middle  of  Anglesey 

Llannerch  y  Mor. 

Llannol,  a  place  in  Anglesey,  in  the  parish  of  Llanbabo,  where 
there  is  a  stone  called  Maen  Llannol  with  an  inscription ;  cor- 
ruptly for  Maen  Llineol,  as  Mr.  Llwyd  thinks. 

Llan  Non. 

Llannor,  a  church  in  Lleyn.  Qu.  whether  Lknfair  or  Llan- 
fawr  or  Llan  lor  ? 

Llanrhystyd,  in  Cardiganshire.  A  castle  built  here  by  Cad- 
waladr  ap  6r.  ap  Cynan,  a.d.  1148.     {Caradoc,  p.  201.) 

Llanrwst,  a  town  in  Denbighshire.  Qu.  from  Grwst  or  Gw- 
rwst  Sant  ? 


264  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Llansawyl. 

Llansilin.  (Tr.  63.)  [A  church  and  parish  in  Denbighshire. 
—  W.R] 

Llanstephan  Castle,  Caermarthenshire. 

Llantkedafp,  a  church  in  Herefordshire. 

Llantrydbyd,  the  seat  of  Sir  John  Aubrey,  ad.  1693  [and 
is  so  still.  A  fine,  large,  and  very  ancient  house,  lai^e  park, 
etc.  The  house  is  in  the  parish  and  large  village  of  Uan- 
tryddyd.— /.  M.] 

Llantuit,  or  Boviarton  ;  some  call  it  Llanelltud ;  a  lordship 
in  Morgannwg.  (Pawd.)  See  Camden  in  Iltudus.  [Llantuit,  an 
ancient  town  in  Glamorgan ;  in  Welsh,  Llanilltud  Fawr.  This 
is  the  name  of  the  parish.  Boverton  (not  Boviarton)  is  a  large 
village  in  this  parish,  and  gives  name  to  the  lordship.  It  is  the 
Bovium  of  Antonine.  Here  is  still  standing  a  very  ancient  seat 
of  the  Lords  Marchers  of  Glamorgan.  In  the  town  of  Llan- 
illtud or  Llantwit  stands  in  ruin  the  College  of  Iltutus.  In  the 
church  and  churchyard  are  more  ancient  British  inscriptions 
than  are  to  be  found  anywhere  else  in  Wales.  There  are  in  a 
neighbouring  field  four  or  five  Boman  and  British  camps.  The 
place  is  famous  for  the  longevity  of  its  inhabitants.  It  stands 
in  the  Vale  of  Glamorgan,  on  the  sea-shore. — I.  M.] 

Llanvaes  seems  to  be  the  old  name  of  Beaumaris  in  Anglesey. 
"  Daeth  ystiwart  llys  Brenhyn  Uychlyn  a  chwech  herwlong  gan- 
thaw  hyd  yn  Llanvaes  ac  yspeiliaw  y  dref  a'i  Uosgi."  {Otdyfr  y 
Brut,)  Here  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth.  Prince  of  Wales,  built  a 
house  of  barefoot  Friers  over  the  grave  of  Jone  his  wife,  daughter 
of  King  John,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  III,  A.D.  1237,  called  now 
the  Friers  near  Beaumaris. 

Llanvihangel  Ysgeifiog,  a  church  and  parish  in  Anglesey. 
Qu.  whether  from  ysgaw,  a  place  of  elders ;  as  Celynnog  from 
cdyn,  a  place  of  hollies  ? 

Llanvorda  (from  Mordaf).  A  collection  of  British  MSS.  here 
made  by  Sir  W.  Williams,  chiefly  copied  out  of  Hengwrt  MSS. 

Llanuftod  :  see  Nefydd. 

Llanwanoc  (qu.  Llanwenog?),  in  Dyfed,  near  St.  David^s, 
where  a  battle  was  fought  between  the  Britons  and  Harold  the 
Dane,  ad.  981.     (Powel,  Garadoc,  p.  65.) 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  265 

Llanychan,  Caermarthenshire.     Fairs  kept  here. 

Llanynghenedl,  a  chapel  and  parish,  Anglesey. 

Llanynys,  a  church  and  parish,  Denbighshire. 

Llanystindwy,  a  parish,  Caernarvonshire. 

Llary  ap  Casnar  Wledig. 

Llathwryd,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire,     (J.  D.) 

Llawarian  :  vid.  Arian. 

Llawdden,  the  father  of  Beren,  who  was  Beuno's  mother. 
(Beuno's  Life.) 

Llawdden  Lueddog,  or  Llewddyn  Luyddog,o  Ddinas  Eiddun. 

Llawddiffro  or  Llawddino,  the  appellative  of  one  Llofan 
that  killed  Urien  ap  Cynfarch.     (Tr.  38.) 

Augerdd  Urien  is  a  gro 
Gennif  cjrch  ynad  ymhob  bro 
Yn  wise  Llofan  Llawddi£fro. 

Llywarch  Hen^  in  Marwnad  Urien  ap  Cynfarch. 

Llawddog  Sant.  Llanllawddog,  Carmarthenshire.  Qu.  whether 
Lavdatus  ? 

Llawesog,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J,  D.) 

Llawprodedd  Farchog  Coch  (n.  pr.  v.).  Cyllell  Llawfrodedd 
Farchog,  or  the  knife  of  Llawfrodedd  the  Knight,  was  one  of  the 
thirteen  rarities  of  Britain.  This  knife  would  serve  twenty-four 
men  from  one  table  to  another,  and  when  wanted  was  ready  at 
the  call  of  every  one.  The  Bretons  of  France  are  allowed  but  one 
knife  for  each  table,  and  that  chained  to  the  table.  See  Eluned, 
Buwch  Llawfrodedd  Farchog.     (TV.  y  Meirch,  2.) 

Lla WGAT  Trwm  Bargawt  Eidyn  killed  Afaon,  son  of  Taliessin. 
In  Mr.  Vaughan's  Index,  Llowgat  Trwm  Bargot  Eiddyn.  (Tr.  38.) 
Some  Scot  of  Edenbrough,  it  seems. 

Llawhir,  generous;  lit.  longimanus,  long-handed,  perhaps 
liberal ;  the  epithet  or  surname  of  several  men ;  as,  Caswallon 
Law  Hir ;  Angharad  Lawir ;  Aireol  Lawir,  etc^  etc. 

Llawr  (n.  pr.  v.).  Lljoiges  Llawr  mab  Eirif,  un  o'r  tair  Llynges 
gyniweir.  (Tr.  72.)  This  Llawr  was  admiral  of  some  famous 
fleet  of  pirates,  probably  of  the  Lochlin  men  about  the  Baltic, 
that  pestered  the  British  coast. 

Llawr  or  Llafyr  ap  Llywarch  Hen.     Bwlch  Uorion. 

34 


266  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Llawr  Crach  0  Feifod.     Collwyn  ap  Llawr  Crach. 

Llech,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  in  the  composition  of  names  of 
places,  etc.,  signifying  a  stone^  or  sometimes  a  flat  Tock ;  hence 
Uechgynvarwy  in  M&n;  liecb  Oronwy  in  Blaen  Cynfad  in 
Ardudwy.  {Tr.  35.)  Llech  Ysgar.  (TV.)  Llech  Ardudwy  is 
Harlech  in  Meirion.  Llech  Elidir.  {Tr.)  Y  Benllech  in  Anglesey. 
Hence  also  Leuca,  a  league ;  that  is,  milestones  among  the 
Komans  ;  as  much  as  to  say,  Llechau,  i.  e.,  stones. 

Llech,  a  river.     Aberllech.     {Llywarch  Hen!) 

Llech  Ardudwy.  Caer  Llech  Ardudwy,  now  Harlech  or 
Arlech  town  and  castle,  Meirion. 

Llkchau  (n.  pr.  v.).  Llechau,  a  son  of  King  Arthur,  was  killed 
at  Llongborth.     (jD.  Js.,  1587.) 

Fal  y  lias  Llechau  is  Llechysgar.— ^5Zeiiyn  Fardd.    (TV.  10.) 

[Llechau,  afon  ym  Morganwg. — /.  jl/.] 

Llechcynfarwy  :  see  Cynfarwy, 

Llech  y  Drybedd,  a  cromlech,  or  Dniidical  monument,  or 
altar,  in  the  parish  of  Nevern  in  Pembrokeshire. 

Llechddyfnog,  one  of  the  three  cantrefs  of  Elfel. 

Llech  Elidir,  a  place  in  North  Britain ;  also  in  Anglesey. 
See  Penllech. 

Llecheu  ap  Brychan,  in  Llangayan  (Tregaian,  qu.  ?).  See 
Gayan. 

Llech  Gelyddon  yrahrydyn.  (MS.)  Nefydd  ferch  Brychan, 
gwraig  Tudwal  Befyr,  Santes  yn  Llech  Gelyddon  ymhrydyn. 

Llech  y  Gowres,  a  monument  near  Neuadd  in  Cardiganshire, 
very  curious. 

Llechid,  8ante8  yn  Arllechwedd,  merch  Ithel  Hael  o  Lydaw. 
(MS.)     Llanllechid,  Oaemarvonsliire.     {B.  Willis.) 

Llech  Idris,  in  the  parish  of  Trawsfynydd,  Meirion,  near 
which  is  a  stone  with  a  Latin  inscription  which  hath  been  ill 
copied  by  Mr.  B.  Llwyd  in  his  Notes  on  Camden. 

Llechog,  a  river :  hence  Mynachlog  Lechog. 

Jjlechog,  Mynachlog  Maenan,  the  Abbey  of  Aherconwy. 
Here  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth  was  buried. 

Aethodd  o  fewn  i  wythawr 
Fynachlog  Lechog  i  lawr. — T.  Llwyd. 

Llechriddtawr,  enw  lie.     [Llecheiddiawr. —  IF.  J).] 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  267 

Llechryd,  a  place  in  Cardiganshire,  on  the  river  Teifi ;  petli 
o  arglwyddiaeth  Syr  Roger  Vychan.  Here  a  battle  was  fought 
between  Rhys  ap  Tewdwr  and  the  sons  of  Bleddyn  ap  Cynvyn, 
where  Madoc  and  Riryd  were  killed,  and  the  other  fled.  Rhys 
ap  Tewdwr  had  in  this  battle  a  strong  power  of  Irish  and  Scots 
which  were  in  his  pay,  A.D.  1087.  {Oaradoc  in  Gr.  ap  Cynan, 
p.  117.) 

Llechwedd  (Y)  Isa  ag  Ucha,  cwniwdau.  Madog  ab  larddwr 
o*r  Llechwedd ;  properly  Arllechwedd. 

Llechwedd  Llyfn,  a  gentleman's  seat.     (J.  D.) 

Llechysgar  (n.  1.),  the  place  where  Llechau,  the  son  of  King 
Arthur,  was  killed.     Llys  Madog  am  Mhredydd. 

Bra  nchel  braint  ar  ddangos 

Lie  trydar  Llechysgar  Uys. — Cynddelw, 

Lledr,  a  river  near  the  town  of  Penmachno.  See  Machno  and 

Siglvaen. 

Ai  hwn  yw  V  maen  graen  grynno  llwydwyn 

Rhwng  Lledr  a  Machno  ? 

Geill  dyn  nnig  ei  siglo 

Ni  chodai  fil  a  chwedyn  fo. — W.  Cynwal, 

Lledbod  or  Lledbawd,  a  parish  in  Cardiganshire. 

Lledrot,  a  town  near  Oswaldstry,  and  a  gentleman's  seat. 
{J,  D)     (Powel,  ChronicUy  p.  3.) 

Lledwigan.  Two  villas  or  townships  of  this  name  in  the 
commot  of  Malldraeth,  in  Anglesey,  when  the  Extent  was  taken 
by  Edward  III,  1352  ;  i.  e.,  Lledwigan  Llys  and  Lledwigan  Llan. 

Lledwigan  Llys,  or  belonging  to  the  palace  or  prince,  was  called 
a  free  township,  and  yet  paid  the  prince  268.  \0d.  yearly  in 
money,  with  a  suit  to  the  commots  and  hundreds  with  relief, 
gobr  and  amobr,  10s.  It  contained  but  one  wde  under  several 
coheirs  who  had  a  mill  of  their  own.  But  there  was  Llewelyn 
ap  Ednyfed,  one  of  the  coheirs  of  the  said  weU,  who  owed 
neither  relief  nor  amobr  either  before  or  after  the  Conquest 
(meaning  the  Norman  Conquest) ;  but  the  others  paid  relief, 
gobr  and  amobr,  lOs.,  when  due.  What,  then,  is  a  wele  ?  It  is 
not  a  messuage.  There  was  a  hamlet  of  two  boviats  of  land 
belonging  to  Lledwigan  Uys,  which  paid  JEl  1«.  M,  yearly,  who 
owed  suit  to  the  prince's  mill  of  Dindryfol  and  to  the  commot 


268  CELTIC   REMAINS. 

and  hundred,  and  also  relief,  gobr  and  amobr,  with  three  boviats 
of  escheat  land  which  had  been  crau  mvck  (soccage  tenure),  but 
paid  to  the  prince  lid.  a  year ;  so  the  lands  in  soccage  tenure, 
it  seems,  were  only  to  plough  instead  of  rent.  Howel  ap  Madog 
ap  Ily  welyri  was  sole  heir  of  lledwigan  Llan,  or  that  held  under 
the  Church,  and  he  owed  no  suit  to  the  prince  except  an  appear- 
ance at  the  first  commot  held  after  Michaelmas  yearly  {%.  e.,  as 
we  call  it  now,  the  court  leet),  but  to  other  commots  or  hun- 
dreds neither  relief  nor  amobr ;  but  he  and  all  his  villans  were 
to  attend  the  two  grand  turns  yearly  in  lieu  of  all  services.  But 
Lledwigan  y  Llys,  held  under  the  prince,  had  heavy  services 
though  called  a  free  village  in  the  Extent. 

Lleenawc,  father  of  Gwallawc,  one  of  the  tri  phost  cad. 
(Tr,  11.) 

Llefethyr,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Emlyn,  Pem- 
brokeshire. 

Llefnydd,  oue  of  the  four  commots  of  Cantref  Gwent.  See 
Gwent, 

Llefoed  Wynebglawk,  a  poet. 

Lleian,  verch  Brychan,  gwraig  Gawran,  a  mam  Ayddan 
Vradog,  mentioned  by  Beda,  jEdanus, 

Lleision  (n.  pr.  v.).  Lleision,  abad  Glyn  Nedd.  (Z.  01  CothL) 
Gwelygordd  Lleisiawn. 

Lleision  ap  Philip  ap  Caradog  ap  Ehys.     (ifS.) 

Lleision  or  Lleisiawn,  a  country  or  lordship  in  Powysland ; 
or  qu.  whether  people  of  LlSs,  mentioned  in  the  eighth  battle  of 
Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth.     See  Gylch  Llywelyn  : 

Teymdud  Lleisiawn  ac  alasswy  dir  i  deym  Dyganwy. 
Rhac  Madawc  mechdeyrn  Lleisyawn. 

Gwalchmaiy  i  Mad.  ap  Meredydd. 

Lle  Herbert,  in  the  mountains  of  Meirionyddshire,  where 
W.  Herbert,  Earl  of  Pembroke,  passed  with  great  difficulty  to 
besiege  Harlech  Castle  maintained  by  David  ap  Jenkin  [leuan — 

•  

TF,  D.]  ap  Einion  against  Edward  IV  siding  with  the  house  of 
Lancaster. 

Llbmenic,  mab  Mawan.  {Tr.  11,  No.  7.)  Uemem'g  ap  Maon 
(n.  pr.  v.),  (Tr,),  un  o'r  tri  trwyddedawg  ag  anfoddawg.  {Tr,  71.) 
Llwmhunig  ap  Maon.     {Br.  Davies  in  Trwyddedawg.) 


CELTIC   REMAINS.  269 

LiiEiNiOG,  a  place  in  Cwmmwd  Menai,  Anglesey.  Mredydd 
of  Ueiniog ;  and  Lleiniog  or  liienog,  near  Beaumaris. 

Llen  Arthur  Ynghernyw  a  Dyfnaint,  one  of  the  thirteen 
rarities  of  Britain,  i.«.,  King  Arthur's  veil.  Whoever  went  under 
it  could  see,  but  would  not  be  seen.     See  Eluned, 

Llenvodden.    Meiriawn  Llenvodden  ap  Boet. 

Lleon,  called  also  Ueon  Gawr,  the  7th  King  of  Britain.  The 
British  history  says  he  was  the  founder  of  Caerlleon  in  the  north 
of  the  island,  which  must  be  Caerlleon  ar  Ddyfrdwy,  or  else 
Leonis  Castrum,  which  hath  been  called  since  the  City  of  Legions, 
on  the  river  Dee,  and  by  the  Saxons  Legeacester.  This  in  the 
Triades  is  called  Caerlleon^  and  by  British  writers  and  the  poets 
Caerlleon  Gawr ;  Lleon  Gawr  signifying  Ueon  the  Prince,  and 
not  the  Giant,  as  is  imagined  by  persons  ignorant  in  the  Celtic 
tongue.  It  is  now  called  West  Chester,  on  the  river  Dee.  See 
Ogyrfan  Gawr,  BerUli  Oaivr,  etc. 

Llys  llawr  Lleon  Gawr  linn  gwawr  gwimpaf. 

Or.  ap  Mer.  ap  Dafyddy  i'r  Grog  o  Gaerlleon. 

But  rather  Holt  or  Lyons  in  Flintshire. 

Rhag  ffalsed,  rhag  oered  oedd 

Gaer  Lleon  Gawr  a'i  Unoedd. — L.  0,  Cothi. 

Mae  hwpp  arvan  mab  hirfawr 
Mae  llun  gwych  mal  Lleon  Gawr. 

S.  Cerij  i  S.  ap  Rhys. 

Lleon  (taid  Iddic  ap  Llywarch)  ap  Cilmin  Droedtu. 
Lleon  Llychlyn,  some  Prince  on  the  coast  of  the  Baltic  in 
alliance  with  the  Britons. 

Mi  fum  Vardd  Telyn 

I  Leon  Llychlyn. — Hartes  Taliestin, 

Engil  ar  gychwyn 
Rbag  Lleon  Llychlyn. 

Lles  (n.  pr.  v. ;  Latinized  Lucius. 

Lleiddawd  ap  Marchnad.     {Ekys  Goch  Hryri.)- 

Llbs  Amerawdr   Rhufain.  .  {TyssiHo.)    This,  in  Galfrid's 

Latin,   is  Lucius  Tiberius,   Procurator  of  the  Republic.     He 

was  general  of  a  Roman  army  in  Gaul  that  fought  with  King 

Arthur  and  the  Armoricans  about  the  year  541.    Others  call 


270  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

him  Lucius  Hiberue.  The  British  writers  use  to  call  the  gene- 
rals of  armies  by  the  titles  of  emperors  and  kings,  and  at  that 
time  Rome  hardly  knew  its  emperors.     See  Procopius. 

Lles  ap  Coel,  the  79th  King  of  Britain,  said  to  be  the  first 
Christian  King,  and  converted  by  Ffagan  and  Dwywan,  two 
preachers  sent  by  one  Eleuther,  a  Pope  of  Rome.  Usher  pro- 
duces twenty-four  different  opinions  of  the  time  this  Prince 
received  the  Christian  faith.  By  Latin  writers  he  is  called 
iMciua;  and  by  S.  Beulan's  note  on  N"ennius,Zet;erifa'M'r,  which 
he  interprets  magni  spUndoris,  i.  «.,  great  light.  But  none  of 
our  writers  in  the  .British  tongue  mention  this  cognomen  of 
Lleufer  Mawr.  Bishop  Lloyd  is  ready  to  give  him  up  as  never 
to  have  had  a  being,  and  he  thinks  Bede  might  find  him  in  that 
mixen  of  fttble,  the  Gesta  Pontificum.  Some  are  so  whimsical 
as  to  derive  Ihe  name  from  St.  Luc's  Gospel,  and  to  deny  the 
very  being  of  Lucius ;  but  they  should  have  shewed  the  affinity 
between  Lles^  his  real  name,  and  Luke,  for  Lucius  is  only  bastard 
Latin. 

It  is  the  tradition  of  the  churches  of  the  Switzers  and  Grisons 
that  he  went  to  France  and  Germany  to  preach  the  Gospel,  and 
is  said  to  be  consecrated  Bishop  of  Chur  or  Coire,  the  capital 
province  of  the  Grisons.  There  is  an  ancient  monastery  near 
the  city  of  Chur  which  bears  his  name,  and  his  feast  is  solemnly 
kept  there,  and  his  sister  Emerita  is  honoured  as  virgin  and 
martyr.     {Brit.  Sand,,  Dec.  3.) 

This  Lies  ap  Coel  died,  according  to  Tyssilio's  British  History, 
A.D.  156.     See  also  tTsfier's  Primord.,  p.  340. 

Lles  Llaw  Ddeoc. 

Llestr,  and  Morlestr,  a  ship  or  any  sea  vessel  This  word  i» 
to  be  found  in  Doomsday  Booh,  in  Cheshire,  but  corruptly  wrote 
Lesth,  an  h  for  an  r.  "  Quatuor  d^narios  de  unoquoque  Lesth 
habebant  Rex  et  Comes.^' 

Lleuci,  Lleucu,  and  Lleuc¥  (b.  J».  f.) ;  Latinized  Lucia. 

'    Ynghylch  dy  dy  Lleucy  Llwyd 
A  cblyd  fnr  a  chlo  dar*  du 
A  chliccied  yn  iach  Lleucn. — Llewelyn  Oock. 

Llehddai)  Sant,  (Latinized  Laudattis),  first  Abbot  of  Enlli,  as 
some  say  cousin-germam  to  Beuno. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  271 

Lleufkb  Mawr,  a  cognamen.     See  Lies  ap  Coel. 

Llew  (n.  pr.  v.),  an  ancient  and  a  natural  name  enough  for  a 
British  commander,  if  it  be  true  that  they  painted  the  shapes  of 
beasts  and  birds  on  their  bodies.  The  name  signifies  a  lion ; 
and  the  famous  Prince  Llew  ap  Cynfarch  of  North  Britain,  who 
married  King  Arthur's  sister,  should  have  been  translated  by 
Galfirid  Leo,  and  not  Lotho;  but  he  hath  often  mistaken  as  well 
as  here.  Names  of  fierce  or  strong  creatures  were  commonly 
given  to  men  among  the  Britains ;  as,  Arth,  a  bear ;  Blaidd,  a 
wolf ;  Gruff,  a  griphon ;  Owalch,  a  hawk  ;  Uryr,  an  eagle ;  March, 
a  horse. 

Llew  ap  Cynfarch,  King  of  Llychlyn  (Norway,  or  some 
country  near  the  Baltic).  He  was  made  King  there  by  Arthur, 
his  brother-in-law,  being  entitled  to  the  crown  in  his  mother's 
right.  He  married  Anna,  daughter  of  Uthur  Bendragon,  and 
sister  of  King  Arthur,  whose  son  Medrod  claimed  the  crown  of 
Britain  because  Arthur  wa!^  not  begot  in  wedlock.  Gwalchmai, 
the  other  son  of  Anna,  was,  it  seems,  of  another  opinion,  for  he 
was  one  of  King  Arthur's  chief  generals,  if  both  had  the  same 
father.  His  name  should  be  translated  into  Latin,  Leo;  but  I 
cannot  tell  for  what  reason  Galfrid  has  made  it  Lot  and  Lotho, 
unless  in  order  to  make  British  histoiy  tally  with  the  Scotch  ; 
perhaps  a  mistake  for  Llewddyn  Luyddog  o  Ddinas  Eiddun, 
who  Mr.  Ed.  Llwyd  Latinizes  Leodinus  Bellicosiis.  But  this  was 
wrong :  let  every  history  stand  on  its  own  bottom,  true  or  false. 

Llew,  river.     Old  orthography,  Lieu, 

Yn  Aberllew  lladd  Urien. — Lhjwarch  Hen,  Marwnad  Urien. 

Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  reads  it  Llay. 

Llewelus  and  Llefelus  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  King  in  Gaul,  brother 
of  Lludd  ap  Beli,  King  of  Britain,  and  of  Caswallon.  {Tyssilio.) 
A  dispute  between  him  and  Lludd,  called  Cyfrangc  Lludd  a 
Llewelys  {MS.) ;  by  others,  Ymarwar  Lludd  a  Llewelus.  {Lleiaelyn 
Fardd,  i  Ln.  ap  lorwerth.) 

Llewelyn  or  Llywelyn  (n.  pr.  v.),  generally  Latinized  Leoli- 
nns ;  perhaps  from  llexo  and  euly7i,  lion's  form  or  lion-like,  or 
else  from  llew  and  gelyn,  lion's  enemy.  This  name  seems  not  to 
have  been  used  till  after  the  Romans  left  Britain.     See  Hoinnc 


272  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

MyrddiD.    The  first  Prince  of  this  name  was  Llewelyn  ap  Seis- 
yllt.    Math.  Westminster  mentions  him  in  the  year  940. 

It  is  also  by  the  poets  taken  to  be  the  same  name  with  Lewis, 
as  Lewis  Glyn  Oothi,  the  poet,  is  called  Lly welyn  Glyn  Cothi ; 
and  the  sneer  of  an  Anglesey  gentleman  on  his  countryman  in 
Dublin,  that  had  Anglified  his  name,  explains  it. 

Nnper  lorwerth  ap  Llewelyn 
Nunc  Ned  Lewis  o  Dre  DdulyD. 

Llewelyn  ap  Gruffudd  was  the  last  Prince  of  Wales  of  the 
ancient  British  races,  betrayed  into  the  hands  of  the  English  by 
his  own  subjects  of  Buellt  and  one  Madog  Min,  a  Bishop,  in  the 
year  1282,  and  his  head  put  on  the  highest  place  of  the  Tower  of 
London  by  Edward  I.  He  was  son  of  Gruffudd  ap  Llewelyn  ap 
lorwerth  Drwyndwn. 

Llywelyn  ap  Iorwerth  Drwyndwn  was  a  Prince  of  Wales 
that' bravely  defended  his  country  against  Sichard  I,  King  John, 
and  Henry  III.  He  is  called  by  historians  Leolinus  Magnus. 
He  began  his  reign,  1194;  died,  1240 ;  reigned  fifty-six  [forty- 
six]  years. 

Llewei,  or  Llewmei,  or  Llowmai  (n.  f.).  Llewei  ferch  Seith- 
wedd  {Tr.  64)  ;  un  o'r  tair  gwrforwyn,  i.  c,  hermaphrodite. 

Llew  Llawgyffes,  mentioned  Tr,  35 ;  in  a  battle  at  Llech 
Oronwy  in  Blaen  Cynfael,  Meirion  {Tr.  77),  Llew  Llaw  Gyflfes 
and  Gwdyon  getting  names  and  arms  of  Bhiarot  y  Fram. 

Lleweni  Fawr  Ynghegengl  (n.  1.). 

Llewon.  Caer  Llewon,  Holt,  Flintshire,  or  Cc^tle  of  Lions, 
made  by  Jno.  Barlow  [Earl  ?]  Warren  and  William  his  soa  But  I 
think  this  is  rather  the  old  Caerlleon  Gawr,  or  Llewon  G«wr, 
which  Camden  has  kept  such  a  rout  about,  and  not  the  city  of 
Westchester,  which  T  take  to  be  a  later  thing,  and  perhaps  built 
by  the  Romans. 

Lliana.    Llanlliana,  a  chapel  in  Mdn. 

Lliaws  (n.  pr.  v.),  a  very  ancient  British  name.    Lliaws  mab 

Nwyfre  o  Arllechwedd  {Tr.  40),  father  of  Gwenwynwyn  and 

Gwanar. 

Rhag  colofn  Lliaws  maws  mab  Nwyfre. 

Frydydd  y  Moch,  i  Gr,  ap  Cyn.  ap  O.  Gwynedd. 

See  Choanar. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  273 

Llibio  Sant.    Llanllibio  Chapel,  Anglesey. 

Llieni.  LlanUieni,  the  town  of  Lemster  in  Herefordshire ;  in 
Latin,  Leonminster  and  Leonis  Monasterium,  from  a  lion  that 
appeared  to  King  Merwald  in  a  vision,  and  upon  this  he  built  a 
nunnery.  (Leland,  IHn,,  MS,)  But  Camden  says  Uanlieni  is  in 
British  a  church  of  nuns.  Some,  says  he,  derive  it  from  linum, 
flax,  the  best  kind  of  which  grows  there.  (Camden.)  It  is  true  that 
lleian  in  the  British  is  a  nun,  and  that  the  life  of  nuns  is  called 
lleianaeth ;  but  the  plural  of  lleian  is  lleianod,  and  not  lleiani ;  so 
this  etymology  goes  for  nothing.  To  derive  it  from  lliain,  linen 
cloth,  as  some  do,  is  as  little  to  the  purpose,  for  the  plural  of 
lliain  is  llidniau.  We  have  Llanlliana  in  Anglesey,  a  chapel 
dedicated  to  St.  Lliana,  a  woman ;  but  as  the  Oney  river  falls 
into  the  Wye  at  Lemster,  might  it  not  have  been  ZlanUiontvy, 
as  Llanllyfni,  Llangefni,  etc.,  have  their  names  from  rivers  ? 

Llienawg.  Aber  Llienawg  in  Anglesey,  a  castle  built  by 
Hugh  Earl  of  Chester  there.  (Camden,)     Eightly  Lleiniog,  qu.  ? 

Llienog,  father  of  Lloeger  and  Gwallog.  This  Lloeger  is  pro- 
bably the  same  name  with  the  Irish  Loegarius,  son  of  Neill 
MaighialacL     (FlaJierty,  p.  394.) 

Llifon  or  Lliwon,  a  river  in  Anglesey,  whence  Cwmmwd 
Uifon  has  its  name.  Another  river  in  Caernarvonshire,  whence 
Glyn  IJifon  has  its  name.    Llivon  mentioned  by  Llywarch  Hen : 

Pyll  wyn  pwyll  t&n  trwy  Livon. — LI.  Hen. 

Lligan  or  Llugan.  Llanllugan,  an  abbey,  once  in  the  diocese 
of  St.  Asaph,  deanery  of  Cedewain,  and  a  nunnery.  (A  Willis.) 

Llion.  Caer  Llion,  a  market  town  on  the  river  Wysc  in  Mon- 
mouthshire, sixteen  mUes  south-west  of  Monmouth.  Some  say 
it  is  called  so  from  a  legion  of  Eoman  soldiers  placed  there. 
Nennius,  in  his  Catalogue,  hath  a  city  called  Caer  Legion,  to  dis- 
tinguish it,  I  suppose,  from  Ca^ir  Zleon,  The  poets  have  taken 
care  to  write  this  Caer  Llion,  and  not  Lleon, 

Am  fi  y  nhref  Oaerllion 
a'r  ford  gron. 

This  Caerllion  was  the  seat  of  the  kings  of  Britain  when  they 
retreated  over  Severn,  it  being  a  city  vying  in  pride  for  lofty 
towers,  etc.,  with  Bome  itself,  as  Giraldus  Cambrensis  describes 

35 


274  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

it.    Here  was  the  Archbishop  of  Wales'fl  seat  till  it  was,  on 

account  of  the  wars,  removed  to  St.  David's,  and  then  Britany. 

Usher,  in  his  OatcUofftie,  calls  it  Caerlleon  ar  Wysg ;  but  if  this 

city  and  Westchester  came  to  be  called  Caer  Legion  from  the 

Eoman  legions  quartered  there,  why  are  not  all  the  Boman 

quarters  called  so  ? 

The  British  writers  say  that  this  town  was  built  by  Beli  ap 

Dyfnwal,  and  called  Caerwysg ;  but  that  after  the  coming  of  the 

Bomans,  because  they  quartered  there  in  the  winter,  it  was 

called  Caerlleon  ar  Wysg.     {Tyssilio  and  Oalfrid.)    The  Legio 

Secunda  Augusta,  called  also  Britannica  Secunda»  were  quartered 

here.     (Camden.) 

Llio  (n.  pr.  f.). 

Llio  enrwallfc  lliw  arian 

Ar  ikd  Llio  rhoed  Uoweth 

A  noblau  anr  yn  ei  bleth. — D,  Nanmor, 

Llivan.  Llyn  Llivan  (Tyssilio),  a  lake  in  Wales,  said  to  be 
near  the  banks  of  the  Severn,  which  on  the  flood  ebbs  or  swal- 
lows all  the  water  that  comes  into  it,  and  on  the  ebb-tide  vomits 
and  overflows  its  banks.  (Tyss,,  Brit,  MS,)  This  passage  is  ill 
translated  by  G-alfrid  and  Thompson. 

Lliw  and  Lyw  (fl.),  qu.  whether  Luguvallum  ? 

Pell  oddjman  Aber  Lliw. — Llytoarch  Hen. 

Lliwelydd  (n.  pr.  v.).  Caer  Lliwelydd,  mentioned  in  Gor- 
hoflfedd  Hywel  ap  Owain  Gwynedd. 

Arglwydd  nef  a  llawr  gwawr  Gwyndodydd 
Mor  bell  o  Geri  Gtier  Liwelydd. 

Qu.  -whether  the  Caer  Ligualid  of  Nennius  (Cotton  copy)  ?  In 
the  Cambridge  copy,  Caer  Lualid.  Usher  makes  it  to  be  Lugu- 
vallia  or  Carlisle ;  but  this  is  not  in  the  Triades, 

Lliwer  ap  Lly warch  HSn.     [Llywarch  Hen) 

Lliwon,  a  river. 

A  glan  Uewod  Glyn  Lliwon. — TT.  Lleyn. 
See  Llifon, 

Llobliw. 

Llocrin  Gawk,  Locrinus,  the  son  of  Brutus,  the  2nd  King  of 

Loegi'ia. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  275 

Lie  doe  yDOch  Hid  unawr 
Llai  crynnai  gas  Llocrin  Gawr. 

Tho8,  Gwyneddf  i  Edwd.  Gruffydd  o*r  Penrliyn. 
See  Lloegr. 

Lloddi,  qu.  whether  a  man's  name  ?  Marwnad  lago  ap  Lloddi. 
{Taliessin,  Arch.  BrU,,  p.  256.) 

Lloegr^  England,  exclusive  of  Wales  and  Cornwall;  from 
Lloegrin.     Saxonum  regionem.     (K  Llwyd.) 

Er  ergryd  angen  rhag  anghywir  Loegyr 
Ni  lygraf  fy  mawredd,  ni  ddihanaf  rianedd. 

Llywarch  Hen. 

Lloegr  ap  Llienog,  in  Zlyfr  Du  o  Oaerfyrddin.  {Arch,  Brit., 
p.  261.) 

Lloegrin  (n.  pr.  v.),  Locrinus,  the  2nd  King  of  Britain ; 
Llocrin  Gawr. 

Llobgrwys,  the  Loegrian  Britons ;  also  the  Saxons  since  in- 
habiting there. 

Yn  y  ddaw  Lloegrwys  drwy  Dren. — Llywarch  Hen, 

Llofan  (n.  pr.  v.).  Llofan  Llawdino  killed  Urien  ap  Cyn- 
farch.  (TV.  38.)     See  Llawddiffro. 

Llofion  ;  see  Llowion. 

Llogawd,  q.  d.  Lowgate,  in  Anglesey. 

Llongborth,  a  place  mentioned  in  Marwnad  Gereint  ab  Erbin 
by  Llywarch  Hen,  where  there  was  a  sea-fight  between  Gereint 
and  the  Saxons,  or  a  descent  by  sea,  and  where  Gereint  was 
killed.  Some  take  it  to  be  Llanborth  in  Cardiganshire  ;  but  a 
sea-fight  could  not  properly  be  there,  nor  Saxons  to  fight  with. 
Gereint  was  one  of  King  Arthur's  three  chief  admirals,  as 
appears  by  the  Triadcs ;  and  I  should  rather  think  this  Llong- 
borth to  be  Portsmouth,  or  some  such  great  seaport  in  the  pos- 
session of  the  Saxons,  where  a  descent  was  made  by  this  Gereint 
and  his  fleet,  for  the  battle  is  plainly  described  to  be  on  shore. 

Yn  Llongborth  gwelais  drabludd 

Ar  vain,  brain  ar  goludd 

Ag  ar  grann  cynrhan  madrndd. 

And  Gereint,  in  the  same  Marwnad,  is  said  to  be  of  Dyfnaiut, 
i.  e.,  Devon  and  Cornwall. 


276  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Llongddin,  in  Latin  Longidinium.     {Edward  Llwyd.) 

Lloniaw  Sant.     {B.  Willis.)    His  church  at  lianddinam. 

Llonio  ap  Alan  Ffrigan  ap  Emyr  Llydaw. 

Llonwen,  or  Llofion,  or  Llonion  (n.  1.),  a  place  in  Penfro 
noted  for  barley. 

Llorien.  Bwlch  Llorien  mentioned  by  Llywarch  Hen,  where 
Llavur,  son  of  Llywarch  Hen,  was  buried.  Qu.  whether  Lloren 
on  the  borders  of  Montgomeryshire  ? 

Llowdden,  a  poet,  1450. 

Llowion,  LLonoN,  or  Llonwen,  a  place  in  Pembrokeshire 
famous  for  barley.     {Tr.  30.) 

Llowni  (n.  1.). 

Lluarth.    Brjm  Lluarth. 

Pen  bryn  cun  iawn  dydd  yr  Ion 
Lluarth  gwell  na  CbLaerlleon. 

Rhys  ap  Oynfrig  Ooch. 

Lludd  ap  Beli  Mawr,  the  71st  King  of  Britain,  just  before  the 
Roman  conquest,  whose  sons  being  under  age  on  Julius  Caesar's 
landing  here,  his  brother  Caswallon  was  chosen  generalissimo  of 
the  British  forces.  Mr.  Camden  (in  Middlesex,  p.  312,  Gibson's 
edition)  calls  him  Luddus,  and  allows  Ludgate  to  have  been 
called  after  his  name.  JBut  he  often  allows  and  disallows  the 
same  thing.  One  of  the  ancient  names  of  London  is  Caerludd  ; 
and  the  British  history  mentions  a  quarrel  between  his  brothers 
and  lludd  for  changing  the  ancient  name  of  the  city. 

\^* Ludgate  (all  the  six  gates  of  London  then  standing)  h  Luddo 
rege,  omnium  antiquissima,  cujus  nomen  etiamnum  hodie,  supra 
portum  incisum  extat ;  sive  Flutgate  quorundam  opinione,  k  flu- 
violo  subjecto  (ut  porta  Fluentana  Romae)  nunc  k  regina  Elisa- 
beths, renovata,  cujus  statua,  ab  altera  quoque  parte  videtur." 
(Itinerarium  Angliw,  scriptum  k  Paulo  Hentznero.  Breslse,  1627. 
Scriptum  a.d.  1598.)— ^.i>.] 

Lluddycca  and  Lluddocca  ap  Tudur  Trefor.     (J.  D,) 

Lludlaw,  Llwdlo,  or  Llwydlaw,  Ludlow  in  Shropshire.  See 
Dineu. 

Llueddog  :  see  Elen  Zueddog, 

Llug,  a  river  which  runs  by  Presteign  and  Lemster  into  the 
Wye. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  277 

Llugan.    lAanllugan  Ynghedewain. 

Llugwy  or  Lligwy,  a  river  in  Anglesey,  and  a  gentleman^s 
seat.  A  river  also  that  falls  into  Dyfi  {k  Hi  or  lltig  and  grvy) ; 
from  Hug  and  ivy  {E,  Zlwyd),  clear  water.  Rhos  Ligwy ;  Traeth 
Lligwy. 

lihJJ^yLuna,  the  moon ;  in  Irish  luan ;  hence  a  woman's  name, 
Eiluned. 

Llundain  and  Llundein,  London ;  wrote  in  Triad  45  Llun- 
den,  q.  d.  Llongddin,  or  slup-fort ;  and  so  Llongborth,  port  of 
ships,  is  the  ancient  British  name  of  Portsmouth,  which  I  take 
to  be  the  Londinis  of  the  ancients  (though  I  know  Mr.  Edw. 
Llwyd  and  Baxster  make  it  to  be  Lyme.)  The  Gaulish  name, 
Londres,  which  is  almost  literally  Llongdref,  i,  e:,  town  of  ships, 
shews  it  also  to  be  of  that  original ;  and  nothing  more  plain  and 
strong  than  the  Londinium  of  Antoninus,  or,  as  it  is  in  the  Naples 
MS.,  Longiduno,  which  is  literally  Llongddun  or  Llongddin.  In 
Nennius  it  is  called  Caire  Lunden ;  in  the  Triades,  Caer  Lun- 
dein ;  by  Usher,  Caer  Ludd ;  the  Londonium  and  Longidiunum 
of  the  Romans.  Its  first  name  was  Tro  Newydd,  or  New  Troy ; 
and  the  inhabitants  were  called  by  the  Romans  Trinobantes ;  its 
next,  Caer  Beli  ap  Dyfnwal,  i.  e.]  the  City  of  Belius ;  its  next 
name,  Caer  Ludd,  the  City  of  Lludd ;  and  its  next,  Llongddin  or 
Llundain.  John  Major  says  the  Britons  call  it  Londonias ;  so 
little  did  this  Scotchman  know  of  our  British  history. 

Llwch,  a  lake,  and  in  the  Irish  lough ;  used  in  Brecknock 
and  Caermarthenshire :  hence  came  the  name  of  Llwch  Tawe, 
Ll\^ch  Sawdde,  Llwch  Cyhirych,  Llyn  LlanUwch  (qu.  Uawn- 
llwch),  Ted  y  Uychau,  Llwch  Garmon. 

Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  calls  this  word  Gwyddelian  British ;  but 
this  word  doth  not  prove  that  the  Gwyddelian  and  the  present 
British  were  different  languages,  no  more  than  the  South  Wales 
and  the  North  Wales  people  speak  different  languages,  though 
the  names  of  some  things  are  different  among  them.  It  only 
shews  they  have  been  different  dominions,  and  that  each  prince 
chose  to  have  his  subjects  known  by  their  dialects,  when  at  the 
same  time  the  language  of  the  poets  was  the  same. 

Llwchaiarn  (n.  pr.  v.).  There  is  a  church  dedicated  to  a 
saint  of  this  name  in  the  commot  of  Cedewain,  near  the  Severn, 


278  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

called  Llanllwchaiarn.  Sion  Keri,  a  poet  of  that  neighbourhood, 
who  flourished  about  the  year  1520,  wrote  a  cywydd  of  the 
legend  of  this  saint.     He  says  he  was  son  of  Cynvael : 

Mae  hap  canfod  mab  Cynvael ; 

and  that  he  was  cousin-german  of  Beuno : 

Gefnder  ith  rodder  o  thrig 
Beano  dyfal  bendefig ; 

and  that  he  had  a  church  at  Llam  yr  Ewig ;  that  he  had  been  a 
bishop  and  a  soldier ;  and  that  he  was  an  abbot  of  a  bishoprick  ; 
that  he  had  heard  the  sound  of  bells  at  the  place  where  he 
afterwards  built  his  church  and  monastery ;  that  he  made  hira 
a  shirt  of  hair  which  he  wore  nine  months  and  nine  days,  pray- 
ing with  his  knees  on  the  blue  stone ;  and  that  there  he 
obtained  nine  petitions ;  that  the  men  and  castle  were  his : 

DyQion  da  dinad  oedd ; 
that  his  land  was  a  sanctuary  a^  much  as  Ynys  Enlli : 

Seintwar  y  w  dy  ddaiar  di. 

In  regard  to  the  pronunciation  of  his  name  he  says, 

Llwchaiam  wynn  llawchwynn  wyd. 
Again : 

Gwellhaech  eaog  Llwohaiam. 

He  also  mentions  some  dark  story  of  a  doe  that  leapt  into  a  pool^ 
without  destroying  of  which  his  people  could  not  live. 

Ni  chaid  einioes  ich  dynion 
Heb  roi  cwymp  ir  ewig  hon  ; 

and  there  is  a  parish  adjoining  called  Llam  yr  Ewig. 

Gair  aeth  draw  gwyrtbiaa  a  drig 

Lie  mawr  y w  Llam  yr  Ewig. — S,  Keri. 

Llwch  Garmon,  Lacus  Garmon,  the  haven  oif  Wexford ;  in 
Irish  called  Loch  Garmon.     (Ogygia,  p.  20.) 

Llwch  y  Lloi,  in  Irish  Loch  Laigh,  i,  e.,  Vituli  Lacus  ;  a  lake 
in  Ulster  in  Ireland. 

Llwg,  qu.  whether  a  river  ?  Gwaunllwg  and  Gwenllwg  in 
Glamorganshire.     See  Owentllwg. 

Llw YD,  in  the  surnames  of  men  and  names  [of  places],  signifies 
(jrcy  colour.  G  wr  LI  wyd  (literally  a  grey  man)  also  signifies  a  vassal 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  279 

or  tenant,  or  one  of  the  commonalty  poorly  dressed  in  grey,  and 
that  is  not  a  gentleman ;  and  it  is  probable  that  Leudis,  Zeudvs, 
and  Leodis,  among  the  French  and  Saxon  writers,  which  meant 
the  same  thing,  came  from  this,  as  also  the  Saxon  lowt  or  loute, 
a  rustic  fellow ;  and  the  passage  in  Chaucer  of  a  leud  man  must 
be  so  understood : 

Blessed  be  the  leud  man 

That  nonght  save  his  belief  can ; 

1.  e.,  an  illiterate,  simple,  poor  countryman  that  doth  not  trouble 
himself  with  disputes  about  religion,  and  knows  nothing  but  his 
creed.  I  know  some  learned  men  (Burton,  etc.)  urge  against 
the  authority  of  the  British  History,  which  says  that  Ludgate 
was  so  called  from  Lludd,  a  king  of  Britain ;  but  that  Ludgate 
was  so  called  because  it  was  Leodgate,  the  people^ s  gate,  for  that 
Uod  in  Saxon  signifies  the  people.  Is  not  this  stretching  hard, 
and  drawing  language  and  sense  by  the  hair  of  the  head  to  be  an 
evidence  against  an  ancient  national  history  that  positively  says 
It  was  so  called  from  Lludd  ?  And  without  any  one  author  in 
the  world  to  back  this  evidence,  or  even  common  sense,  for  was 
there  ever  heard  of  a  gate  of  a  city  that  was  not  the  people's 
gate  ?  But  if  these  hot-headed  authors  were  only  to  consider 
that  London  had  its  walls  and  gates  before  the  Saxons  or  Saxon 
language  had  anything  to  do  with  giving  names  to  gates  there, 
it  would  save  these  kinds  of  lame  guesses. 

Llwyd  is  also  used  in  cognomens:  Llyr  Llwyd;  lorwerth 
Fynglwyd.  In  family  surnames :  Edward  Llwyd ;  Humphrey 
Llwyd ;  and  by  corruption  and  pride  wrote  Lloyd,  Loyde,  Floyd, 
and  Flyde.  Ithel  Llwyd  ap  Ithel  Gethin;  Dafydd  Llwyd. 
Places :  y  Berth  Lwyd ;  Cae  liwyd ;  Caer  Lwydcoed  {Tyssilio)  ; 
Llwydiarth ;  y  Ty  Llwyd ;  y  Cefn  Llwyd  ;  y  Bryn  Llwyd ;  CU 
Manllwyd ;  y  Greiglwyd ;  y  Garreglwyd,  a  gentleman's  seat. 

Llwydiabth  or  Llwtddiarth,  enw  lie  ym  Mon  ag  yn  Meir- 
ionydd  [Nlirefaldwyn —  W.  JD,]  ;  q.  d.  Garth  Lwyd. 

Llwydion  Sant.  The  church  of  Heneglwys  dedicated  to  Sant 
or  Saint  Llwydion. 

Llwyddog  :  see  Elen  Lmyddo^, 

Llwyn,  literally  a  bush  or  grove,  is  put  to  the  names  of  several 
places  in  Britain;  as,  Trysglwyn;   liwyn  Gwryl;   Llwyn  y 


280  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Graws;  Llw3m  lorwerth;  Llwyn  y  Piod;  liwyn  Dyrys;  y 
Ilwyn  Glas;  Derlwyn;  Llwyn  y  Maen;  Llwyn  Gronwy; 
Llwyn  y  Gog ;  Llwyn  Arth ;  Llwyn  Melyn,  a  gentleman^s  seat ; 
Dyryslw3m;  Derwlwyn,  a  gentleman's  seat;  Llwyn  Deri,  a 
gentleman's  seat ;  Llwyn  Dafydd ;  Llwyn  y  Chwilbo. 

Llwyn  y  Cnottiau,  a  gentleman's  seat.  (J".  D,)    Lloyd. 

Llwyn  Dafydd.  Gwaith  Llwyn  Dafydd,  a  place  in  Cardi- 
ganshire.    {D,  ap  leuan  Du.) 

Llwyn  Dolwen,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J.  2>.) 

Llwyn  Dyrys,  in  Egremond,  Penbrokeshire. 

Llwyn  Egryn,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Mouldale.  («/'.  D.)  See 
Llav^egryn. 

Llwyn  Gwern,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Meirion. 

Llwythlawb,  an  abbey  whose  abbot,  Gwigene,  was  killed  by 
Cynan  ab  Owen  Gwynedd,  a.d.  1168. 

Llwythonwg  (n.  loci),    i.  OL  Oothi. 

Llwyvain.  Gwaith  Argoed  Llwyfain,  a  battle  fought  between 
Mamddwyn,  the  Saxon  general,  and  Urien  Beged,  King  of  Cum- 
bria, with  his  auxiliary,  Ceneu  ap  Coel,  who  led  the  northern 
men,  and  Owein  ap  Urien,  who  was  Urien's  general,  where 
Urien  obtained  the  victory.  Llywelyn  ap  lorwerth  fought  a 
battle  at  this  place  too.     (Einion  up  Gwgan) 

A  mi  ddisgoganaf  cad  Coed  Llwyfain. — Myrddin. 

Llychlyn,  the  Baltic  Sea. 

Llychlynwyr,  Danes,  Norwegians,  Normans,  and  all  nations 
that  bordered  on  the  Baltic.  Gwyr  Llychlyn  Ddu,  which  the 
Irish  called  Dubh  Lochlonnach,  the  black  nation  or  black  Loch- 
lin  men ;  and  Ffion  Lochlonnach  (Finlochlunion),  or  white 
Lochlin  men,  people  of  Finland.  All  these  nations  were  by  the 
Britons  called  Llychlynwyr  and  Nortmyn. 

Beth  OS  daw  heibiaw  bebom 
I'r  Traeth  Goch  lynges  droch  drom  P  - 
Pwy  a  ludd  werin,  pwl  ym, 
Llychlyn  a'u  bwyall  awchlym  ? 

Manvnad  Tudur  ap  Gronwy. 

In  the  year  987  these  Danes  came  and  destroyed  the  religious 
houses  in  South  Wales,  and  to  get  rid  of  them  Meredudd  ap  Owain 


CELTIC  REMA INS.  281 

ap  H.  Dda  was  obliged  to  pay  them  a  penny  for  every  man 
within  his  land,  which  waa  called  the  tribute  of  the  Black  Army. 
{Oaradoc,  p.  71.) 

Llychwael  ap  Bran  ap  Prydu. 

Llychwr  [Leiicarum,  is  in  Glamorgan,  east  of  Llychwr  river, 
and  called  Castell  Llychwr,  a  borough  town — /.  M.],  a  river  in 
Caermarthenshire  (the  Leucarum  of  the  Romans,  qu.  ?);  in  Eng- 
lish, Loghor.  It  falls  into  the  sea  at  Bury,  near  Worme's  Head. 
Aberllychwr. 

Llydanwyn.    Elidir  Lydanwyn. 

Llydaw  (old  orthography,  Uedaw),  the  country  of  Armorica 
in  France,  part  of  which  now  called  Little  Britain,  called  in  the 
Gaulish  tongue  Ar  y  Mor  Uchay  i.  e.,  on  the  upper  sea.  H.  Llwyd 
says  it  was  called  Llydaw  quasi  Litoris  Gallicani  regio.  (JBrit, 
DescT,,  p.  14,  ed.  1731.)  But  is  it  not  more  probable  that  it  was 
80  called  by  the  insular  Britons  in  their  dialect  for  the  same 
reason  as  the  Gauls  called  it  Ar  y  Mor  Ucha,  from  Lied  and  aw, 
Lledaw,  i,  e,,  on  the  water-side  ?    Hence  litus,  the  sea-shore. 

There  are  diflPerent  opinions  about  the  time  the  colony  of 
insular  Britons  first  settled  there.  Eadulph  Niger  says  in  the 
time  of  Constantius  Chlorus ;  William  of  Malmsbury  says  it 
was  in  the  time  of  his  son,  Constantine  the  Great ;  Neunius  and 
Tyssilio  say  it  was  in  the  time  of  Maximus  the  Tyrant ;  but  the 
French  writers  and  some  English  will  not  allow  them  to  be 
ancienter  than  the  time  of  Childeric,  which  was  after  the  Saxons 
came  into  Britain.  All  these  might  be  true  as  to  colonies  going 
there  at  these  different  times,  though  the  first  might  settle 
there  among  the  old  Gauls  in  Constantius'  time.  Verfcot  labours 
hard  to  invalidate  all  but  that  after  the  Saxons*  coming. 

O  Lydaw  o  draw  o  drwy  mor  Hafren 
Hyfriw  ei  beleidr  ymhorthaethwy. 

Prydydd  y  Mock,  i  Ln.  ap  lorwerth. 

Llydaweg,  lingua  Armorica, 

Llyfeni  or  Lleveni  (fl.) ;  hence  Aber  Lleveni  in  Meirion ; 
perhaps  Llwyfeni. 

Llyfnant  river,  or  Llyfnnant,  or  Llifnant,  the  boundary 

between  Cardiganshire  and  Montgomeryshire,  falls  into  Dyfi 

river. 

36 


282  CELTIC  KEMATNS. 

Llyfni  (fl.),  in  Caernarvonshire  [and  in  Glamorgan — /.  if.], 
at  Llanllyfni,  a  church  and  parish.  Another  that  falls  into  the 
Wye,  which  Camden  calls  Lleweny,  and  thinks  the  city  Loven- 
tium  was  where  Ilyn  Savathan  is. 

Llofn  anr  ynglan  Llyfni  wyd. 

Hywel  Lafif  i  Ph.  Thomas  o  Langoed. 

Llyffant  (Ffynnon  y),  a  lake  in  Eryri. 

Llygad  Gwr,  a  poet  of  Edeiniion.     {Marvmad  Trahaern.) 

Llygliw.    Einion  Vychan  ap  Einion  Lygliw. 

Llygod  (Ynys),  an  island  near  Anglesey,  where  monks 
resided  who  were  kept  in  order  by  mice. 

Llyn.  Caer  Llyn  (Triades);  qu.  whether  Lnncaster,  from 
Lune  river,  now  Lancaster,  which  some  write  Longcaster.  See 
Zleyn. 

Llyn  Archaeddon,  a  small  lake  on  the  top  of  Bodavon 
Mountain  in  Anglesey. 

Rbed  uwch  Llyn  i'w  herbyn  hi 
Archaoddon,  eiriach  weiddi. — P.  ap  Edmund. 

One  would  suspect  that  this  mountain  was  anciently  called 

Myriydd  Bodaeddon,  and  not  Bodavon,  but  that  the  same  writer 

says 

Dyfal  yngwern  Bodavon. 

See  Aeddon  and  Treaeddon. 

Llyn  Cawellyn,  a  lake  in  Eiyri. 

Llyn  Crafnant,  a  lake  in  Eryri. 

Llyn  Decwyn  Uchaf,  in  Meirion  ;  a  town  swallowed  up. 

Llyn  Dulyn,  a  lake  in  Eryri 

Llyn  y  Dywarchen,  a  lake  in  Eryri. 

Llyn  Eigiau,  a  lake  in  Eryri. 

Llynghedwy  ap  Llywarch  Hen. 

Llynghesawl  Llaw  Hael,  father  of  Treul  DifefyL  {Triad. 
No.  5.) 

Llyngwyn  (Y),  a  pool  in  Radnorshire,  where  tradition  says  a 
town  was  swallowed  up. 

Llyn  Llanllwch,  in  Caermarthenshire,  where  tradition  says 
a  town  was  swallowed  up. 

Llynlleodd  or  Llynllo,  a  place  near  Machynllaeth ;  perhaps 
Llyrdlaeth :  as  Cynllaetli,  Ystum  Llaeth. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  283 

Llyn  Llydaw,  a  lake  in  Eryri ;  q.  d.  Ilwydaw. 

Llyn  Llynclys,  in  Shropshire  [near  Oswestry —  W.  D.];  a  town 
swallowed  up. 

Llynon,  a  house  near  Llanddeusant  in  Anglesey,  named  from 
a  lake  Llyn  Onn,  q.  d.  Ash  PooL 

Llyn  Peris,  a  lake  in  Eryri  [near  Llanberis. —  W,  2>.]. 

Llyn  Tegid,  a  lake  near  Bala  in  Meirionyddshire,  called  in 
English  Pimble  Mear,  and  by  Mr.  Camden  corruptly  Plenlyn 
Mear,  for  Penllyn  Mear,  it  lying  in  Penllyn,  one  of  three  can- 
trefs  of  Meirionydd,  which  took  its  name  from  the  pool.  Mr. 
Charles  Edwards,  in  Hanes  y  Ffydd,  fancies  it  sounds  like  the 
Greek  words  Limne  Oataigidos, 

The  river  Dee  runs  into  it,  and  retains  its  name  on  a  water 
that  comes  out  of  it ;  but  I  cannot  answer  for  what  Mr.  Camden 
says,  that  it  passes  through  it  entirely  and  unmixed,  carrying 
out  the  same  quantity  of  water  it  brought  in.  If  Jeffrey  of 
Monmouth  had  made  such  a  blundering  puff  as  this,  he  would 
have  been  knocked  in  the  head  for  it  by  Mr.  Camden.  The 
lake  is  about  three  miles  long,  and  about  a  mile  broad ;  and 
you  may  judge  whether  a  small  river  of  three  or  four  yards 
wide  can  pass  through  all  that  water  without  mixing  with  it. 

■ 

The  river  Ex  in  Devonshire  may  as  easily  run  over  to  Normandy 
without  mixing  with  the  sea. 

Llyn  Teirn,  a  lake  in  Eryri. 

Llymonyw.  Uyn  Uymonyw  (Tyssilio) ;  probably  a  mistake 
for  Llymonwy  (perhaps  Lomond  Lake  in  Scotland).  It  is  said 
in  that  MS.  to  have  in  it  sixty  islands,  and  sixty  rivers  ran  into 
it,  and  it  had  sixty  rocks  with  eagles'  nests  in  them.  Here  King 
Arthur  besieged  the  Picts  and  Scots  who  had  fled  there  after  a 
defeat,  and  starved  them,  so  that  the  clergy  of  Scotland  came 
and  petitioned  him  to  save  their  lives. 

This  river  gives  name,  in  Latin,  to  Levinia,  contr.  Lennos 
and  Lenox,  near  Dunbritton,  and  is  called  by  the  natives  Lea- 
vuin  {Ogygia,  p.  383),  as  if  you  would  say  Llifwyn,  i.  e.,  white 
flood ;  but  probably  Llymonwy  is  the  right  name,  as  rising  from 
a  mountain  called  Llumon,  if  it  doth.     One  river  runs  out  of  it. 

Llyk  (nom.  prop.  viri). 

Llyr,  the  10th  King  of  Britain ;  hence  Caer  Lyr,  Leirchester. 
He  is  Latinized  Leirus,  qu.  ?     The  father  of  Bendigaid  Fran. 


284  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

LLYit  ap  Brycliwel  Powys. 

Llyr  Llediaith,  father  of  Manawydan.  {Tr.  14  and  50.)  See 
Branwen, 

Llyr  Llwyd  and  Llye  Merini  ap  Einion  Yrth. 

Llyr  Llyddawc,  one  of  the  three  knights  of  war.     (TV.  23.) 

Llyr  Merini  (n.  pr.  v.).     Tr.  69. 

Llyr,  a  river  in  Cardiganshire  (E,  Lbvyd),  qu.  ? 

Llyr,  the  sea.  Mr.  Edw.  Llwyd  says  that  llyVy  mar,  mSr,  and 
mor,  signified  anciently  water  as  well  as  sea,  whence  Llyr  and 
Leri  in  Cardiganshire,  and  Loire  in  France.  {Letter  to  Nicolson.) 
There  is  no  manner  of  reason  to  derive  the  name  of  Leri  from 
water,  no  more  than  any  other  river.  The  word  was  wrote 
anciently  Eleri,  and  the  harbour  on  the  mouth  of  it,  Abereleri ; 
a  gentleman's  seat  on  it,  Glan  Eleri.  So  some  other  more  rational 
derivation  must  be  found.  See  Eleri.  Llyr  river  might  have 
its  name  from  a  man,  as  there  were. men  of  that  name,  as  we 
know  several  rivers  have,  as  Meurig,  Einion. 

Llyr  signified  also  the  sea  in  the  time  of  Myrddin  Wyllt,  about 
A.D.  570,  who  says  in  his  Hoiane, 

Er  gwaith  Arderydd  mi  ni'm  dorbi 
Cyn  syrthiai  awyp  i  lawr  lAxfr  Enlli. 

A  nunnery  at  Llan  Llyr  (Cywydd  i  ofyn  Ab  gan  Th...  dros 
Annes,  Abades  Llan  Llyr).   {Htiw  Cae  Llwyd) 

DAm  Annes  sy'n  djmnnaw,  etc. 
See  M6r. 
Llys,  a  palace,  court,  hall ;  used  in  composition  of  names :  y 

Gadlys,  in  Anglesey ;   yr  Henllys,  in  Anglesey,  a  gentleman's 

seat, — Jones;  Llys  Ednywain  ap  Bradwen;  Llys  Maelgwn;  Llys 

Mathravel;  Llysdin  Hunydd,  in  Tegengl;  Llyssin,  in  Powys; 

Llys  Maes  yr  Henllys,  in  Llangerniw. 

Llys  y  Cul,  in  lai,  a  township.    (J.  D) 

Llys  Dulas,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Anglesey ;  qu.  whose  llys 
anciently  ? 

Llys  Elis  ap  Glanmor,  near  Conwy,  on  Lavan  Sands,  over- 
flown by  the  sea,  as  tradition  has  it,  and  buildings  are  pretended 
to  have  been  seen  unddr  water. 

Llysfaen,  a  parish  and  church  in  Caernarvonshire,  part  of 
Ehos  deanery,  in  Denbighsliire,  dedicated  to  St.  Cynfran.     {Dr. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  285 

Powel)  ["  Rhad  Duw  a  Chynfran  Iwyd  ar  y  da,"  etc. —  W.  2?.] 
[Llys/aen,  a  parish  and  church  in  Glamorgan,  where  lived  the 
ancestors  of  Oliver  Cromwell. — L  M,] 

Llysfasi,  a  gentleman^s  seat  near  Euthyn. 

Llys  Llivon,  in  Anglesey,  the  seat  of  Hwva  ap  Cynddelw. 
(J.  D.) 

Llys  yn  Llundain  (Y),  the  king's  palace  in  London. 

Gelyn  traws  ryfel  tros  Rnfain  yd  wys 

Tros  y  Llys  yn  Llandain. — OynddelWy  i  Yw.  Cyfeiliog. 

Llyswynaf,  q.  d.  Llys  Wynaf,  a  cantref  of  Powys  Wenwyn- 
wyn  containing  the  commots  of  Caereinion  and  Mechain  uwch 
Coed.    Qu.  whether  hence  Gorsedd  Orwynion  ?  {Llywarch  Hen,) 

Llyssyn,  a  place  in  Powys  mentioned  in  the  9th  battle  of 
Ilywelyn  ap  lorwerth.     See  Cylck  Llywelyn, 

Pebyllwys  fy  lly w  yn  Llyssyn  dref  fad 
Am  drefred  Wenwynwyn 
Clawr  Powys,  etc. 

Llyw,  a  river  that  falls  into  the  Llychwr  at  Loghor  town. 
This,  I  suppose,  was  Llywarch  Hen's  Aberllyw,  the  British  name 
of  Leucarum.    Another  Llyw  [falls]  into  Llyn  Tegid. 

Llywarch  ap  Bran,  lord  of  Cwmmwd  Menai  in  Anglesey,  one 
of  the  Fifteen  Tribes  of  North  Wales,  lived  in  Porth  Amal. 
{Mon,  Ant,,  p.  130, 131.)  Bore  argent,B,  cheveron  sable  between 
three  rooks  with  ermine  in  their  bills. 

Llywakch  Gogh. 

Llywarch  Hen  (Lat.  Lomarchus)  ab  Elidir  Lydanwyn  ap 
Meirchion  ab  Grwst  ab  Ceneu  ap  Coel  Godebog.  (ArchceoL  Brit., 
p.  259.)  In  the  genealogical  tables,  Llywarch  Hen  ap  Elidir 
Lydanwyn  ab  Meirchion  Gul  ab  Grwst  Ledlwm  ap  Edeym  ab 
Padam  Beisrudd  ab  Cenau  ab  Coel  Godebog.  A  Prince  of 
North  Britain  (Cumberland,  says  E.  Llwyd),  an  excellent  poet, 
and  a  great  soldier,  one  of  King  Arthur's  chief  counsellors.  (JV.) 
He  had  twenty-four  sons,  and  all  of  them  killed  in  the  wars 
with  the  Irish,  Saxons,  and  Picts,  and  in  the  civil  wars  among 
the  Britons  themselves.  He  was  buried  at  Llanfor,  near  Bala, 
where  there  is  in  the  window  of  the  church  a  stone  with  an 
inscription  (/.  P.  P.).  Few  Princes  besides  him  and  Howel  ap 
Owain  Gwynedd  have  described  their  own  wars  in  verse.     He 


286  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

was  old  in  the  time  of  King  Arthur,  and  had  been  drove  out  of 
his  country  by  the  Saxons.  Some  make  him  a  Cumbrian  Prince. 
D.  Jo.  says,  "  0  dyedd  Scotland'^  and  that  five  of  his  sons  had 
gained  the  gold  chain,  the  torques, "  Pump  o  honynt  yn  aurdorch- 
awg.^' 

Llywarch  Hen's  sons  killed  in  the  Saxon  wars  [mentioned]  in 
his  poem :  Gwen,  Pyll,  Selyf,  Sandde,  Maen,  Madog,  Medel  or 
Meddel,  Heilyn,  Llawr  or  Llafur,  Lliwer,  Sawyl,  Ilyngheddwy 
or  Llygedwy,  and  GwSll.  He  had  also  Cenllug,  Llawenydd, 
Cenau,  Urien,  Nudd,  Deigr,  Gorwynion,  Dilig,  Nefydd,  Diwg, 
Mychydd ;  and  three  daughters,  Rhyell,  Cainfron,  and  Ehagaw. 

Llywarch  Hen, un  o'r  tri  thrwyddedawg  ag  anfoddawg  (Tr.71); 
un  o'r  tri  Uedd  unben  {Tr,  14) ;  Cynghoriad  farchog.  (Tr,  86.) 

Llywahch  Howlbwrch. 

Llyth.    Deinis  Lyth  ap  Cadwr. 

Llyth  Haiarn.     Ilanllythaiam,  plwy ;  vxdgo  Llychaiam. 

Llywel,  Brecknockshire,  qu.  river  ?  Blaen  Uy wel.  Selydach 
in  Llywel.     Trecast^ll  in  Llywel.     Fairs  kept  there. 

Llyweni,  a  place  in  Denbighshire. 

Lie  mae  gyda  Hew  ai  medd 

Llyweni  a  boll  Wynedd. — D,  ap  Edmumd, 

Llywri  ap  Cynan  Cilcelph. 
Llywyn  Sant  o  Lydaw. 

M. 

Mabedryd,  where  Llywelyn  ap  Torwerth  came  with  an  army 
against  W.  Marshal,  Earl  of  Pembroka  Caermarddeusliire,  qu.  ? 
(Powel,  CaradoCy  p.  283.) 

Mabgla  or  Mapglaf  ap  Llywarch,  qu.  ? 

Mabinogi  [pL  -ion —  W.  i>.],  the  name  of  an  ancient  MS.  of 
British  history  once  in  Hengwrt  Library ;  quoted  by  Mr.  Robert 
Vaughan  in  British  Antiquities,  Mr.  Edward  Dwyd  mentions 
a  British  romance  under  this  title.     {Arch  Brit,  p.  262.) 

Mabli  verch  Davydd  Llwyd  ap  Howel. 

Mabon  (n.  pr.  v.).     Llanvabon  in  Glamorganshire. 

Mabon  o'r  Creuddyn. 

Mabon  ap  Dewenhen,  the  husband  of  the  chaste  Emerchret. 
{Tr,  55.) 


CELTIC   REMAINS.  287 

Mabon  ap  Tegonwy. 

Mabwynion,  a  lordship  or  manor  in  Ceredigion.  Tlie  castle 
is  called  in  Powel's  Caradoc  the  Castle  of  the  Sons  of  Winnion, 
which  is  a  mistake. 

Mawr  a  wnaf,  myn  Mair  a  Non, 

O  Bennardd  a  Mabwynion. — Beio  ap  leuan  Du, 

Mabwys,  a  house  in  Ceretica. 

Machawy,  a  river  in  Brecknockshire,  falls  into  Gwy.  Here 
a  great  battle  was  fought,  a.d.  1145,  called  Gwaith  Machawy, 
between  Gr.  ap  Llewelyn  and  Bandulph  Earl  of  Hereford,  and 
the  English  Bishop  was  killed  by  Llewelyn. 

A  mi  ddiBgoganaf  Gwaith  Machawy 
Adfjdd  geloraa  rhadd  yn  rhiw  dydmwy. 

Hoiane  Myrddin. 
See  Gwaith  Machawy  and  Bachwy. 

Mache,  a  parish,  Monmouthshire,  qu.  ?  [Machen  or  Mechain. 
The  inhabitants  always  say  Mechain. — I.  M,] 

Machno,  a  river :  hence  Penmachno.     See  Lledr, 

Machraeth  or  Machreth.  Llanyachraeth  in  Mon  and 
Meirion.     Lat.  Macainivs,  qu.  ? 

Machutus  or  Mechell  Sant.  Llanvechell  in  Anglesey.  His 
life  is  in  John  of  Tinmouth,  the  Libr.  of  Fleury,  etc.  Machutus 
or  Maclou  was  son  of  Went,  a  noble  Briton,  by  his  wife  Arwela, 
sister  to  Amon,  the  father  to  St.  Sampson  and  to  Umbravel,  the 
father  of  St.  Maglorius,  born  in  the  vale  of  Llancarvan  in  Gla- 
morganshire, in  the  church  of  the  Monastery  of  St.  Cadoc,  where 
the  Abbot  St.  Brendan  presided,  who,  after  he  had  brought  him 
up,  ordained  him  priest.  Hence  he  passed  over  to  Armorica, 
and  turned  hermit.  ludicael.  King  of  Armorica,  forced  him  to 
be  Bishop  of  Aleth,  the  see  of  which,  from  his  name,  was  called 
St.  Malo.  Here  he  was  Bishop  forty  years,  and  worked  miracles. 
A  party  rising  against  him,  he  was  obliged  to  retire  to  Aquitain, 
to  Bishop  Leontius  of  Saintes,  and  there  remained  seven 
years.  He  excommunicated  the  people  of  Aleth,  and  they  had 
no  rain,  and  famine  followed  the  drowth.  They  repented,  and 
called  him  home;  and  as  soon  as  he  entered  the  land  he  brought 
them  rain,  etc.     He  went  to  Bishop  Leontius  to  end  his  days. 


288  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

where  he  died  a.d.  630,  about  130  year  old.  {Brit.  Sand.,  Nov. 
15.) 

In  the  churchyard  of  Penrhos  Lligwy,  in  Anglesey,  there  is  a 
stone  with  this  inscription:  Hic  iacit  macvtvs  ecceti,  which 
some  think  is  the  grave  of  this  saint.  (Mona  Antiqua.)  So  that 
it  seems  our  Anglesey  Macutus,  to  whom  the  church  of  Uan- 
vechell  is  dedicated,  was  not  Machutus,  Bishop  of  St.  Malo. 

Machynllaeth,  a  town  and  church  in  Montgomeryshire,  in 
the  lordship  of  Cjoillaeth  (q.  d.  Bach  Cynllaeth),  one  of  the 
parishes  of  the  deanery  of  Cyfeiliog.  It  is  probable  the  river 
Dyfi  was  anciently  called  Llaeth  (milk),  as  it  should  seem  by 
the  Cynllaeth,  and  the  name  of  a  curve  of  that  river,  Carreg 
Ystum  Llaeth.  The  town  is  situated  near  the  river  Dyfi  (Dovey). 
Camden  thinks  it  to  be  the  Maglona  of  the  Bomans,  where, 
under  the  Emperor  Theodosius  the  Younger,  the  prabfect  of  the 
Solensians  lay  in  garrison  under  the  Ihix  Britannice. 

Macmorwch,  the  name  of  an  Irish  prince  or  general  men- 
tioned by  lolo  Goch,  a.d.  1400. 

Q^yrxMBi  fujysmant^  bid  trychant  trwch 
Maccwy  mawr  a  Macmorwch. 

loh  Oochy  i  Syr  Roger  Mortimer,  E.  of  Marcb. 

Macsen  Wledig,  the  91st  King  of  Britain.  This  is  Maxi- 
mus  the  Emperor,  or  Maximinianus. 

Cy  wlad  loes  moes  Mazsen. 

Cynddelw,  i  Yw.  Cyfeiliog. 

Mad. 

Madlb,  Bewdley.  Madle,  i.  e,,  Bonus  locus.  (  Vita  Sti.  David. 
Ep.  Menev.) 

Madog  or  Madoc  (n.  pr.  v.),  from  mdd,  good,i.e.,  goodly.  Seve- 
ral noted  Britons  in  history  of  this  name.  Allt  Vadog ;  Gelli 
Vadog,  etc. 

Madog  Gloddaith. 

Madog  o*r  Hendwr. 

Madog  ap  Idnerth  died  a.d.  1148. 

Madoc  ap  Lloegrin  was  the  3rd  King  of  Brutus'  race,  accord- 
ing to  Tyssilio. 

Madog  Min,  a  Bishop  of  Bangor,  who  betrayed  Llewelyn  ap 
Gruffydd  into  the  hands  of  his  enemies  at  Buellt.    ( W.  J.  MSS. 

^  Ambushment. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  289 

at  Earl  of  Macclesfield.)    But  Einiawn  was  that  year  Bishop  of 
Bangor.     (B.  Willis.) 

Madog  ap  Mredydd  ap  Bleddyn,  King  of  Powys,  died  a.d.  1160. 

Madog  ap  Owen  Gwynedd,  1169. 

Madoc  ap  Uthur,  brother  of  King  Arthur.     (TV.  82.) 

Madogion,  the  people  and  land  of  Madog.  The  tenants  or 
slaves  were  as  much  a  freehold  as  the  lands.  (Gwelygorddau 
Fowys.) 

Madogyn  (dim.  h.  Madog).  Gwridyn  ap  Madogyn.  Ty  Wridyn 
ap  Madogyn,  a  place  in  Anglesey. 

Madren  verch  Gothevyr  Frenin ;  in  another  place  it  is  Gwr- 
theym  Frenin. 

Madrik  or  Madryn,  a  gentleman's  seat*  near  Cam  Madrin  in 
Lleyn.  Wm.  Bodvel,  Esq.  Q.  d.  Madfryn,  ♦.  e.,  Good  Hill. 
Hinc  John  Madrun. 

Maed,  or  perhaps  MM  (fl.) ;  hence  Abermaed  in  Ceretica,  a 
house  on  the  fall  of  Mad  into  Ystwyth. 

Mael  (n.  pr.  v.),  brother  of  Membjrr,  King  of  Britain.  In 
names  of  places :  Gwrthmael,  a  gentleman^s  seat ;  Brychfael ; 
Dinmael ;  Cynmael  or  Cinmael ;  Maelienydd. 

Mael,  lord  of  Maelienydd ;  called  also  Mael  Maelienydd  ap 
Cadfael  ap  Clydawc  ap  Cadell  ap  Rhodri  Mawr.  («/".  D.,  Geneal.) 

Mael  ap  Bleddyn  o  Feirionydd.  {MS)    Hence  Maelienydd. 

Mael  o  Lydaw. 

Maeldaf  (n.  pr.  v.) :  see  Traeth  Maelgvm. 

Maelderw  (n.  pr.  v.).  Gwarchan  Maelderw  o  waith  Taliessin. 
The  same  with  Derfael.     (E,  Llwyd.) 

Maeleri,  base  son  to  Ywain  Cyfeiliog,  lord  of  liannerch 
Hudol  and  Broniarth.     {J.  D) 

Maelgan  Sant  (neu  Baglan  or  Maglan)  Ynghoedalun. 

Maelgwn  (n.  pr.  v.) ;  Latinized  Maelocunus  ;  corruptly  Mag- 
locunus ;  id.  quod  Cynfael.     {E.  Llwyd,) 

Maelgwn  Gwynedd  ap  Cadwallon  Law  Hir  ap  Einion  Yrth 
ap  Cunedda  Wledig.  Maelgwn  was  first  a  Prince  of  Gwynedd, 
and  afterwards  the  104th  King  of  Britain.  He  is,  for  his  great 
valour,  called  by  Gildas  the  Island  Dragon.  That  angry  monk 
could  not  afford  him  a  good  word,  for  Maelgwn  held  the  crown 
as  next  relation  to  Arthur;  but  Gildas  was  son  of  Caw  o 

37 


290  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Brydyn  (i.  e.,  Scotland) ;  and  Medrod's  sons,  who  were  slain 
before  the  altar  by  Constantino  of  Cornwall,  were  Gildas' 
nephews ;  and  no  wonder  he  scolds  and  abuses  the  other  party 
which  prevailed.  In  this  Prince's  time  the  famous  poets  Talies- 
sin  and  Myrddin  Wyllt  flourished.  In  Latin  he  is  called  Mal- 
gunus  Gwynedus,  Malgunus,  Malgonus,  Maglocunus,  Malgon, 
Mailgunus,  Mailgon,  Mailcunus  Magnus  (Nennius),  Malconus 
Magnus  in  Vita  S.  Catod.     (B.  Vaiighan) 

There  are  edso  mentioned  in  Nennius  some  names  of  persons 
cotemporary  with  Maelgwn,  who  it  is  impossible  to  make  out, 
having  been  botched  by  transcribers ;  such  as  Dutigern,  who 
stoutly  fought  the  Saxons ;  and  of  poets, — Talhaern  Tatanguen, 
Kaieuin  (Aneurin),  Taliessin,  Bluchbar,  Cian  or  Gueinth  Guaut 
(Gweydd  Gwawd). 

Maelgwyn,  or  rather  Maelgwn. 

Maelgynig,  belonging  to  Maelgwn.     {Breiniau  Powys^ 

Calchaidd  en  caeroedd  cylcbwy  Maelgynig. 

Trydydd  y  Mochy  i  Ln.  ap  lorwertb. 

Maelienydd  or  Melienydd,  and  by  English  writers  Melien- 
yth  (so  called  from  Mael  ap  Bleddyn),  one  of  the  four  cantrefs 
between  the  Wye  and  the  Severn,  formerly  belonging  to  Math- 
rafael  or  the  Principality  of  Powys,  containing  the  commots  of 
Ceri,  Swydd  y  Gro,  Ehiwalallt,  and  Glyn  leithon.  (Price^s  Descr,) 
Camden  says  it  is  called  Melienydd  from  the  yellowish  moun- 
tains and  barren 

Mael  Mynan  ap  Selyf  Sarph  Cadeu  (Mael  ap  Mynygan,  sed 

qu.  ?)  ap  Cynan  Warwyn  ap  Brychfael  Ysgithrog. 

Maeloegr. 

Tau  hyd  ymylan  Maeloegr 

Biaa*r  lie  gorau  yn  Lloegr. 

Maelog  Sant.  Llanvaelog,  Anglesey.  Son  of  Caw  o  Brydyn, 
and  brother  of  Gildas,  Gallgo,  Eigred,  Howel  or  Huail,  and  their 
sister  Dona.     See  Gildas. 

Maelog  Grwm,  lord  of  Uechwedd  Isa,  one  of  the  Fifteen 
Tribes  of  North  Wales,  ad.  1172 ;  bore  argent,  on  a  cheveron  saile 
three  seraphims  or, 

Maelor,  lands  in  Powys  Vadog.    GrufFudd  Maelor,  lord  of 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  291 

Biomfield/  had  the  two  Maelors  and  Mochuant  is  Bhaiadr. 
Maelor  Gymraeg  in  Denbighshire,  and  Maelor  Saesnig  in  Flint- 
shire.    {PoweL)     See  Madoron. 

Maelobon,  the  two  Maelors,  two  commots  in  Cantref  Uwch- 
nant;  from  Maelor  ap  Gwran  ap  Cunedda  Wledig.  Maelor 
Gymraeg  is  in  Denbighshire,  and  Maelor  Saesnig  is  in  Flintshire. 
(Note  on  Price's  Description,  W.'s  edit.) 

Maelrhys  Sant  Uanvaelrhys  in  the  parish  of  Aberdaron,  qii.? 

Maen,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  in  the  names  of  places,  signify- 
ing a  stone ;  as,  Maen  Addwyn  {Proph) ;  Maen  Meudwy ;  y  Maen 
Du'n  Llanfair  {Tr.  30);  y  Maen  Gwyn,  Meirion ;  Maen  Arthur ; 
Maen  Twrog  (n.  L),  i.  e,,  Twrog's  Stone ;  Maen  Gwynedd ;  Maen 
y  Cenawon ;  Uysfaen ;  Bodfaen  ;  Maen  Meudwy ;  Llyn  Maen 
Meudwy.  Maen  gwlaw,  the  manalis  or  maenlau  of  the  Bomans, 
a  stone  which  they  rolled  about  when  they  wanted  rain.  I  sup- 
pose a  chiystal  stone.     {Non.  ex  Varr.  et  Fulg.  LaJbeorie,) 

Ai  mwnwgl  oU  fal  maen  glaw. 

Maen  ap  liywarch  Hen. 

Maenan,  lands  in  Denbighshire. 

Maen  y  Chwyfan,  a  monument  or  carved  pillar  on  Mostyn 
Mountain,  which  Mr.  Edward  Llwyd,  in  Notes  on  Camden,  thinks 
inexplicable.  Cwyfan  or  Chwyfan  was  a  person's  name^  to  whom 
a  church  in  that  country  is  dedicated  (Llangwyfan);  and  another 
near  Aberffraw,  in  Anglesey,  of  the  same  name.  Is  it  not  pro- 
bable that  this  was  a  cross  erected  in  memory  of  that  saint  ? 

Maen  Clochog,  a  castle  in  Dyfed,  Penbrokeshire,  a.d.  1215. 

Maenen,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire.  [Maenan. —  W,  i>.] 

Maenerch  ap  Gruff,  ap  Gruffudd.     Maynyrch,  id. 

Maen  Gwyn  (n.  1.).    Ynys  y  Maengwyn,  Meirion. 

Maen  Gwynedd,  a  gentleman's  seat.     (J.  D.) 

Maen  Modrwy  Eluned  :  see  JEluned, 

Maenol.    G, 

Maenor  Bydvey,  a  lordship  in  Ystrad  Tywy. 

Maenor  Byrr,  Pyrrhus^s  mansion,  a  castle  mentioned  by 
Giraldus  Cambrensis,  near  Tenby  in  Penbrokeshire,  adorned 
then  with  stately  towers  and  bulwarks ;  now  in  ruins.  One  of 
[the]  three  commots  of  Cantref  Penvro.  (Price's  Descr.)  See 
Ynys  Pyr, 


292  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Maenor  Deilo,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Bychan, 
Caermarthenshire.     (Price's  Deser,) 

Maenor  Dewi,  cburcli  and  parish  in  Penbrokeshire. 

Maenor  Ruthyn,  one  of  the  commots  of  Pennythen,  Mor- 
ganwg. 

Maenor  Talafan,  one  of  the  commots  of  Cantref  Pennythen 
in  Morgannwg.     See  Talafan, 

Maen  SiGL,or  rocking  stone^  within  half  a  mile  of  St.  David^s. 
Several  of  these  in  Cornwall  and  Ireland,  remains  of  Draidism. 
See  Lledr  a  Machno  and  Siglfan.     See  also  Peii  Machno. 

Maenwyn  (n.  pr.  v.),  one  of  the  warlike  friends  of  Uywarch 
Hen.     Maenwyn  nag  addo  dy  gyllelL     See  PadHg, 

Maerdy,  a  gentleman's  seat  near  Corwen. 

Maerdre,  in  Edeirnion,  a  gentleman's  seat.  Castell  y  Faerdre 
in  Dyganwy. 

Maerlys  ap  Gwyddno. 

Maes,  a  very  ancient  Celtic  word  in  the  composition  of  names 
of  places,  and  signifies  properly  a  field  of  com ;  also  a  field  of 
battle.  Some  critics  make  the  Latin  termination  magus  to 
have  signified  maes,  as  Citomagus,  Caesaromagus,  ete.  Maes  y 
Geirchen,  Caernarvonshire ;  Meissir ;  Llanvaes,  Maes  y  Llan, 
etc.     Cad  ar  vaes,  a  field,  a  battle  (Anglesey). 

Maesaleg,  the  seat  of  Ifor  Hael,  the  patron  of  Dafydd  ap 
Gwilym  the  poet;  and  a  lordship  belonging  to  it  of  that  name. 
It  was  in  Glamorganshire  in  the  poet's  time,  but  now  is  part  of 
Monmouthshire.     Wrote  by  some  ifassaleg. 

A  cherddan  tafodaa  teg 
A  solas  ym  Maesaleg. — D.  ap  Qwilym. 
Again  : 

Arglwyddiaeth  dagiaeth  deg 

A  seiliwyd  wrth  Fyssaleg. — D,  ap  Gwilym, 

Maes  Beli. 

Maes  Calettwr  (u.  1.),  Brecknockshire. 

Maes  Carnedd,  where  Owain  Gwynedd  was  buried,  as  says 
Cynddelw  in  Marwnad  Owain  Gwynedd.  There  is  a  place  of 
tliis  name  near  Dolgelleu. 

Maes  Garmon,  a  battle  between  the  Britons  and  the  joint 
armies  of  the  Scots  and  Picts,  under  the  conduct  of  St  German, 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  293 

Bishop  of  Atlxerre,  who  came  to  Britain  to  confute  the  Pelagian 
heresy.  (Beds,  1.  i,  c.  20.)  It  was,  as  Usher  says,  in  Flintshire, 
near  Yr  Wyddgrug.     He  calls  it  Victoria  Alleluiatica. 

Maes  Gwenith,  a  place  in  Gwent,  famous  for  wheat  and 
honey,  mentioned  in  the  Triades  (30). 

Maes  y  Gwig. 

Maes  Maoddyn,  dan  dom  Elwyddon.  (E.  Llwyd)  See 
Maoddyn, 

Maes  Mawr,  ym  Mynydd  Emrys,  Ue  gwnaeth  Hengist  dwyll 
y  Cyllell  Hirion. 

Maes  Mochnant,  in  lianrhaiadr. 

Maes  Mynnan,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J,  B)     Mostyn. 

Maes  y  Neuadd,  a  place  in  Meirion. 

Maes  y  Pandy,  a  gentleman^s  seat  in  Meirion. 

Maestan,  qu.  ?  Gwrgenau  Maestan  o  Benllyn. 

Maes  XJrien,  yn  emyl  Caerwynt. 

Maes  Uswallt,  now  Croesyswallt ;  in  English,  Oswestry ; 
so  called  from  Ussa  ap  Cunedda  Wledig.  (Price's  Descr)  [From 
Oswald  Mffiseri'elt.—  W.  2>.] 

Maesyfed,  Maesyfedd,  Maeshyfaidd,  and  Maesyfaidd,  the 
town  and  country  of  Badnor  in  South  Wales.  Mr.  Camden  says 
that  in  the  middle  age  writers  called  this  country  MagesetsB,  and 
mention  Comites  Masegetenses  and  Magesetenses,  and  thinks  it 
is  the  city  Magos  which  Antoninus  seems  to  call  Magnos,  and 
was  the  station  of  the  Pacensian  regiment  under  the  Lieutenant 
of  Britain  in  the  reign  of  Theodosius  the  Younger ;  and  that 
the  English  name  Badnor  was  formed  from  Bhaiadr. 

Llew  Maesyfaidd  gwraidd  y  gras. —  D.  H.  K. 

Maesyfed  Hen  (Old  Badnor),  called  by  the  natives  Peucraig ; 
burnt  by  Bhys  ap  GruflFudd  in  the  time  of  King  John.  (Cam- 
den, Brit) 

Maethlu  Sant  Ynghaemadog  Ymon,  Danfaethlu  Church, 
Anglesey. 

Mafon  or  Mabon  (n.  pr.  v.) :  hence  Bodfafon  in  Creuthyn. 
See  Bhiwabon, 

Magddu Gulfoel  o  Benllyn. 

Magedawc  or  Megadoc  (nomen  loci). 

Gwaith  Megadoc  {MS.),  or,  as  Caradoc,  Magedawc,  a  battle 


294  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

fought  between  the  Britons  and  Phichtieit  (Picts),  where  Dalar-' 
gan,  King  of  the  Picts,  was  slain  A-D.  750.     (Oaradoc,  p.  16.) 

Maglan.    0,    Ilanvaglan. 

Maglocui^e,  the  Latin  name  oi  Maelgvm,Gwynedd  in  the  cor- 
rupt copies  of  Gildas.  If  Gildas  understood  the  British  tongue, 
he  wrote  it  in  his  Latin  book  Malgo  Ghiiiiet  in  the  orthography 
of  those  days.  He  was  first  King  of  Gwynedd,  and  afterwards 
supreme  King  of  the  Britons.     See  Traeth  Madgivn. 

Magsen,  qu.  Maxentius  ? 

Maig.    Trefaig,  Hirdrefaig,  in  Anglesey.    See  Mate. 

Main  Gwynedd,  qu.  or  Maen  Gwynedd  ?  Madog  ap  Evream 
o  Fain  Gwynedd. 

Mair,  Maria,  Mary  (n.  pr.  f.)i  Mair  Forwyn,  the  Virgin  Mary. 

Malangell  verch  TudwaL 

Malcawn  :  see  Madgvm.     {E.  Llwyd.) 

Mali  verch  Ifan  Llwyd. 

Mallaen,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Gantref  Bychan  in 
Caermarthenshire.     (Price's  Descr,) 

Malldraeth,  a  small  harbour  or  tract  of  sand  in  Anglesey, 
which  took  its  name  from  the  very  dangerous  quicksands  there, 
and  the  shifting  fords  on  the  river,  it  having  a  boggy  bottom  (a 
maUt  evil,  and  traeth,  sand). 

Fe*m  gwnaeth  ym  Malltraeth  ym  Mon 
Yn  gored  penwaig  irion. 

It  gives  name  to  one  of  the  six  commots  of  Anglesey,  viz.,  Cwm- 
mwd  Malldraeth ; .  and  in  it  stood  the  seat  of  the  Princes  of 
Wales,  called  Aberflfraw. 

Mallt  (n.  pr.  f )  ;  Latin,  Matilda  or  MathiUia. 

Mallt  vel  Mahallt  verch  Rhys  Gethin. 

Mallteg  Sant.     Llanvallteg  in  Penbrokeslxire. 

Mallwch  (n.  pr.  v.).     Caerfallwch.     {J.  D) 

Mallwyb,  a  church  and  parish  in  Merionethshire,  q.  d.  ma» 
Ihoyd,  It  is  dedicated  to  Tydecho  Sant.  Here  the  industrious 
and  learned  Dr.  John  Davies,  author  of  the  British- Latin  Dic- 
tionary and  the  British  Grammar,  was  rector.  He  died  the  14 
May  1644.  {MS.)  He  published  his  Grammar,  1620,  and  his 
Dictionary,  1632, 

Malpas,  in  Flintshire  ;  another  in  Monmouthshii^. 


CELTIC  BEMAIKS.  295 

Manawydan  ap  Lljrr,  un  o'r  tri  lleddf  unben  (2V.  14),  cotem- 
porary  with  Llywarch  Hen,  pan  fu  hyd  ar  Ddyfed.  (Tr.  77.) 
See  Owgon  Owron  and  Llywarch  Hen,  the  other  two. 

Mannod,  a  mountain  in  Merionethshire.     {E.  Llwyd.) 

Manaw,  the  Isle  of  Man,  probably  at  first  Monaw,  t.  e.,  M6n 
in  the  sea,  the  other  Mon  (Anglesey)  being  close  to  the  main- 
land. If  so,  the  dispute  between  Humphrey  Uwyd  and  Hector 
Boetius  was  only  about  sounds.  This  is  probably  the  Mona  of 
Julius  Caesar,  unless  he  was  misinformed  about  the  distance  of 
Mon  from  Britain  and  Ireland,  for  he  places  it  half  way.  The 
Latin  name  of  this  is  Eubonia.     See  Mon  and  Ore, 

Manavan  or  Manavon,  a  parish  in  Montgomeryshire^  deanery 
of  Cedewain. 

Manau  Guotodin,  the  country  in  Scotland  where  Cunedda 
Wledig  lived,  and  was  drove  out  of  it  by  the  Scots,  146  years 
before  Maelgwn  the  Great  reigned  over  the  Britons  in  Gwene- 
dota.  (M8.  Nennivs  B.  V.)  This  Manau  Guotodin  may  pos- 
sibly have  been  pronounced  in  the  British  Menai  Gododin,  it 
bordering  on  the  narrow  straits  between  Ireland  and  North 
Britain.  At  this  very  time  that  Nennius  mentions  the.Scots  from 
Ireland  took  possession  of  Argyleshire.  (Usser's  Primord.)  It 
may  be  the  country  of  those  people  called  by  Latin  writers 
Catini  or  Ottadini. 

Manogan,  the  69th  King  of  Britain,  father  of  Beli  Mawr. 

Manauon,  enw  Ue.  lerwerth  Vanauon  (or  Manafon)  ap 
Einion. 

Maoddyn  {Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cynddylan).  Mr.  Edw. 

liwyd  thinks  it  to  be  Mwythig,  or  Salop ;  from  the  similitude  of 

the  name,  I  suppose.   But  he  was  certainly  wrong,  for  Pengwem, 

which  is  the  known  name  for  Salop,  is  mentioned  in  the  same 

elegy. 

Eryr  Pengwem  pen  gam  llwyd. 

Maon  or  Mawan  (n.  pr.  v.).    Maon^  father  of  Llemenig. 

Mar. 

Maiian,  qu.  ?     {Gwdygorddau  Powys) 

March  am  Mheirchion,  a  Prince  of  Scotland  or  some  part  of 
North  Britain.  The  poets  feigned  that  he  had  horse^s  ears,  and 
whatever  he  touched  turned  into  gold.     The  meaning  was  that 


296  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

he  was  a  great  miser  and  very  rich,  and  was  an  ass  for  suffering 
himself  to  be  cuckolded  by  his  nephew  Trystan  ap  Tallwch.  He 
lived  in  the  reign  of  Arthur.  He  was  one  of  King  Arthur's 
three  admirals.     See  Essyllt  and  Trystan. 

Marchan  ap  Cynddelw  Gam. 

Mahchen.    Castell  Marchen,  the  castle  of  Morgan  ap  Howel 
got  by  Gilbert  Earl  of  Clare,  a,d.  1236  ;  qxL  Carmarthenshire  ? 
Coed  Marchan  in  Denbighshire. 

Mabchan.  Coed  Marchan  near  Shuthyn.  Cefn  Yarchan  in 
Caermarthenshire. 

Marchan  (n.  pr.  v.) ;  hence  Coed  Marchan.  [There  is  a  place 
in  Glamorgan  called  Coed  Marchan.-^/.  Jf.]  Ehys  ap  Marchan 
had  a  daughter,  Gwenllian,  married  to  Gwaeddgar  or  Gwaedd- 
fawr,  father  of  Gwernog,  father  of  Efnydd  ap  Gwernog,  lord  of 
Dyffryn  Clwydd.     {J.  D) 

Marchell,  a  river. 

Marchell,  merch  Teudric,  the  mother  of  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 
{Ach  Gynog),  Also  a  daughter  of  liis  wife  of  Gwrlyn.  Probably 
the  founder  of  the  Abbey  of  Ystrad  MarchelL 

Marchell  Sant  and  Marchellyn  Sant.  The  church  of  Llan- 
ddeusant,  Anglesey,  dedicated  to  them. 

Marchell  verch  Arwystli  Gloff ;  hence  Ystrad  Marchell. 

MarchgwN  and  Meirchion  (n.  pr.  v.),  the  same  with  Cynfarch. 
{K  Llwyd) 

Marchnant,  a  river  between  the  lordship  of  Mevenyth  and 
Ysbytty  or  Ystwyth.  [Aber  Marchnant,  Marchnant  falling  into 
the  Evyrnwy. —  W,  2>.] 

Marchog  o  Byfel,  knight  banneret. 

Marchudd  ap  Cynan  ap  Elfyw,  lord  of  Uwch  Dulas  and  Aber- 
geleu ;  his  seat  at  Bryn  Ffanigl ;  one  of  the  Fifteen  Tribes  oi^ 
North  Wales.    Bore  gulesy  a  Saracen's  head  erased.    a.d.  846. 

Marchweithian,  lord  of  Islaled  in  Denbighshire,  lived  at  Llys 
Lleweni  about  ad.  740.  Bore  azure,  a  lion  rampant  argent.  One 
of  the  Fifteen  Tribes  of  North  Wales. 

Marchweithian  {Pymtheg  Llwyth).  . 

Marchwydd,  Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  says,  is  Owyddfarch  trans- 
posed. 

Marchwyn.. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  297 

Maeclois,  Esgob  Bangor ;  died  a.d.  942. 

Mabculphus,  an  historian  of  Little  Britain. 

Marcwlff  (n.  pr.  v.),  un  o'r  tair  colofn  y  celfyddodion. 
(Prydydd  y  Moch,  i  R.  ap  Owen  Gwynedd.) 

Mared  neu  Maered  (n.  f.)  ;  hence  Maredydd  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Mareda  verch  Gruflf.  ap  Cynan. 

Maredudd  or  Maredydd  (n.  pr.  v.)  seems  to  have  been  made 
from  a  woman's  name,  Mared,  or  one  from  the  other.  Camden 
Latinizes  it  Meredudvs. 

Maredydd,  recti  Maredudd  (n.  pr.  v.),  and  Mredydd,  and 

Meredydd. 

Targed  Vadog  Amhredydd.-s-D.  Narnnor. 

Margam  or  Margan,  a  village  in  Glamorganshire.  Fairs  kept 
here.    Margam,  the  seat  of  the  Mansels. 

Margam  (Mynydd),  a  mountain  in  Glamorganshire^  on  which 
there  are  ancient  rakes  of  mine  works. 

Margan  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Margan^  one  of  the  goddesses  of  the  deep. 

Pan  yw  Margan  dwywes  o  annwfyn, — {Ed,  LJwyd,) 

Margem,  a  village,  Glamorganshire. 

Marlais  is  the  name  of  the  river  in  Carmarthenshire,  and 
not  Marias,  whence  Abermarlais^  a  gentleman's  seat  on  the  aber 
of  that  river  of  Glan  Gwy  (J,  D.) ;  and  aU  the  poets,  who  are 
our  eternal  standards  of  pronunciation,  agree  in  this.  The  word 
is  marwlais,  as  mamad  is  wrote  for  marwnad,  and  marddwr, 
neap  tide,  for  marwddwr. 

Mars,  the  kingdom  of  Mercia ;  also  the  borders  or  marches  of 
Wales,    Gwyr  y  Mars. 

Marsia,  a  queen  of  great  Britons  [Britain  ?],  who  reigned 
during  the  minority  of  her  son  Seisill,  after  her  husband  Cyhelyn, 
the  24th  King  of  Britain.  Leland  {Script  Brit,,  c.  8)  praises  her 
greatly  for  that  the  laws  made  in  her  reign  were  caUed  after  her 
name,  as  the  Moelmutian  Laws  were  called  after  Dyfnwal  Moel- 
mud ;  that  they  were  translated  by  King  Alfrid  into  the  Saxon, 
and  called  the  Marsian  Law.  Others  will  have  it  that  the  Law 
was  so  called  from  being  the  law  of  the  Mercians,  Nicolson 
says  that  Lombardy  and  all  the  rest  were  mistaken  in  calling 

38 


298  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

the  Saxon  laws  Mercenlege,  etc.,  for  that  lege  did  not  signify  law, 
etc.    See  Nicolson. 

Maesli  (n.  pr.  f.);  Lat.  Marsilia;  Engl.  Margery,  qiL  ? 

Mabthen,  qu.  whether  Marthin  or  Martin  ? 

Martia.     O. 

Marwerydd.     (Dr.  Davies.)     See  Morwerydd. 

Mabwred  verch  Madog,  or  rather  Mar&ed  or  Marvered. 

Mary.    G. 

Maryfred,  the  mother  of  Llewelyn  ap  lorwerth  Drwyndwn, 

{MS.) 

Mar  Ysgvarnawo,  Marius  Lepidus.     (TyasUio.) 

Marwystl  vel  Marohwystl  ap  Marchweithian.  {Pymtheg 
Llwyth.) 

Maserveth  {Bede,  L  iii,  c.  9.),  the  place  where  Oswald  was 
killed  by  Penda,  King  of  Mercia,  and  the  Britains.  Bromfield 
calls  it  Marshfield ;  the  Saxon  Chronicle,  Maj-eppel^ ;  and  so 
King  Alfred's  paraphrase.  Leland  says  there  is  a  church  at 
Oswestry  (i.  6.,  Oswald's  tree)  dedicated  to  St.  Oswald,  formerly 
called  White  Church ;  and  the  English  annotator  on  Bede  says 
the  Welsh  call  it  Croix  Oswald ;  which  are  mistakes,  for  they 
caU  Oswestry  Croesyswallt^  which  see.  Qu,  whether  the  above 
be  Maeserwydd  ? 

Math  ap  Mathonwy,  hen  frenin  gynt  o  Wynedd.  (D.  J.)  See 
Arianrhod.  Un  o'r  trywyr  hud  a  Uedrith  {Tr.  31) ;  qu.  second 
sight  ?  Hud  mab  Mathonwy,  un  o'r  tri  prif  hud  {Tr.  32),  co- 
temporary  with  Gwdion  ap  Don  (Tr.  32)  and  with  Gronwy  Pefr 
o  Benllyn  (IV.  35). 

Mathafarn,  nomen  loci  (k  mad  and  tafam),  a  gentleman's 
seat  in  Montgomeryshire,  famous  for  being  the  house  of  David 
Uwyd  ap  Ily welyn  ap  Gruffudd,  lord  of  Mathafarn,  in  the  time 
of  Bichard  III.  This  gentleman  being  a  good  poet  wrote  several 
prophecies,  in  verse,  of  the  coming  of  Henry  V^I,  for  whom  he 
was  a  great  stickler.  His  wife,  who  knew  he  was  no  prophet, 
asked  him  how  he  could  venture  to  advance  such  things  as 
truths.  He  answered  her,  "  If  Henry  carries  the  day,  he  will 
reckon  me  a  true  prophet ;  if  he  loses,  he'll  hardly  come  to  up- 
braid me  for  it."  Besides  these  political  prophecies  we  have 
several  other  pieces  of  this  poet's  works  extant.     His  cywydd 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  299 

describing  Dovey  Eiver  is  a  curious  piece,  and  his  disputes  with 
Llewelyn  ap  Guttyn  the  poet  are  common. 

Mathafarn  Eithaf,  a  place  in  Anglesey :  hence  Llanfair  ym 
Mathafam  Eithaf,  a  church  and  parisL  Another  Mathafarn  in 
Denbighshire. 

Mathanen,  river  (in  Morden's  map),  joins  Gwygyr,  and  goes 
to  Cemaes  in  Anglesey ;  but  qu.  ? 

Mathau,  not  Mathew. 

Na  ddotto  Pedr  gloan 

Mair  a  Seinlyn,  MarthjDy  Matbaa. 

Mathau  Prys. 

Mathatark  ap  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 

Mathe  ap  Cadwaladr.    Yid.  Matfiau, 

MIthias  (n.  pr.  v.  dissyll.). 
I'th  was  cred  Mathias  Cradog. — lor.  Fyngboyd, 

Mathlu,  qu.  Maethlu  ? 

MATH0LWCH,(n.  pr.v.) ;  qu.  Mothlaius  ?  {Ogygia,  p.  390.)  An 
Irish  name.  Matholwch  Wyddel,  or  Matholwch  the  Irishman, 
married  and  abused  Branwen  the  daughter  oi  Llyr.  {Tr,  51.) 
He  was  a  noted  Irish  enterprising  Prince. 

Tegweh  gwlad  Fatholwch  fa 

Galon  y  Werddon  orddu. — lolo  Qock, 

Mathonwy. 

Mathraval,  the  name  of  the  kingdom  or  principality  of 
Powys,  after  Offa,  King  of  Mercia,  drove  the  Britains  from  Salop 
oyer  Severn ;  €md  that  the  Prince's  palace  was  fixed  at  Mathrafal 
in  Montgomeryshire.  To  this  kingdom  belonged  the  country  of 
Powys  and  the  land  between  Wy  and  Severn.  (Price's  Deseript) 
A  castle  built  here  by  Bobert  Vepont,  a  Norman,  about  A.D.  1204. 

A  thrwy  efyll  Matbraval 

Aur  o'r  Twr  i'r  warr  a'r  til. — leuan  Dafydd  Ddu. 

M\thravakl  Wynya  :  see  Owynfa. 

Mathri  or  Mathry,  a  village  in  Penbrokeshire.  Fairs  are 
kept  hera 

Mathutafwr  (n.  pr.  v.),  perhaps  Mathuta  Fawr  (qu.  Brito- 
marus),  the  officer  that  came  with  Urp  Lluyddawc,  a  Prince  of 
the  Cimbrians,  to  raise  auxiliaries  in  Britain  to  go  against  the 
Komans.     See  Urp  Llnyddog,   {Tr.  40.) 


300  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Mathygryn. 

Maunguid.  Caer  Maungaid,  in  Nennius'  Catalogue  of  Britisli 
CJities ;  and  Usher  hath  also  Caer  Menegyd ;  but  neither  in  the 
Triades  or  Dr.  Williams'  Catalogue. 

Maxjog.     Bryn  Mauog,  in  Caio,  Carmarthenshire. 

Maw  (fl.)  or  Mawddach,  in  Merionethshire :  hence  Abermaw, 
vulgo  Abermo  and  Bermo ;  in  English,  corruptly,  Barmouth ;  a 
good  small  harbour  and  village. 

Mawd  ferch  leuan  Blaene,  and  Mawd  Wen. 

Mawddwy,  a  river  which  falls  into  Towy,  near  Llangadog,  or 
rather  Myddfai,  qu.  ? 

Mawddwy,  one  of  the  two  commots  of  Cantref  Cynan,  part  of 
Powys  Wenwynwyn;  now  the  lordship  of 

Mawgor,  a  village  in  Monmouthshire.    Fairs  are  kept  here. 

Mawl  ap  Madawy,  King  of  Britain. 

Mawgr. 

Mawr,  great,  large.  Llanfawr,  a  church  and  parish  in  the 
deanery  of  Penllyn,  Meirion.  Llannor  and  Llanfawr,  in  Ueyn ; 
qu.  Ilanfor  ?  Coedmawr  or  Coedmor,  in  Arfon ;  Llanfawr,  a 
house  near  Holyhead ;  y  Mynydd  Fawr,  a  mountain  in  Eryri ;  Y 
Ddolfawr,  i,  e.,  Dolfor,  Cardiganshire ;  Maesmawr,  i.  e.,  Maesmor ; 
Dinraor;  Trefor;  Pen  Maen  Mawr;  y  Frenni  Fawr.  Cantref 
Mawr,  one  of  the  three  cantrefs  of  Brecknockshire.  (Price's 
Descr,)    See  Bychan. 

Mawr,  a  river  which  gives  name  to  Traeth  Mawr.  (Price's 
Bescr)     But  qu.  ? 

Mawrth,  the  name  of  a  Celtic  Prince,  afterwards  a  god,  and 
called  by  the  Eomans  Mara,  Mavors,  Marners.  Dydd  Mawrth, 
Dies  Martis.  Mis  Mawrth,  March.  Q.  d.  Mawrwyrth  or  Maw- 
rwth ;  called  also  Theuth  or  Tenth,  q.  d.  Duw  Taith,  the  god  of 
journeys. 

Mechain,  nomen  loci  in  Powysland.  Mechain  is  Coed  in 
Powys  VadogjUwch  Coed  in  Powys  Wenwynwyn,  two  commots. 

Ar  derfyn  Mechain  a  Mochnant. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Ln.  ap  lorwerfch. 

Gwaith  Mechain  was  a  battle  fought  at  this  place  by  Mredydd 
and  Ithel,  sons  of  GrufiF.  ap  Llywelyn,  and  Bleddyn  ap  Cynfyn 
and  RhiwaUon,  Kings  of  North  Wales.     Mredydd,  Ithel,  and 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  301 

Ehiwallon,  were  killed,  and  Bleddjm  made  King  of  Powys  and 
North  Wales,  a.d.  1068. 

Gwerfyl  MecJuiin,  a  poetess.     (Ca/radoc) 

Hence  Uanfechain,  a  church  dedicated  to  Garmon. 

Mechell  and  Mechyll  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Mechell  Sant.    Llanvechell,  a  church  in  Anglesey. 

Mechell  verch  Brychan  Brycheiniog. 

Mech^d,  a  river,  qu.  ? 

Gar  elfjdd  Mechydd  a  Macbawy. 

Prydydd  y  Moch,  i  Ln.  ap  lorwerth. 

Mechyll,  neu  Mechill.  Rhys  Mechyll  ap  Rhys  Gruc  ap  yr 
Aiglwydd  Rhys.  This,  it  seems,  is  the  masculine  of  Mechell, 
from  hyll  and  Jiell. 

Medcant,  an  island  on  the  coast  of  Northumberland,  men- 
tioned in  Nennius,  c.  65 ;  supposed  to  be  lindisfarn.  Bede 
(1.  iii,  c.  16)  calls  this  same  island  Fame.  It  is  two  miles  from 
Bamborough  Castle.  Here  was  a  monastery  built  by  St.  Cuth- 
bert ;  and  here  Aidan  the  Bishop  was  when  Penda  attempted  to 
burn  the  city  of  Bebbanbuig,  the  regal  city  of  the  Northum- 
brians. R.  Hoveden  says  that  lindisfarn  is  by  Gildas  called 
Medcant  in  the  British,  meaning  Nennius. 

Medel  ap  Llywarch  Hen. 

Mederai  Badellvawr.    (Tr.  64.) 

Median  ach  Eurog  Gadam. 

Medrawt  or  Medrod  (n.  pr.  v.).  Medrod  ap  Hew  ap  Cyn- 
farch,  called  Brenhinol  Farchog  in  Tr,  83,  was  King  Arthur's 
nephew,  and  was  left  to  take  care  of  Britain  and  of  his  Queen 
in  his  absence,  while  he  followed  his  wars  in  Gaul ;  but  Medrod 
hearing  of  the  defeat  of  Arthur  beyond  the  Alps,  dethroned 
Gwenhwyfar  the  Queen,  and  took  the  government  into  his  own 
hands.  This  occasioned  Arthur's  return  to  recover  his  crown, 
which  brought  on  the  civil  war  and  the  great  battle  called  Gad 
Gamlan,  where  Medrod  was  slain,  and  Arthur  received  his 
death's  wound.     See  Ghvenhwyfar  and  Llew  ap  Oynfarch, 

Medrod  vel  Medrawt  ap  Cowrda. 

Medron,  father  of  Madoc.    (Tr,  50.) 

Medwyn,  one  of  the  two  noble  ambassadors  sent  by  Lies  ap 


302  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Coel,  King  of  Britain,  to  Pope  Bleutherius  to  desire  to  be  in- 
structed in  the  Christian  doctrine.  (Leland,  Script.  Brit,  c.  1  and 
c.  13.)  He  says  he  found  the  names  in  the  Latin  copy  of  Gralfrid 
Mon. ;  but  they  are  not  in  the  British  copy  of  Tyssilio^  nor  in 
any  of  the  printed  copies  of  Gkdfrid  (I  have  three  of  them),  nor 
in  a  very  ancient  MS.  of  GalMd's  Latin  I  have  upon  velliun. 

Medd  :  see  Gardd  y  Medd,  Llannereh  y  MedcL 

Meddepus  ferch  Ywain  Cyfeiliog ;  q.  d.  Meddwefus,  i.«.,  mead- 
lip,  a  proper  name  for  a  fair  woman. 

Meddlan  verch  Cyndrwyn.  {Llywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad 
Cjmdylan.) 

Meddygon  Myddfal  Ehi wallon  a'i  feibion,  Cadwgon,  a  Gruff- 
udd,  ac  Einion.  Dr.  Davies  places  them  in  1280.  (Dr.  Davies 
in  Myddfai)  They  collected  together  the  empirical  remedies  of 
the  Britons  into  a  book^  at  the  command  of  Bhys  Gryg,  Prince 
of  South  Wales.  I  have  a  MS.  of  it  on  vellum.  It  is  wrote  in 
the  British  language,  and  aU  Gralenical,  and  chiefly  empirical, 
there  being  then  no  occasion  for  physicians. 

Megadoc  (Gwaith),  JfiS,  or,  as  Caradoc,  Megedawc,  a  battle 
fought  between  the  Britons  and  Phiehtieit  (Picts),  where  Dalar- 
gau,  King  of  the  Picts,  was  slain.    {Oaradoc,  p.  16.) 

Megdod  {Nennius) :  see  Meivod, 

Megen,  Megge  or  Margaret. 

Meguaid  {Nennius)  :  see  M&ivod, 

Meguid  :  see  Meivod.     {E,  Lhmjdy  from  Usher's  Nennius,) 

Meibionain.    Gwlad  Feibionain, 

Pan  wnelont  meirian  dadlau  bychain 

Anndon  a  brad  Gwlad  Feibionain. — B.oi,  Myrddin. 

Qu.  whether  Mabwynion  in  Cardiganshire  ? 

Meidrim,  a  village  in  Caermarthenshire.    Fairs  kept  here. 

Meichiad  (fl).  Glan  y  Meichiad  [Nant  y  Meichiad —  W.  2>.] 
in  Meivod. 

Meilfeych  or  Meilyrch  (n.  pr.  v.),  Mr.  Edward  Uwyd  says 
it  is  Brychfael  transposed. 

Meic  (n.  pr.  v.),  probably  ought  to  be  wrote  in  the  present 
orthography  Maig :  hence  Hirdrefaig  in  Anglesey. 

Meic  Mygotwas  (father  of  Anan,  one  of  the  three  gohoyw 
riain)  is  in  Vaughan*s  Index  Mogotwas,  and  explained  Armrin, 


1CELTIC  REMAINS.  303 

Meivod,  a  church  and  parish  in  the  deanery  of  Poole,  Mont- 
gomeryshire. The  church  is  dedicated  to  Tyssilio  Sant.  (B, 
Willis,)  Mochnant,  Mechain,  Meichiad,  and  Meivod^  seem  to 
have  some  afl&nity ;  but  Meivod  is  plainly,  without  any  conjura- 
tion (though  Mr.  Ilwyd  could  not  hit  it),  compounded  of  two 
ancient  British  words,  Tnai  and  hod,  which  signify  the  month  of 
May  and  habitation,  which  is  as  much  as  to  say  summer  quar- 
ters. So  hafod  is  compounded  of  Aa/  (summer)  and  bod  (a 
dwelling-place),  and  is  an  ancient  word  for  such  summer-houses 
on  the  mountains  where  the  ancient  Britons  attended  their 
cattle,  to  make  butter  and  cheese.  Bod  is  a  word  prefixed  to 
the  names  of  abundance  of  houses  in  Wales,  but  more  particu* 
larly  in  Anglesey :  Bodorgan,  Bodowen,  Bodfeirig,  etc.,  etc. 
.  Here  was  an  ancient  British  city  of  the  Britains  called  in  the 
Triades  Gaer  Mygit.  Mr.  Uwyd,  in  his  Ifotea  on  Camden,  from 
Usher's  Nennitis,  calls  it  Oair  Meguid ;  and  in  other  copies  of 
Nennius,  Oavr  Metguod ;  but  I  know  that  in  the  Cambridge  MS. 
of  Nennius  it  is  Cadr  Megdod,  and  in  the  Cottonian  MS.  Oair 
Meffuaid.  So  I^m  a&aid  there  is  a  mistake  in  printing  Mr. 
Uwyd's  notes. 

As  for  the  name  of  Mediolanum,  it  comes  naturally  enough 
from  Meiddlan,  the  place  of  curds  and  whey,  which  is  of  the 
same  nature  and  sense  with  Meivod  and  Hafod ;  or  else  it  is 
Meddlan,  the  place  of  mead, — a  drink  made  of  honey,  in  great 
vogue  among,  the  ancient  Britons  ;  and  we  have  in  Anglesey  a 
town  of  that  name  with  the  words  transposed, — Llannerch  y 
Medd,  Llannerch  being  a  diminutive  of  Han. 

Caradoc  ap  GoUwyn  o  Feifod.  61an  y  Meichiad  in  Meivod. 
[Nant  y  Meichiad,—  W.  D.'\ 

Meig  ap  Cynlas  Goch. 

Meigen,  a  place  in  Powys ;  in  Nennius,  Ineicen,  A  battle 
fought  here  between  CadwaUon  ap  Cadvan  and  Edwin  King  of 
Northumberland.  On  account  of  their  behaviour  in  this  battle 
(it  is  supposed)  the  men  of  Powys  got  those  fourteen  privileges 
(Breiniau  Powys)  which  exempted  them  from  many  services  and 
payments.    See  Breiniau  Powys  by  Cynddelw  Brydydd  Mawr. 

Bryn  Meigen  in  Creuthyn,  Cardiganshire.  Meigen  is  men- 
tioned by  Dywarch  Hen  in  Marwnad  CaswaUon. 


.J 


304  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Meigen  (Bhts),  i,  e.,  Bhys  of  Meigen,  a  poet  about  the  year 
1380,  whom  Dafydd  ap  Gwilym  killed  with  a  lampoon. 

Meilientdd,  enw  lie.    Mael  Meilienydd. 

Meilir^  Eryr  gwyr  gorsedd,  and  Meilir  MeiUrion. 

Meiliw  Tawarch  ap  Esgudaur. 

Meilon.  Maes  Bhos  Meilon,  a  battle  fought  here  between 
the  black  nation  under  Igmond,  and  the  Britons^  a.d.  900.  Pen- 
rhos  Efeilw,  near  Holyhead,  q.  A  Penrhos  Mellon.  (Powel, 
Oaradoc,  p.  42.)     See  Molerain. 

Meilliontdd,  a  gentleman^s  seat.    Williams. 

Meini  Hirion  (Y).  About  a  mile  from  the  top  of  Penmaen 
MawT,  on  the  plain  mountain  above  Gwddw  Glas,  in  the  parish 
of  Pwygyfylchi,  stands  the  most  remarkable  monument  in  all 
Snowdon :  a  circular  entrenchment  of  about  26  yards  diameter^ 
with  several  pillars,  and  these  encompassed  with  a  stone  wall ; 
several  cameddau  and  graves ;  and  a  tradition  of  a  battle  fought 
here  between  the  Bomans  and  Britons ;  the  Britons  getting  the 
day,  buried  their  dead  under  heaps  of  stones  to  secure  them 
&om  the  wild  boars.  (K  liwyd.  Notes  on  Camden,  from  a  MS.) 
See  Braieh  y  Ddinas, 

Meibch  Moedwt,  {.  e.,  sea-horses,  q.  d.  ships. 

Meirch  mordwy  uwch  mawrdwrf  toniar. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Ln.  ap  lorwerth. 

Meibchion  ap  Bhys  ap  Bhydderch,  a.d.  1074. 

Meirchion  or  Meibchiawn  Gul  ap  Grwst  Ledlwm. 

Meirian  Sant.    lituiveirian  Chapel,  Anglesey. 

Meirin^  river.  {LL  Hen  in  Marwnad  Cadwallon.)  Qu.  whether 
Merin  ?    See  TwythAval  Merin. 

Meirion  (n.  pr.  v.).  Meirion  ap  Tibion  ap  Cunedda  Wledig, 
lord  of  Meirionydd,  had  Gantref  Meirion  to  his  share  in  right  of 
his  grandmother,  Gwawl,  wife  of  Edeyrn  ap  Padarn  Beisrudd, 
and  mother  of  Cunedda ;  the  Irish  Scots,  children  of  Glam  Hec- 
tor, attempting  then  to  seize  on  all  Wales.     (Price's  Descr.) 

Meirionydd,  a  county  in  North  Wales,  called  by  the  English 
Merionethshire,  and  by  the  natives  Meirion,  Sir  Veirion,  Sir 
Veirionydd,  and  Meirionydd ;  in  modern  Latin,  Mervinia,  pro- 
bably from  Mervyn,  son  of  Bhodri  Mawr,  part  of  whose  land  it 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  305 

was ;  for  Powys  is  called  by  the  poets  Merviniawn,  or  lands  of 
Mervyn ;  and  by  one  of  the  poets,  Zleudir  Mervyniawn,  See 
OalU  GadwaUon.  But  it  was  called  Meirion  from  a  grandson  of 
Cunedda  Wledig  many  ages  before  this,  and  was  but  one  cantref 
of  what  is  now  called  Meirionydd ;  by  Giraldus  Cambrensis  in 
his  Itinerary, "  Terra  filiorum  Conani",  the  lands  of  the  sons  of 
Conan.  Neither  Camden  nor  E.  Llwyd  attempt  to  give  any  ety- 
mology of  this  name. 

Meissib.  Dyfiryn  Meissir,  a  place  mentioned  in  Uywarch 
Hen's  Marwnad  Cjmdylan.     [Maesir,  Llysfaesir. —  W,  2?.] 

Mel.    Bodfel ;  perhaps  pro  Mael,  as  Bodvael. 

Mela  (n.  1.).    Wynne  of  Mela. 

Melangell  verch  Tudwal. 

Melangell  is  Mihangel,  St.  Michael  [Monacella. —  W,  2>.] 
Pennant  Melangell. 

Melan,  Mediolanum  urbs.  {Dr.  Dames!)  Becte  Meddlan, 
meaning  that  in  Gaul. 

Melandref,  Mediolanum. 

Melchin,  an  ancient  British  author,  a  MS.  of  whose  historical 
works  was  seen  by  Leland  in  the  Abbey  of  Glassenbury,  which 
he  takes  to  be  ancienter  than  Myrddin  Emrys.  He  sajrs  it 
appeared  he  was  of  Cambrian  original,  and  had  there  studied, 
and  had  read  the  Cambrian  bards.  Our  Cambro-British  writers 
mention  nothing  of  him  under^that  name,  unless  he  be  Myllin,  to 
whom  the  church  of  Ilanvyllin  in  Montgomeryshire  is  dedicated. 

Mele  :  vid.  BeU. 

Melen  (n.  pr.  v.).    EUyll  Melon.  {Tr,  70.)     See  Melyn. 

Melgad  (n.  pr.  v.),  the  same  with  Cadfael.     {E,  Llwyd) 

Melgoed.     Cefn  Melgoed  in  Cardiganshire,  which  see. 

Meliden,  chapeL  St.  Meliden.  (J5.  Willis)  Allt  Meliden 
gives  name  to  a  prebend  of  St.  Asaph. 

Melindref  (n.  1.),  corrupt  for  Mileindref,a  farm  held  in  villain 
soccage,  a  tenure  abolished  by  22  Car.  II.  Melindref  Sawddau, 
in  liangattwg,  Caermarthenshire. 

Melingwm,  village,  Carmarthenshire. 

Melirion  or  Meilirion. 

Melkin  and  Mewin,  names  which  Capgrave  and  Hardiuge 
mention  as  British  writers,  which  seem  to  have  taken  their  rise 

89 


306  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

from  bad  transcripts  of  Nennius,  for  the  Cambro-Britons  know 
of  no  such  authors  or  names  as  Melkiuus  and  Mewinus.  If  there 
ever  were  such  authors  they  were  Loegrian  Britons ;  but  Mevi- 
nus  is  plainly  Aneurin,  a  cotemporary  of  Taliesin.    See  MelcMn. 

Meloch,  a  river  (qu.  ?)  in  Penllyn.  Uwch  Meloch,  Is  Meloch, 
and  Micnaint,  are  three  commots  in  Cantref  Penllyn.  (Price's 
Descr.) 

Melsybn,  tad  Bran.     (Llyvxirch  He/a.) 

Pwylloi  Vran  vab  y  Melsym 
Fy  nihol  i  llosgi  fj  ffyrn. 

Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  reads  it  Melhym,     (X.  K,  H,) 

Melwas,  brenin  Peittwf,  a  Gaulish  name;  Lat  Bellovesus; 
General  of  the  Gauls  in  their  first  irruption  to  Italy  in  the  time 
of  Tarquin  the  Elder,  the  1C5  year  of  the  city.  Latinized  by 
Galfrid,  Melga,  who  he  makes  King  of  the  Picts  ;  but  he  was  a 
Gaul,  and  King  of  Poictou. 

Melwas,  a  Prince  of  North  Britain,  that  carried  away  King 
Arthur's  wife  or  concubine.     See  Gxoenhwyfar. 

Melwe  :  see  OaeW  Melwr  (n.  L),  near  Llanrwst. 

Melydyn,  esgob  Caerludd,  A.D.  613.     Militus. 

Melyn,  mab  Cynfelyn.    (Tr.  36.) 

Melynddwr,  a  river  and  dyfiryn  in  Cardiganshire. 

Mellt,  a  man's  name.  A  rock,  called  Maen  Mellt,  on  the  coast 
of  Lleyn.    Aedan,  son  of  Mellt,  a  nobleman  of  Wales,  died  ... 

Mellteyrn,  enw  He. 

Membyr,  the  4th  King  of  Britain,  son  of  Madog  ap  Lloegrin. 

Menai  (fL,  Tr.  30),  the  river  or  arm  of  the  sea  between  the 
Isle  of  Anglesey  and  Caernarvonshire.  Some  say  from  warn, 
small ;  but  qu.  ?  Hence  Abermenai,  the  south-west  entrance  of 
that  water.  In  Nennius,  Menei,  Menai,  and  Mene.  Gives  name 
to  one  of  the  six  commots  of  Anglesey. 

Afon  Fenai  ni  threiodd, 

Arian  y  mab  yr  un  modd. — Huw  Cae  Lltoyd, 

Menegid  {Garadoc),  Onegit  {3fS,,  App.  Tyssilio),  a  place  in 
Anglesey  where  Eoderick  the  Great  fought  a  battle  with  the 
Danes  in  the  year  873  ;  another,  the  same  year,  at  Bangole,  which 
see.  This  name  is  not  to  be  found  in  Anglesey.  These  are 
supposed  to  be  Halden  and  Hungare,  two  Danish  captains,  that 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  307 

afterwards  landed  in  South  Wales.   These  Danes  were  called  by 
the  Britons  Llychlynwyr,  or  Lochlin  Men,  as  they  did  all  that 
came  from  the  coast  of  the  Baltic. 
Meneifion,  the  people  about  MeneL 

Yn  Aber  muner  Meneifion 

Yn  aniwair  yn  diwair  Deon. — OyndJelw,  i  Hywel. 

Menew  :  see  Mynyw. 

Menew  Hen,  RvhvA  Vetus.  (Leland,)  This  is  a  mistake  in 
Dr.  Davies^  Dictionary,  and  ought  to  be  read  Budus  Vetus,  Hen 
Venew,  Eglwys  Hen  Fenew,  in  Cardiganshire.    See  Hen  Fynyw. 

Menvendan,  a  name  on  a  stone  in  the  parish  of  Henllan  Am- 
goed  in  Caermarthenshire,  which  Mr.  K  liwyd  says  he  has 
never  met  with  in  genealogical  manuscripts.  {Notes  on  Camden,) 
See  Menw  and  Menwaed,  and  Manawydan  ap  Zlyr.     {Tr.  14.) 

Menw  (n.  v.).     Hud  Menw.     {Dr.  Davies) 

Menwaed,  0  Arilechwedd,  one  of  the  three  Cadfarchog,  knights 
of  war.     (TV.  23.) 

Menyw  (n.  pr.  v.),  Menw.  {Dr,  Davies),  Menyw  mab  Teir- 
gwaed,  un  o'r  tri  hud  a  Uedrith  {Tr,  31) ;  un  o'r  tri  phrif  lledu- 
rithawc.  {Tr,  33.)  A  great  philosopher  cotemporary  with 
Arthur.  Hud  Uthur  Bendragon  {i,  e.,  Myrddin)  a  ddysgodd  i 
Feny  w  mab  Teirgwaed.  {Tr,  32.) 

Merchael  ach  Eurog  Gadam. 

Merchyr  or  Mercher,  the  name  of  a  Celtic  Prince,  afterwards 
a  god,  son  of  lou,  adored  as  a  god  by  the  Greeks  and  Romans. 
One  of  the  days  of  theweek,  Dydd  Merchyr  (i.e..  Dies  Mercurii), 
is  called  after  his  name  by  the  Britains.  Perhaps  Marchvrr,  from 
his  being  a  horseman^  and  messenger  of  his  father ;  and  from 
thence  might  come  marehnad,  a  market,  because  he  was  the  first 
merchant  that  carried  his  goods  on  a  horse, — the  god  of  mer- 
chandizing. 

Merddin  Wyllt  neu  ap  Morfran,  a.d.  635  and  683.  Merlinus 
Sylvestris,  o  Nanc yn 

Merdhyn  Embrys,  Merlinus  Ambrosius,  AD.  471.     His  

was  named  -^Idan.     Y  meudwy  a  barodd  ei  alw  ef. 

Meredudd,  King  of  N 

Meredudd  ap  Bleddyn,  1113. 

Meredudd  ap  Owen,  King  of  N[orth  Wales],  a.d.  986.  Mere- 
dudd ap  Owen  ap  Edwyn,  King  of  S[outh  Wales],  lOoO. 


308  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Meredudd  ap  Gr.  ap  "Rja,  lord  of  Keredigion. 

Merffordi),  a  commot  in  the  Cantref  of  Uwchnant  in  Powys 
Vadog.    It  is  in  Flintshire.     (Price's  Descr,) 

Merfyn  (n,  pr.  v.). 

Merftn  Frych,  a  Owyddd  or  Irishman,  son  of  Gwyriad  {Cara- 
doc,  p.  22)  of  Ireland,  married  Essyllt^  daughter  to  Cynan  Din- 
daethwy,  and  was  father  of  Rodri  Mawr.  His  mother  was  next 
daughter  of  Cadell  ap  Brochwel  ap  Eliseu  ap  Beli,  and  so  on  to 
Gwrtheym,  to  demand  the  crown. 

Merfyn,  one  of  the  sons  of  Bhodri  Mawr,  was  made  Prince  of 
Powys.  Giraldus  Cambrensis  makes  him  the  eldest  son;  but 
all  others  make  him  the  third,  and  Prince  of  Powys:  hence 
Powys  Land  was  called  Merviniawn. 

Meriadoc  or  Meriadog  (n.  L).  Cefn  Meriadog,  Denbighshire ; 
qu.  a  region  in  Denbighshire  ?     (H.  Uwyd,  Brit.  Descr.) 

Meiriadog  (Cynan),  a  nephew  of  Eudaf,  King  of  Britain, 
whom  Maximus  settled  in  Armorica,  in  Gaul,  A.D.  383.  As  his 
uncle  Eudaf  was  Earl  of  Erging  and  Euas  before  he  got  the 
crown,  one  would  expect  to  find  this  Meriadog  in  that  country. 
The  Triades  calls  him  brawd  Elen  verch  Eudaf;  but  he  was  only 
her  half-brother,  or  else  her  cousin-german,  the  British  word 
brawd  signifying  in  ancient  times  cousin  as  well  as  brother. 
(See  H.  liwyd,  Brit.  Descr.,  p.  14,  ed.  1731.) 

Merin,  a  river  in  Creuddyn,  Geretica,  runs  into  the  river 
Mynach.  Qu.  whether  Meirin,  river  of  Llywarch  Hen  in  Marw- 
nad  Cadwallon  ?    Blaen  Merin.    Twythwal  Merin  in  the  poets. 

Merini.     Llyr  Merini. 

Mers,  Mercia,  a  Saxon  kingdom..  Gwyr  y  Mers,  the  Mer- 
cians.    (JBT'  Llwyd.) 

Merthyr  Tydvyl  in  Glamorganshire. 

Merthyr  Mawr,  a  village  [church  and  castle — I.  Jf.]  in 
Glamorganshire. 

Merviniawn,  lands  of  Merfyn,  the  third  son  of  Rhodri  (Cyn- 
dddw),  which  was  Powys  Land.     See  Oallt  OadwalUm. 

Merwerydd. 

Ni  foddes  mawredd  y  Merwerydd  . 
Tngwaith  y  Waederw  chwerw  chweh'dydd. 

Meilir  Brydydd,  i  Gr.  ap  Cynan. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  309 

Merwydd  (n.  pr.  v.).  Gr.  op  Gwrgan,  Gwledd  Merwydd. 
(Tudur  AM) 

Merwydd  Goch  ap  GoUwyn  ap  Gellan. 

Merwydd  Goch  ap  TryfiPon  ap  Mervyn. 

Meryn  Sant.  Bodferyn  Chapel,  Ileyn ;  qu.  gave  name  to 
Merin  fl.  ? 

Methlan  or  Meddlan,  commonly  called  Medlam,  in  Lleyn. 
(0.  S) 

Metguod  :  see  Meivod,     (E.  Uwyd,  from  Usher's  Nennius,) 

Meyenydd,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Canawl  in 
Cardiganshire.    (Price's  Descr) 

Mbvinus,  corruptly  wrote  for  Aneurin  by  Leland,  c.  2  and  25 ; 
and  by  John  Harding  in  his  historical  poem  published  in  the 
time  of  Henry  VI ;  and  by  the  ignorant  transcribers  or  pub- 
lishers of  Nennius  it  is  wrote  Nvevin.     See  Aneurin. 

Meugan  Sant.  Cappel  Sant  Meugan  at  Beaumaris.  {B,  Willis.) 

Meugaut  ap  Cyndaf,  giyr  o'r  Israel 

Meurig,  a  river  which  falls  into  Teifi,  and  gives  name  to  Ys- 
trad  Meurig,  a  village  and  the  ruins  of  a  castle  in  a  pass  between 
mountains  in  Cardiganshire.  This  castle  is  often  mentioned  in 
Caradoc's  History. 

Meurig,  Meuric,  Meurug,  and  Mburyg  (n.  pr.  v.);  Some 
kings  of  Britain  of  this  name^  and  Latinized  Mariua  by  Galfrid, 
etc.,  but  falsely  for  Meuricus.  Camden  makes  it  Merric^  and 
translates  it  Meuricus. 

A  mwy  ddoe  i  mi  a  ddng 

Y  m6r  gar  Ystrad  Meumg. 

O.  Olyn^  i  Bys  Abad. 

Gorwyr  Bhys  aur  dy wys  dug 

Gyda  mawredd  gwaed  Meurug. — D.  H.  H. 

Gwych  y  cawn  lle'r  awn  ith  wyrennig  wledd 
Yn  win  a  mawredd  gan  lin  Meurig. 

D.  a/p  Meredydd  ap  Tudur. 

Meuric  (Gwys),  in  Tyssilio  {BrtU  y  Brenhinoedd),  a  monument 
erected  in  Westmorland  by  Meuric  in  memory  of  a  battle. 
Meurig  ap  Adda,  1169. 
Meurig  ap  Arthpoel,  1019. 
MstTRiG,  Bishop  of  Bangor^  died  A.D.  1160. 


310  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Meubtg  ap  Cadell,  936. 

Meurig,  King  of  Dyfed  in  King  Arthur's  time. 

Meu^ig  ap  Gweirydd,  the  77th  King  of  Britain. 

Meutur  ap  Hedd  Molwynog. 

Mewyrniawn  qtMeirnion.  Dyfl&yn  Menyrnyaun,  mentioned 
in  Ilywarch  Hen's  Advice  to  Maenwyn. 

Metsctx^  one  of  the  four  commots  of  Cantref  Pennythen  in 
Morgannwg. 

Mian  Ferdic,  one  of  the  three  red-speared  poets ;  Cadwallawii 
ap  Cadfan's  poet.  In  Mr.  £•  Ilwyd's  book  called  Avannedig. 
See  Afan  Verddic, 

MiCNAiNT,  a  river  in  the  Cantref  of  Penllyn  in  Meirion ;  also 
one  of  the  three  commots  of  Penllyn. 

Michel,  a  modem  n.  pr.  v. ;  EngL  Michael 

Mihanoel,  Michael  the  angel. 

MiLAiN  Aradroaeth,  a  villan  in  soccage-t^nure. 

Os  gwrthodi  Uiw'r  ewyn 

Fab  a'i  felyn  gndynan, 
Gei  it  filain  aradr  gaeth 

A  fo  gwaeth  ei  gyneddfan. 

So  the  poet  takes  this  to  be  the  lowest  kind  of  vassalage.  See 
Terra  Nativa, 

MiLCHUO,  a  King  of  the  Picts  mentioned  by  Flaherty,  p.  397. 
Qu.  whether  the  same  MUchtio  that  had  St.  Patrick  in  bondage 
{id,,  p.  472),  and  the  Melchu  of  Nennins  (c.  54),  and  perhaps 
Bede's  Meilochon  (L  iii,  c.  4)  ?  Nennius  says  that  St.  Patrick, 
a  Briton,  was  captive  with  the  Scots,  and  that  his  lord  was  Mel- 
chu, whose  swineherd  he  was.  Flaherty  says  he  was  six  years 
a  swineherd  in  the  great  valley  of  Arcail,  near  the  mountain 
Mis,  in  the  north  part  of  Dalriada,  at  a  place  called  Scirie  Arcail, 
which  he  takes  to  be  the  Dalriada  in  the  county  of  Antrim  in 
Ireland ;  and  says  his  lord  or  master  was  Milchuo,  who  would 
not  release  him  without  a  ransom,  and  one  of  the  hogs  dug  up 
a  lump  of  gold  with  which  he  bought  his  liberty. 

MiLFFWRDD,  corruptly,  k  Milford. 

MiNCius,  a  river  which  watereth  the  city  Mantua  in  Italy. 
In  the  Celtic,  Myngwy  or  Mynwy.     See  Myngwy, 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  311 

MiNDDU.  Owen  Finddu,  un  o  feibion  Maxen  ap  IlywarcL 
See  Pehlig, 

MiNWYN  (Y),  author  of  a  British  grammar.     {E.  Llwyd.) 

MiRMANTUN,  in  Nennius  (c.  21),  Caer  Cwstaint  in  some  copies, 
Caer  Segent  or  Segunt,  which  is  said  to  be  Caer  yn  Arvon,  where 
Constantios  Chlorus  is  by  some  said  to  be  buried,  by  others 
doubted.  Some  take  it  to  be  York,  without  any  foundation  but 
a  marginal  note  in  one  of  the  copies.  In  some  MSS.  of  Nennius 
it  is  called  Mirmantun,  Mimmaton,  Mirmantoniam,  Merman- 
turn  ;  and  by  Camden  read  Murimandum.  But,  after  all,  should 
it  not  be  read  Mui-macTidin,  i.  e.,  the  stone-walled  city  ?  Nen- 
nius says  that  Constantius  sowed  three  kinds  of  seed  in  the 
pavement  of  that  city,  so  that  the  place  might  never  be  poor 
(viz.,  gold,  silver,  and  brass,  as  the  Cottonian  copy  has  it).  The 
meaning  is,  he  buried  great  quantities  of  Boman  coin  there,  as 
the  Bomans  did  in  most  places  where  they  settled. 

Mithras,  a  Persian  deity  worshipped  all  over  the  Boman 
empire  and  in  Gaul  and  Britain  (Stukely's  PaUeol),  called  by 
the  Bomans  Sol  Invietus.  There  were  horse-races  instituted  in 
honour  of  the  Sun  or  Mithras,  the  Mediator  or  Messias.  There 
are  no  remains  or  tradition  of  the  worship  of  Mithras  in  the 
British,  it  being  no  part  of  the  Druidical  religion. 

MocHDRE,  Montgomeryshire. 

MocHGARN  (n.  L).     Bhys  Goch  o  Fochgam,  a  poet. 

MocHNANT,  a  river's  name;  literally  a  swift  brook:  hence 
Uanrhaiadr  ym  Mochnant.  Here  is  a  surprising  cataract  called 
Pistyll  Bhaiadr :  hence  Mochnant,  a  country  in  Montgomery- 
shire. 

Ar  derfyn  Mecbain  a  Mochnant. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Lin.  ap  lorwerth. 

Mochnant  dihenchwant  erchwynawo  gwledig, 
Gwlad  Yrochfael  Ysgitbrawc. 

CyndddWf  i  Ywain  ap  Madog. 

Mochnant  is  Bhaiadr,  a  commot  of  Cantre  Bhaiadr,  part  of 
Powys  Vadog.     (Powel!) 

Mochnant  uwch  Bhaiadr,  part  of  Powys  Wenwynwyn,  a 
commot  of  Cantre'r  Fyrnwy. 

MocHNANWYS,  the  people  of  Mochnant. 

Glew  glyw  Mochnanwys  o  Bywys  beu. — liirlas  0,  CyfeUiog. 


312  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

MocHNO :  see  Cots  Fochno, 

MocHROS,  where  Dyfrig  had  a  college  for  study  and  devotion. 
See  Henllan. 

MOCHUDD  (n.  1.). 

MODKON,  merch  Afallach.     (TV.  52.) 

Ceisio  medm  cais  Modron 

OV  g^er  fraith  ar  gwrr  y  fron. — Z>.  ap  Otoilym. 

MODYB,  a  governor. 

£f  medrws  Modyr  hennriaid 
Mai  inedra  modrydaf  ar  haid. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Bodri  ap  Owain. 

/.  e.,  he  can  govern  the  elders  like  patting  a  hive  on  a  swarm  of 
bees. 

MoEL,  in  English,  bald ;  used  in  the  composition  of  the  names 
of  places  and  surnames  of  men,  and  doth  not  mean  Trums,  as 
Dr.  Davies  says.  Moel  Ehedog ;  Moel  y  Wyddfa ;  Moel  Wnnio 
or  Wynnio ;  Moel  y  Don  ;  Tal  y  Foel ;  Moel  Llwydiarth ;  Moel- 
fre ;  Moel  Sioba ;  Y  Foel ;  Y  Voelgoch ;  Y  Voel-las ;  Moelwyn, 
a  gentleman's  seat  and  a  mountain  in  Meirion  {E.  Llwyd) ;  Y 
Foel  in  Ehiwlas  {J.  D.) ;  Idwal  Foel,  a  Prince  of  Wales ;  lor- 
werth  Foel,  etc.,  etc.     Hence  the  Vale,  a  hill  near  Abergavenny. 

Moel  y  Glo,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J,  D.) 

Moel  Enlli,  a  mountain  not  far  from  Dyffryn  Clwyd,  on  the 
top  of  which  there  is  a  military  fence  or  rampire.  (Oamden.) 
Probably  Moel  y  Benlli  Gawr,  who  was  lord  of  lal  A.D.  450. 

Moel  y  Donn,  a  place  in  Anglesey  where  there  is  a  ferry 
over  the  Menai ;  corruptly  called  Bol  y  Donn.  Tal  y  Voel  is  a 
place  not  far  off,  anciently  called  Tal  Modvre. 

Moel  yk  Henllys,  in  Montgomeryshire,  where  some  British 
brass  weapons  were  found  in  the  last  century.     (K  Llwyd.) 

Moel  y  Wyddfa,  the  highest  mountain  in  Eirj^ri  See  Y 
Wyddfa, 

Moel  y  Fammau. 

Moel  Gylan. 

Moel  y  Mwnd. 

Moel  Siabod. 

Moeleri,  a  base  son  of  Ywain  Cyfeiliog. 


CELTIC   REMAINS.  313 

MoELGROVE,  Penbrokeshire. 

MoBLVRE,  a  mountain  near  Cors  y  Gedol  (a  mod  and  bre). 

MoELFRE,  a  harbour  and  village  in  Anglesey. 

MoELFRE,  a  gentleman's  seat.  Llwyd's  of  Moelfre.  [LlansUn. 
—  W.  D.]    See  TcU  y  Foel 

MoELFRYCH.  leuan  Foelfrych.  Llewelyn  Orach  ap  y  Moel- 
frych.  Llewelyn  Moel  y  Pantri.  Surnames  now  wrote  Moyle, 
as  John  Moyle,  Wm.  Moyle,  etc.,  etc. 

MoELGRWN.     Llywelyn  Foelgrwn. 

MoBLiWRCH,  a  gentleman's  seat.    (J.  D.) 

MoELRHONiAiD  (Ynys),  the  Skeriy  Island  near  Holyhead 
literally  the  Isle  of  Seals. 

MoELTAF :  see  Maeldaf. 

MoELWYN  (Y),  a  mountain  in  Meirion.     {JE.  Llwyd) 

MoELYN  (Y)  o  JFueUt.  Llewelyn  oedd  ei  enw  bedydd.  (Llyfr 
Ache,  fol.  117.) 

MoELYRCH.     Y  Plas  ym  Moelyrch.     {OhdtoW  Qlyn) 

MoESEN,  Moses. 

MoETHUS.    Llewelyn  Foethus. 

MoGOTWAS  and  Mygotwas,  in  the  Triades  (74),  explained  by 
Mr.  E.  Vaughan  Aneirin.     See  Anetirin. 

Mold,  parish  in  Flintshire,  a  village  and  castle ;  in  "Welsh, 
Yr  Wyddgrug, 

MoLERAiN,  a  place  in  Anglesey  mentioned  by  Caradoc  (Powel's 
edit.,  p.  42),  where,  in  a.d.  900,  a  battle  was  fought  between  the 
natives  and  Igmond  the  Dane.  Dr.  Powel,  in  his  Notes,  says 
that  in  some  copies  the  battle  was  caUed  Maes  Bhos  Meilon,  and 
that  Mervyn  was  slain  there  ;  but  the  manuscript  Appendix  to 
Tyssilio  says  he  was  killed  by  his  own  men  in  the  year  898. 
This  may  possibly  be  Ehos  Feilw  near  Holyhead ;  but  there  is 
no  place  in  Anglesey  that  sounds  like  Molerain  except  Mbdvre, 
which  is  in  another  part  of  the  island. 

MoLWYNOG,  full,  plenteous ;  used  as  a  surname ;  as,  Bhodri 
Molwynog;  Hedd  Molwynog;  Meilir  Molwynog.  (Englyn, 
Bedd) 

MoN,  Tir  Mon,  Anglesey ;  the  Moiia  of  Tacitus ;  called  also 
Mon  mam  Cymru,  or  Mon  the  Mother  of  Wales,  for  its  plenty. 
See  my  notes  on  Mon  in  Diet.  Dr.  Davies.     See  Anglesey, 

40 


314  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

• 

MoN  Fynydd,  a  name  of  Anglesey  to  distinguish  it  from  the 
other  Hon  or  Monaw,  the  Isle  of  Man,  the  first  being  Mbtintain 
Mon,  the  other  Sea  Mon,  or  Mon  in  the  Sea. 

MoR,  the  sea,  used  in  names  of  some  places  and  people  ; 
as,  Uannerch  y  Mor ;  Glan  y  Mor ;  Dinmor  or  Dingmor ;  Ar  y 
Mor  XJcha,  i,  e,,  Aremorica  in  Gaul.  Morinwyr,  i.  e,,  Morini  (k 
mor  and  Bhin). 

Mr.  Edward  liwyd  says  that  mor  and  mdr  and  m^r  anciently 
signified  water  as  well  as  sea,  as  does  llyr  also ;  and  in  order  to 
prove  this,  that  Ogmor,  the  name  of  a  river  in  Glamoi^nshire 
and  in  Caernarvonshire,  means  eogmor,  or  salmon-water;  and 
that  Marias,  a  river  in  Garmarddenshire,  and  Morlas,  a  river  in 
Glamorganshire,  are  of  the  same  origin;  and  that  m^r  in  the 
word  cymmer  signifies  water,  and  in  mSrhelig  or  water-willow. 

All  these  are  guesses,  but  backed  by  no  manner  of  authorities. 
As  such  positions  as  these  tend  to  confound  all  languages  by 
making  one  word  to  run  through  all  the  vowels,  which  etymolo- 
gists are  too  apt  to  do  when  they  are  at  a  loss  for  the  derivation 
of  a  word,  we  '11  see  what  can  be  said  to  the  contrary,  so  that 
every  word  may  keep  its  own  primitive  sound,  as  the  wise 
founders  of  languages  certainly  intended  they  should,  and  as  the 
nature  of  things  requires.  Ogmor  might  signify  the  greatest  Og, 
if  there  is  another  hard  by,  or  runs  into  it,  that  was  called  Og- 
fach,  as  Dwyfor  and  Dwyfach,*  near  Criccieth  in  Caemarvou- 
shire ;  for  mav^r  in  composition  is  often  pronounced  mor,  as 
Coetmor  for  Goedmawr ;  Mordaf,  a  man's  name,  for  Mawrdda ; 
and  Mordaf,  a  river  in  Shropshire,  as  Mr.  Ilwyd  confesses,  sig- 
nifies a  great  brook,  which,  by  the  by,  means  the  great  Tav,  as 
no  doubt  there  is  a  little  Tav  hard  by  [not  to  my  knowledge. — 
W.  2?.].  But  the  true  name  of  the  river  which  in  our  times 
they  called  Ogmore,  is  Ogwr.  So  the  whole  argument  has  no 
foundation.    Glyn  Ogwr,  etc. 

Mob  ap  Pasgen  ap  Uried  Eeged. 

M6r  Awst,  the  mouth  of  the  Severn,  q.  d.  Augustus's  sea.  A 
street  in  Caermarthen  called  Heol  Awst. 

M6b  Mawb  (Y),  the  great  sea  or  ocean. 

M8b  Mabw  (Y),  (this  is  said  to  be  the  only  word  extant  of 
the  language  of  the  ancient  Cimbrians,  produced  by  Pliny  out 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  315 

of  Philemon, — Morimmntsa),  the  Dead   Sea   (Camden) ;    and 
H.  Uwyd  before  him,  which  he  doth  not  own. 
M6k  Hafren,  the  Severn  Sea,  Bristol  Channel. 

O  Lydaw  o  draw  o  drwy  Mor  Hafren. 

Prydydd  y  Moch,  i  Ln.  ap  lorwerth. 

M6r  Ucha  (Y),  the  upper  sea.  This  was  the  ancient  Celtic  or 
Gaulish  name  of  the  sea  between  Gaul  and  Britain,  and  the 
inhabitants  on  that  sea-coast  were  called  Gwyr  ar  y  mor  ucha, 
which  was  Latinized  AreTnorica.  This  sea  was  by  the  Irish 
called  Muimict  (Flaherty,  p.  403),  and  by  Latin  writers  Maris 
Ictii;  and  Calis,  its  chief  sea-port  was  called  Tortus  Icdas 
(H.  Llwyd,  Brit  Descr.),  naturally  enough  made  out  of  Forth 
Ucha;  and  the  Armoricans  are  called  in  Irish  Armuirich.  See 
Armorica, 

MORACH  MORFRAN. 

Pan  fii  gyfeddacb  Forach  Forfran. — Hirlas  Owen. 

MoRBEN.     Ehisiart  Owen  or  Morben. 
MoRDA  and  Mordaf  (n.  pr.  v.).     Several  men  of  this  name, 
both  Irish  and  Welsh.     Hence  Ilanvorda. 

Llaw  Forda  rasol  Haw  Fair  drosoch. — Tudur  Aled. 

Mordaf  Hael,  one  of  the  three  generous  men  of  Britain.  He 
was  the  son  of  Servan.     (Tr.  8.) 

MoRDAi,  a  man^s  name  in  Hoianau  Myrddin. 

MoRDEiRN  (n.  pr.  v.),  rectfe  Mordeym. 

MoRDEiRN  Sant,  yn  Nantglyn.  I  have  a  poem  in  praise  of 
this  saint  by  Davydd  ap  Lin.  ap  Madog.  The  poet  makes  him 
a  grandson  of  Cunedda  Wledig,  and  son  of  a  king,  and  a  relation 
of  Dewi  Sant.     His  legend  is — 

"  When  many  of  thy  relations  of  the  20,000  saints  went  to 
Ynys  Enlli,  a  causeway  arose  out  of  the  sea,  and  suffered  them 
to  go  to  the  island ;  and  when  the  sea,  after  their  passing  over, 
overflowed  the  place^  thou  went  on  thy  golden-maned  horse 
over  the  waters  without  wetting  a  hoof;  and  from  thence  thou 
had  thy  name,  Mordeim  [the  sovereign  of  the  sea. —  W.  J?.] 
Thou  wert  a  confessor,  and  thy  home  is  in  the  valley  of  Nant- 
glyn,  where  thou  hast  a  house  and  a  sacrifice  (dberth),  and  thy 
grave  is  there,  and  thy  curious  image  which  gives  health  to  the 


316  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

sick.  Thou  art  a  blessed  doctor,  curing  pain,  deafness,  blindness, 
the  mad  and  dumb,  preserving  the  person's  cattle  for  a  year  that 
visits  thy  tomb.  Several  gifts  of  wax  and  gold  are  brought 
thee." 

The  fryers  had  a  share  with  him  of  these  presents  we  may 
suppose. 

MoREiDDio  or  MoRiDDiG  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Oedd  rym  gwr  Moreiddig  ynn 
Oedd  garw  Moreiddig  Warwyn. 

Bh.  lorwerth^  i  Sir  W.  Vychan. 

MoRFAWR  ap  Gaden  ap  Cynan, — an  id.  Mor  ? 

MORFIL  or  MoRFUL,  a  parish  in  Penbrokeshire. 

MORFRAN  (n.  pr.  v.). 

MoRFRAN,  father  of  Myrddin  Wyllt. 

MoRFliAN,  a  poet  mentioned  by  Cynddelw  Brydydd  Mawr. 

MoRFRAN,  mab  Tegit,  a  man  so  notoriously  deformed  that  he 
escaped  in  the  battle  of  Camlan  fix)m  being  killed  because  they 
thought  he  was  the  Devil.  (Tr.  85.)  Morfran  eil  Tegit.  (Tr,  29.) 
See  Hanes  Taliesin  in  prose.  The  poetical  story  is  this:  He 
was  so  ill  favoured  in  his  youth  that  his  mother,  Caridwen, 
being  well  skilled  in  chymistry  and  philosophy,  and  intending 
to  give  him  some  qualifications  of  the  mind,  as  he  had  none  of 
the  body,  gathered  all  manner  of  plants  which  she  knew  would 
make  a  decoction  of  that  virtue  as  to  make  him  a  poet  and  an 
orator.  Gwion  Bach,  the  poet,  happening  to  come  by,  was 
employed  to  attend  the  fire  of  this  chymical  process,  and,  watich- 
ing  the  critical  minute,  ran  away  with  the  virtue  of  the  decoc- 
tion ;  who  afterwards,  by  the  transmigration  of  his  soul,  became 
Taliesin  the  poet,  who,  like  Pythagoras,  remembered  himself  to 
have  been  Gwion  Bach,  Myrddin  Emrys,  and  great  many  other 
learned  men,  and  all  his  transmigrations  before  he  came  to  be 

Taliesin,  beginning 

Prif  fardd  cyffredin 

YdwyfiElphin, 
foolishly  called  the  errors  of  Taliesin  by  Nicolson,  etc. 

MORFYD. 

MoRGAiN,  a  woman's  name.  There  was  a  lady,  a  noble  matron 
of  this  name,  called  Morgain  le  Fay,  a  relation  of  King  Arthur 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  317 

(probably  the  Abbess  of  Glastonbury),  who  conveyed  the  body 
of  King  Arthur  after  the  battle  of  Camlan,  and  buried  it  in 
Ynys  Avallon.  Giraldus  Cambrensis  says  the  Britons  in  their 
songs  feigned  this  Morgain  to  be  a  goddess  who  understood  the 
cure  of  Arthur,  who,  when  he  recovers,  is  to  reign  over  them 
again.     (See  Sir  John  Price,  p.  131.) 

Morgan  and  Morgant  (n.  pr.  v.),  the  same  with  Cynvor ;  Ir., 
Keanmdr ;  Arm.,  Penfras ;  and  Greathead.     {E.  Llwyd) 

Pwylla  Forgant  ef  a'i  wyr. — Llywarch  Hen. 

Neu'r  orwydd  yngorenw  Morgant 
Ar  filwyr  Prydain  pedrydant. 

Prydydd  y  Moch,  i  Ln.  ap  lorwerth. 

Morgan  ap  Arthal,  the  39th  King  of  Britain. 

Morgan  Mwyn  Vawr,  i.  e.,  Great  Morgan  the  Kind ;  un  o't 
tri  rhuddfoawc  Ynys  Brydain.     {Tr.  25.) 

Carr  Morgan  Mwyn  Vawr  was  one  of  the  thirteen  rarities  of 
Britain, — un  o'r  tri  thlws  ar  ddeg.  Any  one  sitting  in  this 
chariot  or  chaise,  and  wishing  himself  in  any  place,  was  there 
immediately.  It  seems  this  was  a  common  and  free  chariot 
kept  by  this  generous  man,  or  some  kind  of  a  carriage  of  that 
nature. 

Morgan  Morganwg.  Bedd  Morgan  Morganwg,  between  Mar- 
gam  and  CynflBg,  where  the  inscription  is  of  Pumpeius  Caranto- 
pius.  {Camden  and  Llwyd)  This  name  was  by  the  ancients 
wrote  Morgant. 

Morgant  Vychan  ap  Morgant  ap  Howel. 

Morganwg,  Gwlad  Forgan,and  Gwlad  Morganwg,  the  country 
called  in  English,  by  corruption,  Glamorgan,  for  Gwladmorgan : 
so  named  from  Morgan,  a  Prince  of  that  country.  Camden 
would  derive  it  from  m6r,  the  sea,  because  it  lies  on  the  sea,  and 
says  that  some  would  derive  it  from  a  monastery  there.  Had 
not  the  country  a  name  before  the  use  of  monasteries  ?  And 
why  is  not  Penbrokeshire  and  aU  other  countries  on  the  sea 
called  Morganwg  ?  And  lastly,  why  should  not  a  national  tradi- 
tion take  place  before  Mr.  Camden^s  guesses  ? 

MoRGENEU  Ynad,  ap  Madog. 

MoRGENEY  (n.  pr.  v.),  or  Urgeney ;  perhaps  Gwrgeneu.  {Cara- 
doc  in  Edwal  ap  Meyric.) 


318  CELTIC   REMAINS. 

MoRHAiAEN  Sant.  The  church  of  Trewalchmai  in  Anglesey 
is  dedicated  to  him.     (Br.  Willis.) 

MoRiAL  ap  Cyndrwjm.  {Llywarch  Ren  in  Marwnad  Cyndy- 
lan.) 

MORIDDIG  ap  Sandde  Hardi 

MoRiEN,  a  man.    Tir  Morien,  Morien's  land. 

Adar  Mair  o  dir  Morien 
Dyma  sail  o  Domas  Hen. 

D.  cup  Edmtont,  i  Domes  Salbri  o  Leweni. 

Marw  Morien  mur  inn. 

Ojlf,  Myrddin  a  Qwenddydd. 

MomNWYR  (k  Tjvor,  the  sea ;  Bhin,  the  Shine ;  and  gwyr,  men), 
the  people  inhabiting  between  the  river  Bhine  and  the  sea,  called 
by  Bede  (1.  i,c.  1)  Morini,  A  colony  of  these  came  over  in  ancient 
times,  and  settled  about  Portland  in  Dorsetshire,  and  were  called 
by  the  Britons  by  a  name  equivalent  to  Morini,  Bwrdrigmyr. 
See  Dwrotriges. 

MoRLAis,  river,  Ehyd  Morlas,  where  GwSn,  son  of  Llywarch 
Hen,  was  killed  by  the  Saxons. 

MoRLAis  is  also  the  name  of  a  river  in  Glamorganshire,  and 
signifies  mawr  lais,  or  great  sound ;  and  it  is  possible  that  Cym- 
mer  may  be  a  mistake  for  Cymmar  or  Cydmar,  a  fellow ;  q.  d. 
fellow  rivers,  or  the  confluence  of  rivers.  Mirhelyg  may  be  for 
their  softness  and  pliable  nature  beyond  other  willows,  may  be 
called  so,  as  the  marrow  of  willows,  which  is  the  meaning  of 
m&r  in  the  British. 

MoRLAis  Castle  in  Morganwg,  near  the  confines  of  Breck- 
nockshire [about  three  miles  north-east  of  Merthyr  Tudful,  on  as 
bold  a  situation,  on  a  high  hill,  as  any  inland  castle  in  Wales. 
Steepness  on  one  side,  and  Taf  Fechan  on  the  other,  and  deep 
trenches  cut  in  the  solid  rock.  It  forms  an  irregular  pentagon. 
All  the  works  within  and  without  the  trench  include  an  acre  of 
ground. —  W.  D!\ 

MoRLAix,  in  Britanny  in  France,  and  the  surname  of  the 
family  of  Morley,  from  Morlais  Castle  in  Morganwg  (Ji  matar- 
lais).     See  Bhyd  Forlas. 

MoRRAN :  see  Catrvon^an. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  319 

Morris,  Maurice,  Morice,  Moris,  is  a  modem  name  in  Wales, 
as  some  say  from  the  British  Mawr  rwysg,  but  more  probably 
from  the  Latin  Mauritius,  for  it  is  not  to  be  met  with  in  very 
ancient  manuscripts. 

MoRTXJN  (n.  1.  in  Cylchau  Cymru),  Moreton.  Sandde  Hardd 
o  Fortun.    [Ehedyn  Mortun^  near  Maesir. — TT.  D.] 

MoRUDD  (n.  pr.  v.). 

Y  mae  eryr  fal  Mdrndd 

A  Hew  yn  Ed  a  Haw  Nndd. — letuin  Brydydd  Hir. 

Hence  Caer  Porudd,  corruptly  Caer  Forwyn. 

MoRUDD,  the  29th  King  of  Britain. 

MdRUDD^  corruptly  Morrudd,  the  Channel  between  Britain  and 
Gaul ;  from  mdr,  sea.,  and  udd,  king ;  i.  e,,  the  king^s  sea. 

Fy  nhafawd  yn  frawd  ar  Frython 

O  For  Udd  hyd  For  Iwerddon. — Prydydd  y  Moch, 

Bhoist  ar  gythlwng  rhwystr  gwythlawn 
Ar  For  Udd  aerfa  fawr  iawn. 

lolo  Ooehy  to  Edward  lU. 
Oelyn  fuost  i'r  Gbilais  (i.  6.,  Calais). 

M6r-Eudd,  the  Red  Sea  (Br.  Davies) ;  the  British  Sea  says 
D.  Llwyd  ap  Llewelyn  ap  GrufFudd. 

MoRWERTDD.  Camden  (in  Lothien)  says  that  the  EiUogium 
(i.e.,Nennius)  calls  Edenborough  Frith  Morwiridh  ;  but  this  must 
be  examined  into,  for  Morwerydd  is  Solway  Frith,  and  called  so 
because  opposite  to  Ireland,  q.  d.  Mor  y  Werddon.  This  is  a 
slip  of  Mr.  Camden,  for  Nennius  doth  not  mention  Morwerydd ; 
but  perhaps  it  is  another  Eulogium.  Ehun  ap  Maelgwn  landed 
with  his  fleet  after  he  had  chased  the  fleet  of  the  northern 
princes  who,  with  Elidir  Mwynfawr,  had  come  to  North  Wales 
to  claim  the  crown  in  right  of  his  wife.  So  that  it  could  by  no 
means  be  Edenborough,  which  is  on  the  Grerman  Ocean.  See 
Fenrhyn  Shumydd.  See  also  Camden  in  the  beginning  of  his 
description  of  Ireland,  where  he  calls  the  Irish  Sea  Morweridd. 
H.  Llwyd  Latinizes  it  Mare  Virginis  or  Mare  Hibemicum.  See 
Fwerddon. 

MoRWYDD,  daughter  of  Urien  Eeged.    (IV.  52.) 

MosTONE,  in  Doomsday  Book,  corruptly  for  Mostyn  in  Flint- 
shire. 


320  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

MosTUK  and  Mostyn,  nomen  loconim  et  virorum. 

Llaw  Daw'n  lal  lie  doe  yn  nn 

Llew  aur  feistr  a  Uoer  Fostnn. — WtUam  Lleyn. 

ond  gressyn,  yn  bjw 

Na  bai  Domas  Mostyn. — W,  Lleyn. 

MosTYN,  the  name  of  a  place  in  Flintshire ;  and  since  Henry 
Villus  time,  as  Camden  says,  is  the  surname  of  the  family 
that  have  since  enjoyed  it.  These  are  his  words :  ''An  ancient 
worshipful  gentleman  of  Wales  being  called  at  the  pannel  of 
jury  by  the  name  of  Thomas  ap  William  ap  Thomas  ap  Bichard 
ap  Hoel  ap  Evan  Vaughan,  etc.,  was  advised  by  the  judge  to 
leave  that  old  manner,  whereupon  he  after  called  himself  Mos- 
ton,  according  to  the  name  of  his  principal  house,  and  left  that 
surname  to  his  posterity."     (Camden,  JRemains,  p.  145.) 

MowDDWY,  part  of  Powys  Wenwynwyn.  Llan  y  Mowddwy, 
a  parish  and  church  in  Merionethshire,  said  to  be  once  part  of 
the  deanery  of  Cyfeiliog.    St.  Tydeoho.    See  BiTias  y  Mowddwy, 

MuGNACH  GoRR,  father  of  Fflur. 

MuNiciP.  Caer  Municip  [Nennivs),  Verulamium,  now  St. 
Alban's. 

MuR,  a  wall  (Lat  mwms),  in  the  names  of  places.  Hendre'r 
Mur,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Trawsfynydd,  in  Meirion;  and  qu. 
whether  Mirmantun  in  Nennius  be  not  of  the  same  origin,  Mur- 
maendin,  because  enclosed  with  a  stone  walL 

Mur  Sever,  Severus's  WalL    See  Gwal  Sever. 

MuRDDiN,  i.  6.,  Caer  Vyrddin ;  supposed  by  some  of  the  same 
origin. 

MlJRNACH :  see  Umach  and  Caer  Fumach. 

Mtjrcastell,  a  place  on  the  borders  of  North  Wales.  (Powel, 
Oaradoc,  p.  173.)  Thus  far  came  Henry  I  with  all  the  power 
of  England,  Scotland,  and  Cornwall,  against  Gruffudd  ap  Cynan, 
AJ).  1113,  to  Pennant  Bachwy;  but  peace  was  made.  See 
Bachttry, 

MuROTRiGES,  Somersetshire. 

MwG  Mawrdrbfydd,  a  Saxon  Prince,  father  of  Gwyllty  Dra- 
hawg,  and  son  of  Ossa  Gyllell  Fawr,  who  fought  with  Arthur  in 
Mynydd  Baddon, — the  battle  on  Badon  Hill,  a.d.  520,  0.  C. 

MwNCTON,  q.  d.  Monkstown,  near  Pembroke  town. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  321 

MwRETF,  a  country  in  North  Britain,  called  also  Beget,  of 
which  Urien  Beged,  King  of  that  country,  took  his  cognomen. 
See  Urien  JReged.  Here  the  Scots  and  Picts  had  three  battles 
with  King  Arthur.  '  (Tyssilio.) 

MwROG  Sant.  Llanfwrog  in  Denbighshire  and  Anglesey;  also 
Bodfwrog,  a  church,  vulgo  Bodwrog. 

MwsOGLEN  or  MwsoGLAN  (n.  1.),  in  Anglesey. 

MwTNDEG,  I  suppose  an  appellative,  for  I  find  it  explained 
thus :  Davydd  i  gelwid  y  Mwyndeg  yn  iawn  enw  a  hwnnw  (the 
author)  oedd  Lewis  Aled. 

MwYNFAWR.     Morgant  Mwynfawr, 

MwYTHiG :  see  Amwj/thig,  q.  d.  Amwyddig. 

Mychdeyrn,  a  prince. 

Myr  meddgyni  mychdeyrn  MecbaiD. 

Cyndddwy  i  Yw.  Cyfeiliog. 
Myddwy  river.     See  Dinfyddwy, 

Myddpai  (fl.),  falls  into  Towi,  qu.  ? 

Myddfai,  a  village  near  LlanamddyM  in  Gaermarthenshire. 

See  Meddygon  Myddfai.    Fairs  kept  here. 

Myfanwy,  vulgo  Myddanwy,  verch  Llewelyn  ap  Ywain,  or 

Mefanwy. 

O  fynaig  byd  rwymgwyd  rwy 

O  fynor  Glaer  ,Pefanwy. — Rowel  ap  EigHian, 

Mytybian,  a  gentlemcm's  seat,  Anglesey. 

Mygit.    Caer  Mygit.   (2V.)    See  Meivad. 

Myllin  Sant.  UcmvyUin  in  Powysland.  See  Melchin.  Gam- 
den  says  he  is  fully  persuaded  that  this  is  the  Mediolanum  of 
Antoninus  and  Ptolemy;  for  Millano  in  Italy,  Le  Million  in 
Xantoigne,  and  Methlan  in  the  Low  Gountries,  were  also  called 
Mediolanum.  {Camden  in  Montgomeryshire.)  Mr.  Edward 
Uwyd  in  his  notes,  after  praising  Mr.  Gamden  for  his  ingenuity, 
disagrees  with  him,  and  places  Mediolanum  at  Meivod,  three 
miles  south  of  Llanvyllin,  a  mile  below  Matliraval,  on  the  north 
side  of  the  river  Mymwy,  where  Dr.  Powell  had  placed  it  in  his 
notes  on  Oiraldus  Gambrensis,  before  Gamden  wrote  his  Britan- 
nia. Meivod,  as  Bishop  Usher  supposes,  is  called  by  Nennius 
Gaer  Metguod ;  but  what  the  words  Meguid,  Metguod,  Meivod, 
or  Mediolanum^  might  signify  is  hardly  intelligible  (says  Mr. 

41 


322  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Llwyd)  at  present ;  at  leastwise  I  cannot  discern  (says  he)  the 
modem  British  affords  us  any  information  concerning  the  origin 
of  these  names.  (E.  Llwyd,  Notes  on  Oamden,  Montgomeryshire.) 
But  see  Meivod,  and  perhaps  you  may  be  informed. 

Mtllteyrn,  a  parish,  Caemaryonshire.    See  Edeym, 

Mymbyr  or  Membyr,  a  man's  name.  Caer  Fjnoabyr,  Coventry, 
{Tho8,  Williams.)  Ffynnon  Fymbyr,  a  lake  near  the  Gludair, 
within  a  mile  of  Troed  y  Widdfa.  The  water  of  this  lake  runs 
through  two  other  lakes,  and  so  to  Capel  Curig,  and  so  to  the 
river  Llugwy.     See  my  map. 

Mynach,  a  river  in  Cardiganshire.  Pont  ar  Fjnwujh,  the 
DeviPs  Bridge. 

Mynaich  or  Mynych,  vulgo  Manachod ;  in  English,  monks. 
Llan  y  Mynych,  church  and  parish,  Shropshire.  Tir  y  Mynych, 
a  lordship,  Cardiganshire.  Mynachdy  or  Monachdy,  t.  e.,  mcmk's 
house,  places  where  monasteries  have  been. 

Mynach  Nowmon,  or  Manach  Nowmod,  Elidir  Mwynfawr's 
counsellor.     {Tr.  Jf.l.) 

Mynan.    Mael  Mynan. 

Myngan  (n.  pr.  v.).    Cyrchu  Myngan  o  Veigen.     {Tr.  63.) 

Mynguy,  wrote  anciently  for  Mynwy. 

Mynnau  and  Mynne,  the  Alps.    Mynydd  Mynnau.    (2V.  90.) 

Mynogan,  or  MoNOGAN,  or  Minocan  (as  Nennius),  the  69th 
King  of  Britain. 

Mynogi,  qu.  whether  a  pr.  n.  ? 

Am  Vadawc  mynawc  mynw  haeloni 
Medel  glyw  glewdraws  maws  Mynogi. 

Cynddelwy  i  Gad.  ap  Madog. 

Hydraws  bydraidd  maws  a  Mynogi. 

Llewelyn  Vardd^  i  EnUi. 

Mynydawc  Eydyn  (n.  pr.  v.),  at  the  battle  of  Cattraeth.  (Tr. 
36.)     See  Eydyn, 

Mynydd,  properly  a  mountain.  Cwmmwd  y  Mynydd,  one  of 
the  four  commots  of  Cantref  Gwent  in  Swydd  Gwent. 

Mynydd  Bannawc  :  see  Bannaxvc. 

Mynydd  Cadarn  (Y),  q.  d.  Montfort.  larll  y  Mynydd  Cadam 
a  3000  0  W3rr  a  laddodd  Drahaem  fal  y  caff&i  Eudaf  y  gorou. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  323 

(Brut  y  Brenhin.)  Gal&id,  in  the  Latin,  has  it  the  magistrate 
of  a  certain  privileged  town. 

Mynydd  Carn,  in  South  Wales,  where  a  battle  was  fought  for 
the  Principality  of  Wales  by  GrufFydd  ap  Cynan  and  Trahayam, 
A.D.  1079,  and  Trahaem  killed.  {MeiUr  Brydydd)  Called  by 
Caradoc  Mynydd  Camo ;  but  in  Oeslyfr,  Mynydd  Cam. 

Mynydd  Fawb  (Y),  a  mountain  in  Eryri. 

Mynydd  Gelli  Onnen  :  see  GMi  Onnen. 

Mynydd  Mihangel,  a  place  in  Armorica.     See  Bedd  Elen. 

Mynydd  Maon. 

Tin  yssjm  a  rown  Mynydd  Maon. — Hoian,  Myrddin, 

Mynydd  y  Drymmau,  by  Neath. 

Mynyw,  or  Menai,  or  Mbneu,  and  anciently  wrote  Menew 
{E.  Llwyd),  Menevia,  St  David's. 

Pennaf  i'th  famaf  i'th  fyw 
O  Fon  hyd  yn  nhy  lynyw. 

R.  LLwyd  ap  Bh.  ap  Bhiccert. 
See  ffen  Fynyw.    The  archbishop's  see  was  removed  by  Dewi 
from  Caerllion.     See  Ihfhricms. 

Mynwy,  Monmouth  town  in  Monmouthshire,  on  the  river 
Mynwy  (k  man  and  gwy,  says  Leland).    Fairs  are  kept  here. 

Lloegr  wrthryn  tra  llyn  Llwmynnwy. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  L.  ap  lorwertb. 

Myrngwy,  wrote  anciently  for  Mymwy. 

Myrnwy  river,  anciently  Myrngwy.  (Maravonia.  Dr,  PiywdL 
—W.  D)     See  YFymwy. 

Myrddin  (n.  pr.  v.).  There  were  two  noted  Britons  of  this 
name.    The  first  was 

Myrddin  Emrys,  called  Emreis  .  in  the  Triad  90,  a  great 
mathematician  and  philosopher,  who  flourished  about  the  year 
450.  He  was  a  Cambro-Briton,  and  born  at  Caer  F3a'ddin,  i,  e,, 
Caermarthen,  in  Wales.  His  mother  was  a  nun,  and  daughter 
to  the  King  of  Dyfed  or  Demetia.  His  father  was  probably  the 
abbot,  or  some  nobleman,  otherwise  his  mother  would  have  [been] 
prosecuted ;  but  she  Was  su£fered  to  conceal  his  father,  and  to 
give  out  that  he  was  begot  by  a  spirit  who  lay  with  her  in  her- 
sleep.  The  poets  call  him  Anap  y  Lleian ;  that  is,  the  mischance 
of  the  nun ;  which  Dr.  Davies,  in  his  Catalogue,  mistook  for  a 


324  OELTIC  BEMAINS. 

proper  namo,  and  wrote  it  An  ap  y  Lleian,  and  ao  haQ  Mr.  K 
Uwyd^  as  if  his  name  had  been  An  the  son  of  the  Nun ;  bat 
Lewis  Glyn  Cothi  explains  this : 

Tad  7  mab  nid  adnabu 
{Anap  ei/am)  neb  pwj  fa. 

JSome  Latin  writers  call  him  Merlinus  Ambrosias,  from  Aurelios 
Ambrose,  as  Sir  John  Prise  thinks  in  p.  10.  Kennius'  interpo- 
lator confounds  him  with  Aurelios  Ambrosius,  and  calls  him 
Embreys  Glautic ;  but  Emrys  Wledig  is  the  British  name  of  the 
King  Aurelios  Ambrosius ;  and  he  says  his  mother  was  afraid 
of  owning  the  father  lest  she  should  be  sentenced  to  die  for  it 
But  that  the  boy  owned  to  King  Vortigern  that  his  father  was 
a  Boman,  says  nothing  of  his  being  the  son  of  an  Incubus. 
{Eulag,  Brit.,  c.  42.)  He  says  that  King  Yortigem's  messengers 
found  him  *'  ad  Campum  Electi  in  regione  quae  vocatur  Olevi- 
sing"  Mr.  Edward  Llwyd  owns  he  *doth  not  know  any  places 
of  this  name  (Llwyd's  Note) ;  but  in  his  Notes  on  Flintshire 
there  is  a  place  of  this  name  mentioned. 

I  have  met  with  nothing  of  his  works  that  I  am  sure  is  his, 
except  some  political  prophecies  which  he  wrote,  no  doubt,  to 
serve  the  turn  of  the  reigning  Prince,  his  great  learning  and 
knowledge  in  philosophy,  mathematics,  and  mechanics,  having 
acquired  him  the  character  of  a  prophet.  These  prophecies  are 
chiefly  in  prose.  He  is  often  confounded  with  Myrddin  Wyllt 
the  poet.  He  is  called  Hot  or  Hod  Uthor  Bendragon  (TV.  32), 
on  o'r  tri  phrif  hod. 

He  was  called  Myrddin  from  the  town  Oaer  Fyrddin,  where 
he  was  bom,  which  is  the  Moridonom  of  Antoninos,  and  Mari- 
dunum  of  Ptolomy.  The  word  is  derived  from  myr,  the  seas,  and 
din,  a  fort,  as  Dr.  Davies  says ;  but  as  it  is  an  inland  town,  I 
take  this  derivation  to  be  bad,  for  it  is  not  urbs  marUima.  But 
qu.  whether  it  was  called  so  from  its  being  the  first  walled  town 
in  that  country, — Murddin,  i.  e.,  the  walled  fort, — or  from  the 
river  Byrddin  ? 

Myrddin  Emrys's  address  in  persuading  Uthur  Bendragon's 
army,  on  the  death  of  Emrys  Wledig,  that  a  comet  then  appear* 
ing  prognosticated  a  victory  over  the  Saxons,  gave  him  a  great 
character  among  them ;  for  upon  this  they  believed  Heaven 


J 


CELTIC  B£MAIN8.  325 

took  their  part,  came  to  battle  with  the  Saxons,  and  beat  them. 
See  lolo  Goch's  Cywydd  y  Seren. 

Nennius  says  that  Gwrtheym,  on  his  leaving  North  Wales 
and  his  going  to  fortify  himself  at  Caer  Gwrtheym,  gave  Myr- 
ddin  the  castle  he  had  built  in  Eryri,  and  all  the  provinces  of 
the  west,  country  of  Britain :  "  Cum  omnibus  provinciis  plagse 
occidentalis  Britanniss"  (Nennius,  c.  44.) ;  and  he  and  his  magi 
(wise  men  or  poets)  went  to  the  country  of  Gwenesi  (Gwenwys). 
The  King  had  been  excommunicated  by  Garmon,  who  hunted 
him  from  place  to  place ;  and  we  find  a  chapel  of  his  (Cappel 
Garmon)  even  in  Eryri,  which  might  be  the  cause  of  his  leaving 
his  castle  to  Myrddin ;  and  also  the  title  of  being  chief  poet  or 
peniardd  (prophet  or  chief  herald,  or  prif-fardd,  as  the  Triades 
calls  him)  of  the  western  parts  of  Britain ;  or,  as  other  MSS., 
anvyddfardd,  a  herald  of  arms.  Penbardd,  prif-fardd  (poet  and 
prophet),  were  synonymous  terms  among  the  Britons ;  and  the 
arwyddfardd  was  the  herald  to  treat  about  peace. 

Nennius  could  not  mean  that  he  gave  him  the  dominion  of 
the  countries,  or  else  J^here  would  have  been  no  occasion  to  give 
him  one  castle  if  he  had  power  over  all  the  castles.  But  he  made 
him  an  arwyddfardd,  or  herald,  for  the  west  part  of  Britain. 
See  Jo.  David  Rhys'  Orammar. 

The  second  Myrddin  was 

Myrddin  ap  Morfryn  {Tr.  70),  and  generally  Myrddin  Wyllt, 

by  Latin  writers  called  Merlinus  Sylvestris  and  Galedonius ;  so 

called  because  after  the  misfortune  of  killing  his  own  nephew, 

son  of  his  sister  Gwenddydd,  he  grew  mad,  or  pretended  to  be 

so.    We  have  a  tradition  that  his  madness  affecting  him  but 

every  other  hour, 

Awr  oi  g6f  gan  Ddnw  ry  gai 

Awr  ymhell  yr  amhwyllai. — leuan  Byfi, 

He  was  bom  in  Caer  Werthefsm,  which  is  called  Tref  Myrddin 
ap  Morfryn  (MS,) ;  and  it  seems  he  had  great  property  there, 
which  he  lost  in  the  war  between  his  lord,  Gwenddolau  ap 
Oeidio,  and  Aeddan  Yradwg,  against  Bhydderch  HaeL  This  town 
was  in  or  near  the  Forest  of  Caledonia  in  Scotland,  from  whence 
he  was  named  by  some  writers  JferZi7ii£8  Galedonius;  and  thence 
arose  the  mistake  of  some  in  attributing  some  of  his  works  to  a 


326  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

third  Merlin.  He  flourished  about  the  year  560.  See  Canon 
CynUaith, 

I  have  seen  abundance  of  MSS.  containing  some  of  this  poet's 
works  dispersed  all  over  Wales ;  and  though  he  wa9  a  Pictisk 
Britain,  and  wrote  so  long  ago,  his  works  are  intelligible  to  a 
person  that  is  tolerably  versed  in  the  Welsh.  The  troubles  and 
civil  wars  in  Scotland  drove  him  to  Wales ;  and  we  have  dia- 
logues in  verse  between  him  and  Taliessin^  the  Gwynethian 
poet.     Ymddiddan  rhwng  M}rrddin  a  Thaliessin. 

He  was  buried  in  the  Isle  of  Enlli  (Bardsey),  where  there  was 
a  college  of  Manachod  Cwjlau  duon,  black-cowled  monks  (Coli- 
dean  monks).     See  Enlli, 

Myrddin.  Caervyrddiu,  a  town  in  that  part  of  West  Wales 
called  now,  in  English,  Caermarthenshire ;  by  the  natives,  Caer- 
vyrddiu. This  is  the  Muridunum  of  Antoninus,  and  the  Man- 
dunum  of  Ptolomy;  and  Camden  says  that  the  copyists  of 
Antoninus  have  confounded  two  journeys, — one  from  Galena  to 
Isca,  and  the  other  from  Maridunum  to  Viroconovium.  It  gave 
name  to  Myrddin  Emrys  the  poet  and  jnathematician,  com- 
monly called  the  Magician ;  and  Camden,*  by  way  of  sneer,  calls 
him  jra^e«,after  Tages  the  Tuscan  soothsayer.  &qq  Myrddin  Emrys. 

It  is  probable  the  town  and  castle  was  called  so  from 
being  the  first  waUed  town  in  that  country,  Murddin  or  Mur- 
ddinas.  Some  think  from  myr,  plural  of  mor,  the  sea.  If  so, 
why  are  not  all  towns  near  the  sea  called  Myrddin  ?  Einion  ap 
Gwgawn,  in  mentioning  the  taking  of  Caerfyrddin  by  Llewelyn 
ap  lorwerth,  says, "  A  thrychiad  gwerin  Caerfyrddin  faen*';  i.  e., 
the  stone  castle  called  Caerfyrddin.  Or  perhaps  so  called  from 
a  brook  called  Byrddin  (if  there  be  such)  falling  there  into  the 
Towi,  for  there  are  rivers  of  that  name.  From  Byrddin  comes 
Caer  Fyrddin.    Other  derivations  are  strained.    See  Byrddin. 

Mtsen  :  see  Moesen. 

Mysetn,  a  mesne  lordship  in  Morgannwg.  (Potoel.)  See  Afeys- 
cyn,  a  conmiot. 

Mtvtb,  a  mountain  mentioned  by  Lly  warch  Hen  in  Marwnad 

Gyndylan: 

Bhyddwyu  a  Myvyr  a  Berwyn. 

See  also  Hanesyn  Flodeuog,  Arch,  Brit,,  p.  262. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  327 


N. 

Naf  or  Naw  (n.  pr.  v.).  Naf,  father  of  Gwenwynwyn  the 
admiral.     {Tr.  20.) 

Naich,  arglwyddiaeth  Tomos  ap  Roger. 

Naint,  river ;  qu.  Nantes  in  Gaul  of  this  origin  ? 

Nanconwy,  from  Nant 

Nanheudwy.  Here  Cadwallon  ap  Gr.  ap  C)man  was  slain  by 
Eneon  ap  Owen  ap  Edwyn,  a.d.  1132.  (Powet)  Part  of  Powys 
Vadog. .  It  is  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantre'  Bhaiadr,  the 
other  two  being  Mochnant  is  Ehaiadr  and  Cynllaeth.  (Price's 
Descr)  Castell  Dinas  Bran  is  in  the  commot  of  Nanheudwy, 
and  Chirk  Castle,  or  Castell  Crogen,  is  in  the  commot  of  Nan- 
heudwy. (»7.  D.) 

O  Ddyfnaint,  o  naint,  o  Nanheudwy 
0*r  tir  a  fernir  wrth  y  Fymwy. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Ln.  ap  Qruffydd. 

Nanhoeunain,  river. 

Arf  eryf  eryr  Nanhoywnain. — Cynddelw,  i  0.  Gwynedd. 

Nanhwynain,  river  and  parish  in,  Meirion.     See  Nanmor. 
Nanhyfer,  a  place  mentioned  by  Meilir  Brydydd  in  the  year 
1079,  in  Ireland. 

Pobl  anhy faith  Nanhyfer. — Meilir  Brydydd. 

Also  NanhyfSer  in  Dyfed ;  qu.  Nevern  ?  {L.  01,  Cothi)   [Nevem 
in  Scotland.—  W,  2?.] 

Nanmor,  or  Nantmor,  or  Nantmawr,  a  river,  etc.,  in  the  parish 
of  Nanhwynain  in  Meirion.  From  hence  the  poet  Davydd  Nan- 
mor took  his  name ;  and  there  is  a  tradition  that  a  disciple  of 
his  being  on  his  deathbed,  Davydd  asked  him  whether  he  would 
be  buried  in  Nanhwynain  or  in  his  own  parish,  which  was  a 
great  distance  ofT.  The  disciple  answered, "  I  desire  nothing  but 
to  have  this  englyn  cut  on  my  gravestone",  which  is  there  to  be 
seen  to  this  day  : 

Dyma  lie  *r  wyf  mewn  dam  wain  yn  gorwedd   . 
Dan  gerrig  Nanhwynain 
A  pham  waeth  i  wr  maeth  main 
Bridd  na'i  gilydd  ar  gelain. 


328  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

There  is  another  river  called  Nanmor  near  St.  David's,  from 
whence  the  poet  Bhys  Nanmor  took  his  name. 

Rhys  Nanmor  o  faenor  Fjnyw. 

Nannau,  Nenau  (n.  1.),  now  wrote  Nanney  (h  nant  and  gau,  t.  e,, 
a  hollow  vdley  or  hollow  brook),  the  seat  of  Wm.  Vaughan,  Esq., 
in  Merionethshire,  of  which  county  he  is  Member. 

Nannerch,  a  church  and  parish  in  Flintshire. 

Nant  and  Nan,  an  ancient  Celtic  word  signifying  in  North 
Wales  a  valley  about  a  river ;  in  South  Wales,  a  small  brook. 
It  is  found  in  the  composition  of  the  names  of  places  and  about 
rivers,  the  t  being  melted.  Nanmor,  Nanconwy,  Nanhwynain 
or  Nanhoywnain  {Af8.\,  Nannau,  etc.  Nant  y  Deiliau  in  Meirion. 
Small  brooks  in  South  Wales  are  Nant  y  Bwla ;  Nant  Mel,  Rad- 
norshire ;  Nant  Garedyn ;  Nant  Cwnlle ;  Nant  yr  Arian ;  Car- 
nant,  Brecon ;  Nant  y  Carr ;  Nant  Graianog.  The  poets  used 
it  for  a  valley  whether  there  was  a  river  or  no. 

A  mi'n  gynnar  yn  aros 

Gwen  yn  y  nant  gan  y  nos. — D.  ap  GvoUym, 

Comant  is  a  small  brook.  Creunant  Chapel,  Glamorganshire. 
Hirnant;  Creignant. 

Nant,  a  river  of  that  name.  Abemant,  Carmarthenshire; 
Cwm  ISajit  in  liannon,  Carmarthenshire. 

Nant  Glyn,  a  church  and  parish  near  Denbigh ;  also  a  place 
in  Anglesey.    Pronounced  Nanclyn. 

Nant  Bai,  in  Uanvair  y  Bryn,  Caermarthenshire. 

Nant  y  Niwl,  Penbrokeshire. 

Nant  y  Gallgwn,  Gaulbrooke.  {Tyssilio.)  Gallo  Broc,  Gallem 
Brec.    ( Virun.) 

Nant  y  Syddion,  Nant  y  Creiau,  Nant  yr  Hudol,  run  into 
the  river  Merin  in  Cardiganshire. 

Nant  y  Benglog. 

Nant  y  Cagal,  river  in  Genau'r  Glyn. 

Nant  y  Moch. 

Nant  Bran,  a  river  that  falls  into  the  Wysg. 

Nant  Glas  (Y). 

Nant  Ffrancon  :  see  Ffranco. 

Nant  y  Fran,  a  river  in  Anglesey. 

Nant  Mawr  and  Nant  Bychan,  rivers  in  Anglesey. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  329 

m 

Nant  Penkarn  :  see  Fcncam, 

Nant  Clwyd,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Rhuthyn  liand. 

Nant  Conwy  pi-o  Nant. 

Nant  Melan  (nomen  loci). 

Nant  yr  Arian,  or  Silver  Dale  Castle  in  Cardiganshire. 
(Powel,  p.  274,  A.D.  1215.)     Coginan,  I  suppose. 

•Nant  Mel  (nomen  loci)  in  Radnorshire. 

Nant  y  Cribaxj,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J.  D) 

Nassiens,  Eling  of  Denmark,  subject  to  Bang  Arthur.  (TV.  83.) 

Naw.     Gwenwynwyn  ap  Naw.     {E,  Llwyd) 

Nedd,  river,  or  Neth,  now  Neath,  in  Glamorganshira  The 
town  is  called  CasteU  Nedd.  Fairs  kept  here.  (Abernedd,  Pont 
Nedd.)  A  town  and  lordship  in  Morgannwg,  a  seaport  and  village. 
The  Abbey  of  Neath  is  on  this  river. 

Nefyn,  a  village  in  Caernarvonshire.  The  church  took  its 
name  from 

Nefyn,  a  woman's  name,  daughter  of  Brychan,  and  wife  of 
Cynfarch  Hen,  a  Prince  of  Scotland  {Tr.  52) ;  and  perhaps  a 
river  called  Nefyn.     See  Abemefydd. 

Nefydd.  Abernefydd,  where  Elidir  Mwynfawr  was  killed  by 
Ehun  ap  Maelgwn.     Perhaps  it  was  Abemefyn,  now  Nefyn. 

Nefydd  Hardd,  of  Cwmmwd  Nanconwy,  one  of  the  Fifteen 
Tribes  of  North  Wales ;  bore  argerU,  three  javelins  sable,  Llau 
Nefydd,  church  and  parish,  deanery  of  Rhos,  Denbighshire. 

Nefydd,  verch  Brychan,  gwraig  Tudwal  Bevyr,  santes  yn 
Uech  Gelyddon  Ymhrydyn,  i,  e.,  Scotland.  Hence  Llan  Nefydd. 

Neffei  ap  Brychan  Brycheiniog  o'r  Ysbaenes  =  Spanish 
woman.    Vid.  FfcMalL 

Negesawc,  a  courier  or  messenger. 

Bum  yn  negesawc. — Meilir  Brydn/ddy  Marwnad  Gr.  ap  Cynan. 

Neifion  (n.  pr.  v.),  qu.  Eneas  ?    See  Eifion. 

Y  nofiad  a  wnaeth  Neifion 

O  Droea  fawr  draw  i  Fon. — J),  ap  Edmund  (medd  Dr.  Davies). 

Ef  a  yrr  nifer  i  For  Neifion. — L,  O.  Cothi. 

Neinteirch  (fl.),  q.  d.  Naint  Eirch.  [Nant  Erch,  q.  d.  Erchyll, 
it  being  a  most  romantic,  rugged  place  in  Glyn  Ceiriog,  Den- 
bighshire.—  W,  J?.] 

42 


330  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Nemesis,  daughter  of  Jupiter  and  Necessitas,  a  Celtic  Princess, 
whose  name  in  the  Celtic  might  be  Anaws,  or,  as  the  ancients 
wrote,  Anamhis. 

Nemrwth  (n.  pr.  v.),  Nimiod.     {Sion  Ceri.) 

Nemrwth  gawr  ni  mjriaeth  gar. 

Nennius,  author  of  the  Euhgium.  Camden  (in  Ireland,  edit. 
Gibson,  1695)  calls  him  "  Ninnius,  a  very  ancient  author  and 
disciple  of  Elvodugus,  who  lived,  by  his  own  testimony,  in  the 
year  830,  under  Anaraugh,  King  of  Anglesey  and  Gwinetii". 
But  either  Camden  had  a  bad  memory  or  had  a  bad  copy  of 
Nennius,  for  in  that  at  Hengwrt,  compared  with  all  the  copies 
in  the  public  libraries,  etc.,  Nennius  says  he  wrote  under  Mer- 
vin,  King  of  the  Britains.  These  are  his  words :  "  858  Ano 
DmicaB  incarnationis  20  vero  4  Mervini  Eegis  Britonum  "  And 
as  for  Anaraugh,  it  is  the  name  of  no  king  nor  anybody  eke ; 
and  this  Merfyn  was  Merfyn  Frych,  father  of  Eodri  Mawr.  See 
Ninniaw  and  Merfyn.  Leland  says  he  had  seen  (with  much 
pains)  two  copies  of  Nennius  which  he  thinks  uncorrupted.  He 
takes  him  to  be  a  Briton  from  the  many  British  words  in  the 
History ;  that  Henry  of  Huntington  had  met  with  the  History, 
but  was  ignorant  of  the  author;  and  he  recites  out  of  him 
Arthur's  battles.  May  not  this  be  the  book  that  Lombard  says 
was  met  with  by  Huntington  at  Bee  in  Normandy  ?  {ScripL 
Brit,  c.  47.)     See  Samuel  Britanntcs. 

Neecwys,  a  chapel  in  the  diocese  of  St.  Asaph,  belongs  to 
Mold.     See  Pen  Erchwys, 

Nest  (n.  pr.  f.).  Camden  says  it  is  used  in  Wales  for  Agnes ; 
but  it  is  only  a  contraction  of  Onest,  i.  e.,  faithful,  pure.  Lat. 
Nesta. 

Nest  vereh  Howel  ap  Ehys  Gethin. 

Nest  verch  Rys  ap  Tewdwr. 

Nethan.    Edryd  ap  Neddan  neu  Nethan,  qu.  ? 

Nethy  (fl.),  recte  Neddi  (fl.);  hence  Abernethy,  a  town  of 
Perthshire  in  Scotland.    Lat.  Abemcethum. 

Neuadd,  used  in  the  names  of  places,  signifies  Lat.  atUa,  a 
hall ;  as,  T  Neuadd  Wen  ;  y  Neuadd  Lwyd ;  y  Neuadd ;  Neuadd 
Ma^n  Arthur. 


CELTIC  BEMxVINS.  331 

Neutu  ap  Bleddyn  ap  Gynfyn. 

Neuturvwr  vel  Neutur  Vawr  ap  Hedd. 

Never  or  Nevern,  rightly  Nanhyfer,  which  see.  Uwch  Nefer 
and  Is  Nefer  are  two  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Cemaes 
in  Dyfed,     (Price's  Descr.) 

Newent,  qu.  ? 

Newcastle,  the  English  name  of  a  town  in  Pembrokeshire 
[Carmarthenshire],  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Teivi ;  repaired, 
says  Camden,  by  Ehys  ap  Thomas,  a  stout  warrior,  who  assisted 
Henry  VII ;  and  that  the  English  gave  it  the  name  Elmlin,  as 
he  thinks,  from  elms,  for  that  llivyven  in  British  is  an  elm ;  and 
hence  he  thinks  the  Bomans  called  it  Loventium  of  the  Dimetse, 
mentioned  by  Ptolomy.  But  if  Mr.  Camden  had  known  that 
the  country  thereabouts  was  called  Emlyn  (one  of  the  eight  can- 
trefs  of  Dyfed)  many  ages  before  a  castle  was  built  here,  it 
would  have  saved  this  lame  guess.  The  Britons  call  this  town 
Y  Castell  Newydd  yn  Emlyn,  i.  e.,  the  New  Castle  in  Emlyn  ; 
and  the  Tirades  mentions  Glyn  Cuwch  yn  Emlyn  before  ever 
the  Saxons  saw  this  country.  This  Castle,  Ehys,  Prince  of 
South  Wales,  took  from  the  Normans  a.d.  1215,  etc. 

Newport,  in  Monmouthshire,  called  by  Giraldus  Novus  Bur- 
gus.  Hei'e  a  Boman  road  called  Julia  Strata  came,  as  the 
Necha...[?]  says. 

^Nhiniog,  or  Ynhiniog,  or  Anhiniog,  a  manor  in  Cardigan- 
shire, commonly  called  Cwmmwd  Anhiniog. 

I  'Nhiniog  olndogwledd 

Mi  af,  yno  mae  f  annedd. — P.  ap  leuan  Du, 

NiDAN  Sant  (ym  Mon)  ap  Gwrfyw.  This  knocks  Mr.  Bow- 
lands'  Aidan. 

NiNiAW  (n.  pr.  v.).  Niniaw,  son  of  Beli  Mawr,  mentioned  in 
BnU  y  Brenhinoedd  to  have  fought  with  Julius  Caesar  hand  to 
hand,  and  to  have  carried.  Caesar's  sword  from  him,  which  had 
stuck  in  Niniaw's  helmet  so  fast  that  Csesar  could  not  draw  it 
out.  But  though  Nyniaw  performed  great  feats  afterwards  with 
Caisar's  sword,  yet  the  wound  in  his  head  proved  mortal,  and 
he  died  in  fifteen  days,  to  the  great  loss  of  the  Britons.  The 
name  of  this  sword  was  Angau  Coeh,  i.  e.,  literally  Bed  Death, 


332  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

for  all  wounds  made  with  it  were  mortal  (Tyssilio,  Brut  y  Brenr- 
hinoedd,) 

NiNio ;  Lat.  Ninnius,  qu.  ap  Cynfrig  ? 

NiNNiAN  (Saint),  a  Britain,  Bishop  of  Candidae  Casae  (Eglwys 
Wen),  who  converted  the  Southern  Picts  as  far  as  the  mountain 
Grampus,  in  the  year  412.  {Bede.)  See  Flaherty,  p.  414  This 
was  in  Galloway,  which  was  part  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Cum- 
brian Britons ;  and  the  Saxon  name  of  the  place  was  Witehem, 
where  he  erected  a  monastery.  Died  432.  St.  Plebeias  was  his 
brother.  {Brit.  Sarict,  Sept.  16.)  This  Plebeias  is  called  by 
Leland  Plebenius. 

John  of  Tinmouth  says  he  was  a  son  of  a  prince  of  that 
country,  and  brought  up  from  his  infancy  in  the  Christian  faith. 
He  took  a  pilgrimage  to  Some  to  Pope  Damasus.  The  Pope 
made  him  Bishop,  and  sent  him  to  preach  to  the  infidels  in 
Britain.  In  his  way  home  he  called  with  St.  Martin  of  Tours, 
who  kindly  received  him.  Usher  says  he  was  called  by  the 
Scots  St.  Eingen.  This  monastery  was  in  the  province  of  the 
Bemicians;  in  the  hands  of  the  Saxons  when  Bede  wrote. 
Leland  says  that  Tudovaldus  was  King  of  the  Picts  at  this 
time ;  probably  Tudwal. 

NiNNiAW,  Lat,  Nennius,  Abbot,  as  is  said,  of  Bangor  is  y  Coed, 
wrote  a  history  of  the  Britons  in  the  Latin  tongue,  entitled,  in 
Hengwrt  Library,  Gildas  Nennius'  Eulogium  Brit  Insul. ;  and 
in  Oxford  Library,  Gildas  Minor.  He  wrote  in  the  twenty-fourth 
year  of  Mervyn  Frych,  which,  according  to  Caradoc,  began  to 
reign  a.d.  817,  and  was  killed  in  the  twenty-six  year  of  his  reign 
in  a  battle  with  the  Saxons.  So  that  Nennius  wrote  in  the  year 
841,  according  to  the  current  account  of  the  year  of  Christ,  which 
shews  the  Britons  had  a  different  account.  Nennius  makes  it  858. 

This  man*s  name  seems  to  have  been  Gildas,  but  surnamed 
Nennius  to  distinguish  him  from  the  elder  Gildas,  who  was  a 
North  Briton,  son  of  Caw  o  Brydyn.  Some  think  that  Gildas 
ap  Caw,  about  580,  was  the  author  of  this  Historia  Britanum, 
and  that  it  was  continued  by  Nennius,  and  by  Baelanus  and 
others  since ;  and  this  occasioned  the  mistake  of  several  writers 
quoting  this  Nennius  for  the  first  Gildas,  author  of  the  Epistle, 
and  of  PoL  Virgil  calling  him  the  Impostor  Gildas,  as  if  it  was 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  333 

impossible  for  the  Britons  to  produce  two  Gildases.  There  is  a 
curious  MS.  of  this  History  in  Hengwrt  Library,  in  Mr.  E. 
Vaughan  the  antiquarian's  own  hand^  compared  with  all  the 
MSS.  in  the  public  libraries  of  England,  etc.  Several  copies  of 
it  in  other  parts  of  Wales. 

NiWBWRCH,  a  town  in  Anglesey,  from  the  Saxon  Newburg. 

Noah,  the  father  of  all  mankind  at  the  Universal  Deluge, 
From  his  name  came  the  Celtic  novio,  to  swim ;  and  the  Lat. 
No^  the  Greek  Neo,  the  Armoric  noun,  the  Irish  STiavam  ;  and  all 
from  the  Hebrew  Noah,  to  swim.  From  hence  also  came  Nep- 
tune ;  in  the  Celtic,  Ndbhdhyvn,  swimmer  of  the  deep.  \N6bh^ 
tonn,  swimmer  of  the  wave. —  W.  J9.] 

Nob.    Thus  the  Welsh  poets  wrote  the  name  of  Noah  in  one 

syllable. 

Llefain  mal  Uif  Noe  am  wr. — L,  Morganwg. 

NoN  or  NoNN  was  the  name  of  the  mother  of  Dewi  or  St. 
David,  whom  they  call  the  patron  saint  of  Wales.  She  was  also 
a  saint,  and  the  wife  of  Xanthus,  an  Armorican,  who  the  Welsh 
call  Sant  or  Csant.  Her  legend  says  that  she  was  with  child  of 
this  Dewi,  and  happened  to  be  in  a  congregation  where  a  famous 
preacher  taught  the  people,  he  was  instantly  struck  dumb,  be- 
cause Dewi,  unborn,  a  greater  man  than  he,  was  present.  "  Non, 
merch  Cynyr  o  Gaergawch  ym  Myny w,  mam  St.  Dewi."    (MS) 

Daw  a  wnel  a  Dewi  a  Non 
£i  gael  wrth  fodd  ei  galon. 

NoKDDMANDi,  NoRTMANDi,  and  NoRMANDi,  in  English  Nor- 
mandy, a  country  in  Gaul  (now  France),  where  the  Normans  or 
Northmen,  called  by  the  Britons  Nortmyn,  settled  under  Clovis, 
their  leader,  about  the  same  time  that  the  Saxons  came  into 
England,  in  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century.  They  were  Ger- 
mans that  inhabited  about  the  Ehine,  under  the  name  of  Franks, 
from  whence  France  took  its  name ;  and  there  were  Gauls  about 
the  Seine  far  before  tliis,  called  Franks.     [Pezron.) 

But  it  seems  this  country  took  not  the  name  of  Normandy  till 
the  time  of  Eollo,  about  the  year  911,  who,  with  more  North- 
men from  Scandinavia  and  the  coast  of  the  Baltic,  wrested  this 
part  of  Neustria,  as  also  Little  Bretagne,  out  of  Charles  the 


334  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Simple's  hands,  and  called  it  by  the  name  of  their  own  country 
in  the  North.  Our  Myrddin  Wyllt,  about  the  year  570,  men- 
tions the  country  of  these  Northniyn,  which  he  caUa  Normandi, 
Nortmandir,  and  Norddmandi,  bordering  on  the  Baltic. 

**  Pan  ddyfo  Nortmyn  o  iar  lydan  lynn";  i.  e,,  when  Nartmen 
come  from  the  wide  lake.  "  Pum  penaeth  o  Normandi".  They 
bad  some  country  about  the  Baltic  called  by  the  Britons  North- 
mandir,  for  they  went  under  the  names  of  Normans  in  Charle- 
magne's time,  about  a.d.  800  ;  and  why  might  not  that  name  be 
then  220  year  old,  and  well  known  among  the  Britons  ?  (JdyT- 
ddin.) 

NORTMAIN,  Normans. 

Cyfran  tonn  a  glann  glasdir  gwjlain 
Golnd  mor  ysgrud  ysgryd  Nortmain. 

Einion  ap  Gwgan^  i  Ln.  ap  lorwerth. 

NORTHYMYRLOND,  AngL  Northumberland. 

Nos  ap  Hoyw  ap  Gloyw. 

NowY  ap  Arthen. 

NuDD  (n.  pr.  V.)  and  Nydd.  {Eywel  Swrdwal.)  Nudd  Hael 
fab  SenyUt,  one  of  the  three  generous  men  of  the  Isle  of 
Britain.     {Tr.  8.) 

Nudd  (fl.)  or  Nyth,  wrote  by  some  Nith,  a  river  which  is  the 
boundary  between  Galloway  and  Dumfriesshire  ;  was  of  old  the 
boundary  between  the  Northimibrians  of  the  Heptarchy  and  the 
Scots ;  and  this  day  the  names  of  places  on  one  side  of  the  river 
are  all  Saxon,  and  on  the  other  Celtic.  Vide  a  map  of  that 
part.    Abemudd. 

Nudd,  father  of  Gwyn. 

NuG.  Ehyd  Nug.  {Dr.  Davies.)  The  river  Nug  rises  in  Ffyn- 
non  Wen,  near  Hafod  y  Maidd  in  Denbighshire  [runs  by  Pentre 
Foelas. — W,  JD.],  and  falls  into  Conwy  near  Pant  Glas. 

NUR  (n.  pr.  V.) ;  Lat.  Nurius. 

NwTFRB  [the  welkin — W.  D,\  a  very  ancient  British  name. 
Nwyfre  of  Arllechwedd,  father  of  Lliaws.     (TV.  40.) 

NwYTHON  (n.  pr.). 

Gwr  ail  flaidd  gwraidd  gwrhyd  Nwython. 

Oynddelw^  Mar.  Cad.  ap  Madog. 
Nydd  :  see  Nvdd, 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  335 

Nyf,  caariad  Peredur  ap  Mroc. 

Nynias  and  Ninianus,  a  most  reverend  Bishop  and  most  holy 
man  of  the  British  nation,  because  he  was  brought  up  at  Eome. 
(Bede,  1.  iii,  c.  4)     He  preached  to  the  Scots  or  North  Britons. 


0. 

Odkea,  a  castle  in  Gaul,  mentioned  in  the  British  History, 
where  Julius  Csosar  landed  in  his  flight  from  Britain.  He  is 
said  to  have  landed  at  Traeth  Morian,  probably  the  sands  of  the 
Morini.  Here  he  made  it  up  with  the  Gauls,  which  had  revolted, 
says  Tyssilio.    See  Caesar,  Oomm,,  lib.  iv,  c.  13. 

Odor  or  Oder,  the  British  name  of  the  river  that  runs  through 
Wiltshire  to  Bath,  and  thence  to  Bristol ;  in  English  called  the 
Lower -4t;o7i,  by  a  mistake  of  the  first  West  Saxons,  who  hearing 
the  Britons  call  it  Avon,  the  common  name  of  all  rivers,  and 
not  knowing  the  meaning  of  the  word,  have  retained  it  to  this 
day.  Caer  Odor  Nant  was  once  the  name  of  Bristol.  See  Bri- 
ikon  and  Bristol. 

Odwyn.  Llanbadam  Odwyn,  church  and  parish  in  Cardigan!» 
shire. 

OsR.     Cynfrig  Oer  ap  Meirchion  GoL 

Oeth.  Caer  Oeth  ac  Anoeth,  where  Arthur  was  kept  prisoner 
three  nights.  (Triad,)  It  was  in  some  part  of  Britain,  for  Teulu 
Oeth  ac  Anoeth  are  mentioned  in  Taliessin's  account  of  the 
Tombs  of  the  Warriors  of  Britain.  (Beddau  Milwyr  Ynys  Pryd- 
ain.)  See  OUadini.  Northumberland.  Caer  Oeth  in  Ystori  K. 
ap  Kilydd. 

Oeuroswyd  Wlbdio  a  garcharodd  Lyr  Iletieith.    {Tr.  50.) 

Ofydd  (n.  pr.),  Ovidius,  Ovid,  the  Latin  poet. 

Offa  (n.  pr.  v.)^  a  Saxon  name.  Oifa,  King  of  the  Mercians. 
Olawdd  Offd,  a  ditch  made  by  Ofla,  King  of  Mercia,  between 
England  and  Wales,  to  keep  off  the  Welsh  who  made  incursions 
into  his  land.  This  was  of  the  same  nature  with  another  ditch 
and  wall  made  between  Uoegr  and  Alban,  called  Gw^l  Sever, 
now  the  Picts'  WalL    See  OlavM  Offa,  Caer  Offa. 

Ogwann,  a  river  mraitioned  in  Gorhofiedd  Gwalchmai,  one  of 
the  rivers  that  gives  name  to  Deuddwr.  See  Cegin  and  Aberdau. 


336  CELTIC  REMAINS, 

Ogwen  or  Ogfaen  (fl.) :  hence  Aberogwen,  a  village  and  har- 
bour near  Bangor.    See  Ogwann. 

Ogmore,  a  manor  and  castle  in  Carmarthenshire.  [Glamorgan- 
shire.— L  Jf.]  {JPowd.)  Also  a  place  in  Caernarvonshire.  Mr. 
Edward  Ilwyd  thinks  it  to  be  Eogmor,  salt  water.  Qu.  whether 
Ogmawrt    See  Ogior. 

Ogwr,  a  river  in  Glamorganshire,  called  in  English  Ogmor. 
Maenor  Glyn  Ogwr,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Cron- 
eth  in  Morganwg.  (Price's  Descr.)  Ogmor  Castle  is  on  this 
river.    See  Ogmore. 

Ogyefan  Gawe.    (Tr.  59.) 

Gwr  hydwf  gwrhydri  Ogyrfan. 

Prydydd  y  Moch^  i  Leweljn  ap  lorwerth. 

Therefore  no  giant.    See  Oogyrfan, 

OiLWY  river.  (Camden  in  Monmonthshire.)  Morden's  Map, 
Olwy.  The  city  of  Burrium  or  Bryn  Buga  lies  between  Oilwy 
and  Wysc     (Camden) 

Olgra  or  Olgre,  a  place  in  Anglesey,  in  the  parish  of  Llan-» 
ddyfhan. 

Olifer  (n.  pr.  v.).  {Trioedd  y  Meirch,  Pr.  copy.)  Mynydd 
Oliver,  in  the  modem  translations,  Mynydd  yr  Olewydd,  Mount 
Olivet. 

Oliver  Gosqorfawr,  alias  Gosgorddfawr,  i  e,,  with  the  great 
guard. 

Olmarch,  a  gentleman's  seat  in  Cardiganshire.  Olmarch 
Dewi,  the  mark  of  the  foot  of  Dewi's  horse  in  a  stone. 

Olwen  (nom.  feem,). 

Olwen,  merch  Tspaddaden  Ben  Cawr  o'r  Gogledd,  a  beautiful 
lady  of  King  Arthur's  court.  (-D.  /.  and  lolo  Ooch.)  The  poets 
feigned  that  four  flowers  sprung  wherever  she  trod.  Some  say 
that  she  was  Gwalchmai^s  mistress ;  others,  Cyllwch  (Culwch) 
ap  Cilydd's  (Culydd's),  mistress;  but  Lewis  Mon,the  poet, calls 
her  the  wife  of  Gwalchmai  See  Stori  'r  Twrch  Trwyth,  other- 
wise called  Ystori  Cyllwch  ac  Olwen,  merch  Tspaddaden  Ben 
Cawr.    Ac  felly  y  cafas  Cyllwch  Olwen,  etc. 

Omtr,  the  name  of  a  poet  and  orator  mentioned  in  TyssiHo's 
History  of  the  Britons  ;  but  I  am  not  certain  whether  he  meant 


i 


CELTIC  REMAINS*  337 

a  British  poet  of  that  name^  or  Homer  the  Greek  poet,  though 
Galfrid  translates  it  Homer. 

Onwt,  river  in  Shropshire,  at  Onibury;  another  falls  into  the 
Wye  at  Lemster.  See  Zlieni.  Another  Onwy  runs  south  of 
Bishop's  Castle,  and  into  the  Severn.  See  Trydomoy  and  Dyfr- 
donwy.  [Two  Onwys  near  Crickhowel, — one  of  them  Onwy 
Goed.    Ony  river  near  Wistanstow,  Salop. —  W.  J9.] 

Obg,  the  name  of  an  island  in  the  Triades.  {Tr,  3.)  One  of 
three  principal  adjacent  islands  of  Britain,  the  Isle  of  Man  and 
Wight  being  the  other  two.  The  largest  of  the  Orcades  or  Ork- 
neys was  so  called,  which  is  probably  the  plural  of  Ore.  See 
Ereh. 

Orewyn  :  see  Pont  Orewyn. 

Orliawns,  Orleans  in  France. 

BoBser  Hew  fiyrfder  holl  Ffrawns 

Wyd  o  Erlyn  hyd  Orliawns. — Hywel  Swrdwal, 

Oronicts  and  Orion  :  see  Plemmidius  and  Plennydd, 

Orton  or  Overton,  church  and  town  in  Flintshire,  near  Ban- 
gor is  y  Coed ;  by  the  Welsh  called  Owrtyn. 

OsBER.     Cynfrig  ap  Osber,  id.  quod  Osbivm. 

OsBWRN.  Llewelyn  ap  Cynfrig  ap  Osbwm  ap  Gwythr  larll 
Desmwnt  o'r  Iwerddon. 

Osc:  see  Wysg. 

OswALLT.  Croes  Oswallt,  a  church  and  town  in  Shropshire, 
now  Oswestry  or  Oswaldstree.  Some  say  from  Oswald  the  Saxon 
King ;  but  see  Ussa  ap  Cynedda  Wledig. 

Ottadini,  the*  name  which  the  Bomans  gave  to  the  Britons  of 
the  country  called  now  Northumberland ;  probably  the  people 
of  Gododin,  tirhere  the  great  battle  of  Cattraeth  was  fought.  See 
Oododin  Aneurin,  In  the  Triades  it  is  said  that  Arthur  had 
been  in  prison  three  nights  in  Caer  Oeth  ac  Anoeth.  Where  to 
look  for  this  Caer  Oeth  I  cannot  tell,  unless  it  is  among  the 
Ottadini.    See  Oeth. 

OwAiN  (n.  pr.  V.) :  see  Ywain, 

OwAiN,  the  35th  King  of  Britain,  reigned  jointly  with  Pere- 
dur ;  wrote  also  Iwgein.  So  Iwgein,  Ywain,  and  Owein,  are  the 
same,  and  Latinized  by  some  Audoenus,  and  by  some  Eugenius, 

43 


338  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

from  which  Iwgein  was  formed.  Tir  Oen,  in  Ireland,  is  in 
Latin  called  Terra  Eugenii  {Camden.)  But  the  name,  in  my 
opinion,  should  be  wrote  Owain,  and  formed  of  0  and  wain,  as 
if  you  would  say  unsheatJted,  i.  e,,  with  his  sword  always  drawn 
and  ready ;  though  Mr.  Camden  says  the  Britons  will  have  it 
that  this  name  cometh  from  King  Oemis,  father-in4aw  to  Her- 
cules. But  he  should  have  told  us  who  those  Britons  were.  The 
English  nation  would  think  it  hard  to  charge  them  in  general 
with  any  blunder  of  Camden's,  or  any  particular  man ;  for  as  we 
find  all  our  ancient  Celtic  names  significative  in  our  own  lan- 
guage without  straining,  we  have  no  occasion  to  seek  for  the 
etymons  of  them  in  the  language  of  people  to  whom  the  Celtae 
gave  laws.  So  all  the  Britons  should  not  be  charged  with  the 
fancy,  blunder,  or  opinion,  of  one  Briton. 

Owain  Danwyn:  vid.  Twain, 

Owain  Gwynedd  ap  GruflFudd  ap  Cynan,  Prince  of  Wales,  a 
very  great  and  glorious  Prince.  He  and  his  brother  Cadwaladr 
were  eminent  for  their  virtues,  strength,  beauty,  and  proportion ; 
humble,  liberal,  and  terrible  to  their  enemies.  He  died  A.D. 
1169.     {Caradoc  in  Gr.  ap  Cynan.) 

Owain  Tudur,  or  rather  Owen  ap  Mredydd  ap  Tudur,  was 
the  son  of  Mredydd  ap  Tudur  ap  Gronwy  of  Pen  Mynydd  in 
Anglesey.  He  was  bom  about  the  year  1385,  and  was  brought 
up  to  the  law  in  London.  From  thence  he  went  on  his  travels, 
and  being  one  of  the  handsomest  men  in  Europe,  made  a  great 
figure  at  the  court  of  the  King  of  France,  where  Catherine,  the 
daughter  of  [the  King  of]  France  (afterwards  Queen  of  England), 
took  notice  of  him;  and  after  the  death  of  her  husband,  Henry  V 
of  England,  she  married  him ;  and  by  her  he  had  children,  viz., 
Edmund  the  eldest,  who  was  the  father  of  Henry  VII,  King  of 
England ;  and  Jasper ;  who  were  enabled  by  Henry  VI  to  be  his 
lawful  half-brethren,  and  created  Edmund  Earl  of  Eichmond, 
and  Jasper  Earl  of  Penbroke,  with  preeminence  to  take  place 
above  all  earls  ;  for  kings  have  absolute  authority  in  dispensing 
honours.     (Notes  on  Camden  in  Penbr.) 

The  kings  of  England,  descendants  of  this  Owen  Tudur,  are 
called  Tudors,  or  the  Tudor  family,  but  not  rightly  ;  and  Tudor 
was  no  surname  of  any  family,  and  family  surnames  were  not  in 
being  in  Owen  Tudor*s  time. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  339 

OWAIN  AP  Ukien  Reged  waa  the  Prince  of  Eeged  that  suc- 
ceeded his  father.  He  was  one  of  the  great  officers  in  King 
Arthur's  court,  (Tr.  9.)  Un  o'r  tri  gwyn  teyrn.  His  exploits 
in  Stori  larlles  y  Ffynnon  are  entirely  poetical,  as  in  the  ring 
given  him  by  Eluned,  which  had  a  stone  in  it  that  would  make 
him  invisible  if  he  had  the  stone.  He  is  foolishly  called  Owen, 
Segent  of  Scotland,  in  a  note  on  Camden  fathered  on  Mr.  B. 
Vaughan,  and  also  in  Mr.  Wynne's  edition  of  the  History  of 
Wales. 

P. 

Pabell  Llywarch  Hen,  a  place  in  Uanfor,  near  Bala.  (MS.) 

Pabo,  a  man's  name :  hence  lianbabo,  a  church  dedicated  to 
one  of  that  name  in  Anglesey,  and  seems  to  have  been  founded 
by  Pabo  Post  Prydain,  whose  tombstone  was  discovered  by  dig- 
ging  a  grave  in  the  churchyard,  in  the  time  of  Charles  n.  and 
which  was  removed  into  the  church,  where  it  now  lies.  This  is 
one  of  the  most  noble  British  monuments  now  in  Great  Britain ; 
and  has  the  portraiture  of  the  Prince  at  full  length,  with  a  coronet 
on  his  head  and  a  sceptre  in  his  hand,  with  a  neat  inscription 
on  the  edge  of  the  stone,  the  whole  very  well  done  and  adorned. 

Pabo  Post  Prydain  governed  Anglesey  about  the  year  500 
after  Christ,  and  was  cotemporary  with  Uthur  Bendragon,  King 
of  Great  Britain,  and  seems  to  me  to  have  been  Uthur^s  chief 
general  in  the  north  and  west  of  Britain  against  the  Picts  and 
Scots  of  Ireland,  who  till  then  joined  against  the  remains  of 
the  Boman  provincials,  at  the  same  time  that  Uthur  disputed 
the  crown  of  London  with  the  Saxons. 

Post  Prydain  seems  to  signify  chief  general,  but  literally 
pillar  of  Britain ;  and  Llywarch  Hen,  in  the  following  age,  calls 
Urien  Beged,  King  of  Cumbria^  by  the  same  title : 

Llaiy  ndd  Uywiai  wlad 
Pen  Post  Prydain  ryallad. 

So  doth  Llygad  Gwr  call  Gr.  ap  Madog  ap  Mredydd : 

Post  Prydain  urddain  wrdd  gyhnssed 
Penyadur  llafnddur  llaw  egored. 

Whether  he  got  the  government  of  Anglesey  by  marriage  or 


840  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

by  the  king's  appointment  I  cannot  find ;  probably  by  the  first, 
because  on  his  tomb  at  Llanbabo  in  Anglesey  he  has  a  coronet 
or  diadem  on  his  head,  and  a  sceptre  in  his  right  hand,  and  is 
dressed  in  princely  robes.  The  tradition  in  Anglesey  is  that  he 
was  a  king,  i.  e.,  Brenhin  Pabo.  He  was  of  a  noble  family  in  the 
north  of  Britain,  being  descended  from  Coel  Hen,  commonly 
called  Coel  Godhebog,  priodawr  o'r  Gogledd,  a  title  given  to  the 
princes  of  the  North.  His  father  was  Arthwys  ap  Mor  ap  Cenaa 
ap  Coel  Godhebog.  Pabo's  eldest  brother  was  Ceidiaw,  father 
of  Gwenddolau,  Mjrrddin  Wyllt's  lord  and  benefactor.  (See  Afall- 
ennau  and  PorcheUanau  Myrddin.)  Pabo's  second  brother  was 
Cynfelyn,  father  of  Oynwyd  Cynwydion.  Three  hundred  ysgwyd 
Cyuwydion.  The  clan  of  Cynwyd  Cynwydion  is  mentioned  in 
the  Gododin.  Pabo's  youngest  brother  was  Elifer  Osgorddfawr, 
who  was  father  of  Gwrgi  and  Peredur.     See  Triades. 

Pabo  had  a  son  called  Dunawd  Fyr,  or  Dunawd  Fur,  who 
married  Dwywe  verch  Leenawc.  He  is  mentioned  in  Tyssilio's 
History  to  be  one  of  the  great  men  which  graced  the  feast  made 
by  King  Arthur  after  his  conquest  of  the  islands.  Dunawd  Fyr 
ap  Pabo  Post  Prydain  is  also  called  in  the  Triades  one  of  the 
three  pillars  of  battle  of  the  Isle  of  Britain.  Tri  phost  cad  Ynys 
Prydain.   This  Post  Cad  may  possibly  be  some  title  in  the  army. 

Deinioel,  the  patron  saint  of  Bangor,  was  son  of  Dunawd  Fur. 
Pabo  had  also  a  son  called  Cerwydd,  who  is  celebrated  in  the 
C&n  Brith  between  Myrddin  and  Taliessin;  and  another  son 
called  Sawl  Benuchel,  and  I  think  he  had  a  daughter  called 
Arddun.  There  is  a  tradition  at  Llanbabo  that  Pabo  and  a  son 
and  daughter  of  his  were  buried  in  that  churchyard,  over  against 
certain  faces  cut  in  stones  to  be  seen  to  this  day  in  the  south 
wall  of  that  church,  and  against  one  of  these  faces  the  above 
mentioned  tombstone  was  by  accident  discovered  in  Charles  IPs 
time,  as  I  was  there  informed  in  1730,  or  thereabouts. 

Besides  the  testimony  of  the  Triades,  as  aforesaid,  in  relation 
to  this  Dunawd,  llywarch  Hen,  the  noble  northern  poet,  who 
was  an  eye  witness  to  the  brave  actions  of  his  countrymen  in 
the  war  against  the  Saxons,  who  bad  possessed  Deira  and  Ber- 
nicia,  says  of  this  Dunawd,  in  Marwnad  Urien, 

Dunawd  mab  Pabo  in  thech. — Llywarch  Hen. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  341 

Mr.  Humphrey  Lloyd  in  his  Description  of  Britain,  sent  to 
Ortelius,  thinks  that  Pabo's  British  name  was  Patm,  which  is 
Welsh  for  the  Latin  Pavo  (a  peacock),  and  that  from  Pavo  came 
Pabo.  But  the  Tricuks,  the  old  genealogical  tables,  and  Lly  warch 
Hen's  works,  compared  with  the  inscription  on  lus  tomb,  shew 
that  his  real  name  was  Pabo,  whatever  the  word  may  signify. 

HIC  JACET  PABO  POST  PBUD  COKPORS  VIE  EL.  P.  M.  A.  It  is  pro- 
bable that  the  y  now  wrote  in  the  word  Prydain  was  wrote 
then  with  two  i,  which  afterwards  became  an  u,  and  perhaps 
they  had  an  eye  on  their  descent  from  Brutus. 

Padaeut  (St.)  Beisrudd  ap  Tegid  ap  lago  ap  Genedawc  ap  Cain 
ap  Gwrgain  ap  Beli  ap  Gwrddole  ap  Dwyn  ap  Gwrddwyn  ap 
Amynod  ap  Anwedd  ap  Dawe  ap  Brychwan,  gave  name  to  Llan- 
badam  Vawr,  Llanbadam  Vach,  Llanbadarn  Odwyn,  Llanbadam 
Vynydd.  He  is  mentioned  in  the  Triades  (43)  :  Tri  gwynfydedig 
westai  Ynys  Prydain :  Dewi,  Padam,  a  Theilo.  So  it  should 
seem  they  were  all  three  foreigners,  or  else  how  could  they  be 
called  the  three  happy  guests  ? 

St.  Paternus's  life  is  wrote  by  John  of  Tinmouth — that  he  was 
born  of  noble  parents  in  Armorica— his  father  Peiranus,  and  his 
mother  Gueana.  Padam  founded  a  monastery  at  Llanbadam 
Vawr  in  Cardiganshire ;  thence  he  went  to  Ireland  to  visit  his 
father  who  had  turned  recluse  there.  There  he  reconciled  two 
kings,  who  were  in  war ;  then  returned  to  Britain  and  foimded 
several  churches  and  monasteries,  and  contracted  a  friendship 
with  St.  David  and  St.  Teilo,  with  whom  he  made  a  pilgrimage 
to  Jemsalem,  and  was  there  made  bishop,  and  after  his  return 
held  his  episcopal  see  at  Llanbadam.  He  lived  here  21  years, 
and  at  the  desire  of  Caradog,  King  of  Armorica,  returned  home^ 
where  he  was  made  bishop  of  Y annes  by  means  of  Sampson  Sant. 
Died  in  the  land  of  the  Franks :  lus  name  is  found  subscribed 
with  Sampson's  in  the  third  council  of  Paris,  AD.  560.  {BrU. 
Sanct,  Apr.  15.) 

Pais  Padam  Beisradd,  un  o  13  tlws  Ynys  Prydain.  This  coat 
would  fit  no  man  but  Padam  himself.    See  Bluned, 

Padrig  Sant  ap  Alfryd  ap  Gronwy  o  Wareddawg  yn  Arfon 
{MS.)  St.  Patrick,  the  apostle  of  Ireland,  is  said  to  have  been 
bom  in  the  country  of  Ehos  in  Dyfed,  about  the  year  373.    His 


I 

I 


342  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

father  Calphumus,  a  deacon,  his  mother  Concha,  sister  of  St. 
Martin,  Bishop  of  Tours,  his  grandfather  Politns,  a  priest. 
Others  say  he  was  bom  in  Scotland  among  the  Ystrad  Clwyd 
Britains  {Ogygia,  p.  178).  Nennius  says  his  first  name  was 
Maenwyn,  and  that  he  afterwards  took  him  the  name  of  Fadrig. 
Some  copies  has  it  Maun  or  Moun. 

There  is  a  place  in  Anglesey  called  Khos  Badrig,  and  also  a 
church  there  dedicated  to  him  called  Llanbadrig.  It  is  neajr 
the  seaport  of  Cemmaes,  where  it  is  said  he  took  shipping  for 
Ireland,  when  he  went  to  convert  the  Irish  to  the  Christian 
faith.  There  is  a  noted  shoal  or  dangerous  shelf  of  rocks  in  the 
sea  on  the  coast  of  Ardudwy  in  Merionethshire,  and  runs 
parallel  to  Caernarvonshire  for  about  twenty  miles,  called  Sam 
Badrig,  i.  e.,  Patrick's  Causeway,  a  name  given  it  by  the  monks 
probably,  pretending  it  to  be  part  of  the  causeway  over  which 
St.  Patrick  passed  to  Ireland.  I  find  in  the  Extent  of  Anglesey, 
Edward  III,  there  were  also  lands  in  Anglesey  held  by  the 
title  of  Owas  Padrig,  or  Patrick's  servant,  free  from  any 
services  to  the  prince ;  which  shows  that  St.  Patrick  or  his 
followers  had  certain  privileges  of  keeping  servants  among  the 
freemen  independent  of  the  prince. 

He  began  to  preach  in  Ireland  a.d.  433,  and  died  A.D.  493 
(Flaherty,  p.  422) ;  and  died  120  years  of  age.  {Nennius,  c.  61.) 

Padran  ap  Corun  ap  Ceredig. 

Paladb.  Ach  baladr,  i.  e.,  in  direct  line  or  male  stock. 

Paladrwisg  ap  Caynawg  Mawr. 

Paluc,  Cath  Baluc  {Tr.  81).  This  seems  to  have  been  some 
name  or  nickname  of  a  person  that  was  brought  up  in  Anglesey, 
but  proved  its  enemy,  as  King  Edwin,  another  mentioned  in 
the  same  Triades,  is  known  to  be.  He  is  mentioned  also  in  an 
obscure  manner  in  Triad  30,  that  he  was  bom  at  sea  in  the 
river  Menai.    There  is  an  herb  called  Palf  y  Gath  Baluc. 

Pant,  a  hollow,  used  in  the  names  of  places  of  that  situa- 
tion ;  as.  Pant  Mawr ;  Pant  y  Barwn ;  Blaen  y  Pant ;  y  Pant 
Gwyn ;  y  Pant  Glas ;  Pant  y  Fedwen ;  Caq'r  Pant ;  Pant  y 
Polion.  Qu.  whether  Trinobant  (London)  might  not  be  formed 
from  Tro'n  y  Pant,  i.  e.,  Troy  in  the  Hollow,  or  Tre'n  y  Pant, 
the  Town  in  the  Hollow.    Y  Pant  uch  Pentraeth,  Anglesey,  the 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  343 

house  of  Cadivor  Wyddel,  1140.  A  place  there  still  called  Y 
Pant.  Pant  y  Llyn,  Caermarthenshire ;  Pant  y  Persli,  a  gentle- 
man's seat ;  Y  Pant  T6g ;  Pentre  Pant ;  Pant  y  Garreg,  a  gentle- 
man's seat, — ^Vaughan ;  Pant  y  Llongddu^  a  gentleman's  seat^ 
near  Euthyn.     {J.  B.) 

Panwen  Bykddin,  in  the  parish  of  Ilangadoc  above  Neath, 
a  monument  caUed  Maen  dan  Lygad  yr  Ych,  with  an  inscrip- 
tioa    M.  Ceritin,  etc.    See  Vertot. 

Paradwts,  nomen  loci  in  Anglesey ;  i.  e.,  paradise.  Powys 
Paradwys  Cymru.     {Zlywarch  Hen,) 

PARC,  nomen  loci  and  gentleman's  seat. 

PARC  Cethin,  Caermarthenshire. 

PARC  Y  Frigan,  Anglesey. 

PARC  Y  Ehun  (nomen  loci). 

Parchyllan.  leuan  Vychan  o  Barchyllan.  Qu.  Pare  y  Llan  ? 

Paredur  or  Peredur  (n.  pr.  v.),  MS. 

Pascen,  mab  TJrien,  un  o'r  tri  thrahawc  (Tr.  28). 

Pasgen.    B6d  ap  Pasgen  nen  Cysgen. 

Patrick  (n.  pr.  v.),  Lat.  Patricms,  the  Apostle  of  the  Irish. 
Nmnim  says  he  wrote  365  Books  of  A  B.  C. ;  founded  365 
churches ;  ordained  365  bishops,  in  whom  was  the  Spirit  of  God ; 
ordained  3000  presbyters;  and  converted  and  baptized  12,000 
men  in  tbe  region  of  Conacht ;  and  baptized  7  kings  in  one  day, 
the  sons  of  Amolgith ;  fasted  40  days  on  the  top  of  mount  Eli, 
and  obtained  3  petitions. 

He  was  born,  says  Flaherty,  p.  178,  in  the  country  of  Alclwyd, 
in  a  village  called  Nemthor,  in  the  plain  of  Tdbum,  He  was 
three  times  taken  by  pirates ;  went  to  Eome,  and  visited  the 
holy  solitaries  of  Italy ;  went  to  Gaul ;  studied  under  German, 
Bishop  of  Auxerre,  and  there  was  made  priest ;  thence  went  to 
Eome,  and  had  a  mission  from  Pope  Celestine  to  preach  in 
Ireland,  and  in  the  year  432  he  was  made  bishop  by  Celestine, 
and  sent  a  legate,  with  20  more,  to  Ireland.  (BrU.  Sanct, 
Mar.  17.) 

Patrick's  Welsh  name  was  Maenwyn,  and  the  ecclesiastical 
name  of  Patricius  was  given  him  by  the  Pope  when  sent  legate 
to  Ireland,     See  Nennius, 

He  visited  the  isles  of  the  Tyrhen  or  Tuscan  sea;  had  a 


344  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

staff  given  him  by  a  monk  or  hermit,  called  the  Staff  of  JesTis, 

having  been  nsed  by  our  Lord.    This  St.  Patrick  carried  to 

Ireland,  and  was  in  great  repute  there,  and  one  of  our  British 

bards  says  of  it, 

Ffon  a  ddanfones  lesn 

I  Badrig  da  fenthyg  fn. 

He  made  a  third  journey  to  Eome,  to  tell  the  Pope  what  he 
had  done,  and  had  several  relics  given  him,  which  he  carried 
to  Armach.     (Brit  Sanct) 

Sam  Badrig  in  Meirionydd  is  a  ridge  of  foulgrotmd  that  runs 
about  twenty  miles  to  sea,  and  comes  dry  at  low-water  spring 
tides.  Bhos  Badrig,  a  place  in  Anglesey.  Purdan  Padrig, 
Patrick's  Purgatory,  in  Ireland. 

Patrick  was  begot  in  the  vale  of  Bhos  in  Dyfed,  by  Calphur- 
nus,  a  priest,  on  Concha,  sister  to  St.  Martin  of  Tours.  {Ocmden 
in  Penbrokeshire.    See  Lloyd's  Brev.  Brit.) 

Llanbadrig,  a  church  in  Anglesey. 

Paul  (St.)  of  Leon,  bishop.  He  was  a  Briton,  son  of  Por- 
phius  Aurelianus,  and  kinsman  of  St.  Samson  of  Dole,  and  a 
disciple  of  St.  Illtud,  at  the  same  time  with  Gildas,  Samson,  etc. 

Paulinus,  archbishop  of  York  in  King  Edwin's  time,  it 
seems,  was  a  Britain,  and  his  first  name  was  Shun  ap  TJrien 
Eeged.  He  baptized  the  nation  of  the  Ambrones  or  Old 
Saxons,  and  by  his  preaching  converted  many.  (N^ennius,  c.  63, 
B.  V.)     Qu.  whether  Peulan  Sant  of  Llanbeulan  ? 

Paun  ap  Meirchion  ap  Tanged. 

Paun  Post  Prydaik,  which  Mr.  H.  Llwyd  Latinizes  Pavo, 
is  probably  the  same  with  Pabo,  which  might  be  formed  from 
Pavo.  In  the  Latin  inscription  on  his  grave  in  the  church  of 
Ilanbabo  in  Anglesey,  he  is  called  Pabo,  but  in  all  our  books 
of  genealogies  and  poets  it  is  wrote  Pabo.  Tradition  calls  him 
Y  Brenhin  Pabo. 

Y  Paun  Bach  o  Wigmor,  mentioned  in  Araith  Wgan,  was  a 
poet  noted  in  his  time. 

Paun  (Castell),  in  Elvel  (n.  1.),  taken  by  Lord  Eys,  a.d. 
1195  ;  built  by  one  Pain,  a  Norman,  says  Camden,  rhwng  Grwy 
a  Hafren. 

Pawl,  Saint  Paul,  as  if  pronounced  in  English  F^L 


CELTIC    REMAINS.  345 

Celfjddodau  man  ni  fo  marwawl 
I  brofi  pob  peth  o  bregeth  Bawl. 

Eiti.  ap  Gwgamrty  i  Ln,  ap  lorweriK^ 

Pebid  Penlltn,  enw  gwr,  tad  Sulwych. 

Pebidiog,  one  of  the  eight  caiitrefs  of  Dyfed,  containing  the 
commots  of  Mynyw,  Pencaer,  and  Pebidiog.  (Price's  Descr,) 
The  Octopitarum  of  Ptolomy.     {Oamden  in  Penbroke.) 

Peblig  ap  Macsen  Wledig,  Ymerodr  Rhufain. 

Peblyc  Sant.  Llaubeblyc  near  Caer  yn  Arvon,  the  seat  of 
Owain  Gwynedd,  Prince  of  Wales. 

Hardd  i  fardd  ei  fwrdd  Nadolyo 
Oedd  aelaw  gar  aelwjd  Beblyc. 

Pedolau,  horse-shoes.  Hoel  y  Pedolau — he  could  bend  horse- 
shoes. 

Pedrog  Sant.  He  was  a  native  of  Wales,  of  royal  extraction, 
in  the  fifth  century.  He  was  twenty  years  in  Ireland  learning 
Christianity  and  sacred  letters,  and  instructed  St.  Coemgen; 
thence  he  went  to  Cornwall,  founded  a  college  or  monastery  at 
Petrockstow  or  Padstow ;  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome  and  to 
Jerusalem  ;  was  neighbour  to  St.  Samson.  (Brit  Sanct.)  Le- 
land  says  when  Pedrog  came  to  Cornwall  from  Corinnia  there 
reigned  two  famous  kings  in  that  country,  Theodorus  and 
Constantinus,  who  gave  him  leave  to  build  a  monastery  near  the 
Severn,  whose  name  in  the  country  language  was  Bosmanach 
(more  probably  Rosmanach),  one  Guronus  (Gwron),  an  hermit, 
first  lived  there,  and  it  appears  by  an  old  book  in  that  monas- 
tery of  Petrobergi  that  three  holy  men  who  followed  Petroc's 
example,  are  buried  there — Credan,  Medan,  and  Dachun. 
Ethelstan  afterwards  repaired  that  monastery,  and  in  the  time  of 
William  the  Conqueror,  a  half-brother  of  his  robbed  and  spoiled 
it.  There  was  afterwards  Augustine  Canons  placed  there. 
(Leland,  Script.  Brit) 

Another  Pedrog,  A.D.  850,  Bishop  of  Cornwall.  (Heylin's 
Help,  116.)     See  Wws  Manaeh. 

Pedrogl  (n.  pr.  v.)  Pedrogl  Paladrddellt,  un  o*r  tri  chyfion 
farchog  in  Arthur^s  court  {Tr,  84).     Qu.  whether  Patroclus  ? 

Pefyr  and  Pefb.     Goronwy  Pefr  o  Benllyn  is  mentioned  in 

44 


346  CELTIC   REMAINS. 

Tr.  35  for  the  ill  behaviour  of  his  soldiers  in  a  battle  (at  Llecli 
Oronwy  in  Blaen  Cynfael  in  Ardudwy)  with  Hew  liawgyffes. 
Dafydd  ap  Gwilym  mentions  him  in  his  poem  of  the  OwL 
Gwdion  ap  Don,  an  eminent  philosopher  and  Prince  of  Ar 
Gonwy,  because  a  certain  married  lady  admitted  of  the  amours 
of  this  Goronwy,  he  metamophosed  her  into  an  owl. 

Am  denrn  i  Raru  gynt 

Goronwy  map  Pefr  Garanir 
Arglwydd  Penllyn  howyn  hir. 

The  meaning  is,  that  he  exposed  her  so  that  she  was  ashamed 
of  being  seen  by  daylight.  Therefore  this  Gronwy  Pefr  was 
cotemporary  with  Gwdion  ap  Don.  Sr.  Wm.  Pevyr  ap  Goronw. 
Ehuawn  Pefr.     (Tr.  9  and  68.) 

•  Peibiaw  ap  Meurig  ap  Dingad :  hence  Ynys  Beibio  juxta 
Holyhead. 

Peibio  (n.  pr.  v.).  Ynys  Beibio,  near  Holyhead.  Garth  Beibio, 
church  and  parish  in  the  deanery  of  Pool,  dedicated  to  St. 
Tydecho,  on  the  river  Twrch,  Montgomeryshira 

Peibron,  in  Anglesey. 

Peiran  or  PiRAN  Sant.  This  is  he  whom  the  Irish  call  St. 
Kiaran.  Born  in  Ireland,  as  Usher  says,  about  the  year  352. 
{Brit,  Sand)  There  are  no  places  in  Wales  that  retain  his 
name,  as  I  know  of,  except  a  mill  in  Ajiglesey  called  Melin 
Beiran.  [Peiran  Sabulo,  church  of  Peiran,  buried  under  sands 
in  Cornwall     See  a  small  tract  by 1841. —  W,  2>.] 

Peirio  Sant.     Ehos  Beiiio,  a  church  and  parish  in  Anglesey. 

Peitwn  ap  Emyr  Llydaw. 

Peithyll,  a  river's  name  in  Cardiganshire,  that  runs  by  Gog- 
erthan  and  into  Clarach.     See  Ystrad  Peithyll, 

Pelagius,  a  Britain  mentioned  by  Bede  (1.  i,  c.  10)  about  a.d. 
394,  who  broached  some  tenets  in  the  Christian  Church  which 
were  not  agreeable,  which  caused  a  synod  to  be  held  to  suppress 
him.  German  and  Lupus,  two  Bishops  from  France,  attended 
the  synod,  in  Britain  about  a.d.  430.  Camden  intimates  that 
the  Monastery  of  Bangor  is  y  Coed  produced  him,  whom  he 
calls  the  greatest  and  worst  of  heretics,  for  that  he  perverted 
the  nature  of  God's  grace,  and  infested  the  Western  Churches. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  347 

His  doctrine  spread  itself  over  Britain  and  Gaul,  that  a  man 
might  be  saved  by  good  works  only.  St.  Augustine  answered 
him.  Some  say  his  British  name  was  Morgan.  See  his  tenets 
in  St.  August.  De  Gest.  Paloestin,,  c.  ii,  and  De  Peccat,  Orig,,  c.  ii. 

Pen,  an  old  Celtic  word  in  the  names  of  places,  signifying  a 
top,  head,  or  end  of  a  thing,  and  not  as  Mr.  Baxter  whimsically 
advances.  Penllyn ;  Penmaen ;  Penrhos ;  Pen  y  Lan  in  Swanzey ; 
Penrhyn ;  Pennant ;  Penfro,  now  Penbroke  (Tr,  30) ;  Pentir, 
Caemai'vonshire ;  Pen  y  Caerau  in  Cynwyl  Elfed ;  Penllech ; 
Penhesgin ;  Penhwnllys ;  Pentraeth  ;  Penbol  in  Anglesey ;  Pen 
Machno ;  Pen  y  Chwintan ;  Pen  Morfa,  Caernarvonshire ;  Pen- 
boir  (see  Boir) ;  Penbre ;  Pentre'rianell ;  Pencraig ;  Penbedw 
Penllwynau,  yn  Ilanegwad ;  Penwedig ;  Penmynydd ;  Pen  Mon 
Pen  Cader ;  Pengwem ;  Penbre ;  Pencoed ;  Penhelyg ;  Penbryn 
Penardd  Halawg ;  Penardd  (hence  Penard  in  Somersetshire) 
Peniarth ;  y  Penwyn,  i.  e.,  white  top,  Appenine  Mountains. 

Pen  y  Pabchell,  a  gentleman's  seat.     {J,  D.) 

Penalun,  yn  Nyfed,  a  church  where  one  of  St.  Teilaw's  three 
bodies  were  intombed.     {Tr.  44.) 

Pen  ae  Lao,  rightly  Penardd  Halawc,  a  town  in  Flintshire ; 
Hardin. 

Pen  ANT  {k  pen  and  nant),    Rhys  ap  Dafydd  Penant. 

Penaran.  leuan  Penaran^  ap  lorwerth  Voel.  [Penaran  yn 
Ngheri,  ar  gyfer  Dol  Vorgan. — W.  D.] 

Penallt  (Camden  in  Montgomeryshire)  for  Pennal,  a  village 
and  church  in  Merionethshire,  near  the  river  Dovey,  where 
there  is  the  ruins  of  a  supposed  Boman  fort  at  a  place  called 
Cefn  Caer,  which  signifies  the  castle  hiU  (and  not  "  dorsum 
urbis",  as  explained  in  the  margin  of  Camden).  In  the  same 
manner  are  called  seveml  other  places :  Cefn  Nithgroen,  Cefn 
Treversi,  Cefn  Cerwyni.     See  Cefn, 

Penardd,  a  commot  of  Cantre  Canawl,  a  part  of  Cardiganshire. 

I  Bennardd  a  Mabwynion. — D.  ah  leuan  Du. 

Penardd  Halawo,  commonly  called  Penar  Lag. 

Pencelli,  a  castle  in  South  Wales,  a.d.  1215.  (Garadoc.)  Sir 
Eoger  Vychan  o  Dref  y  Twr,  arglwydd  Pencelli  (a  pen  and  galU 
0  goed  cylJ).  Hinc  Pengelly,  an  English  name,  qu.  ?  Baron  Pen- 
gelly. 


348  CELTIC  REMAINS. 

Penaewen  (nom.  foem.),  daughter  of  Culfynawjrt  Piydain,  and 
wife  of  Owen  ap  Urien,  noted  for  her  lasciviousness.     (TV.  56.) 

Penbedw,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Denbighshire.    Mostyn. 

Penbol,  a  place  in  Anglesey,  near  Cors  y  Bol,  in  Tal  y  Bolion. 

Penbre,  Caimarthenshire. 

Penbryn,  a  parish  and  church  in  Cardiganshire. 

Penbryn  y  Barcud,  my  house  in  the  parish  of  Llanbadam 
Vawr,  Cardiganshire. 

Penbryn  in  Glamorganshire.    Fairs  kept  here. 

Pencadair,  near  Brecknock,  where  Gruffydd  ap  Llewelyn, 
Prince  of  North  Wales,  met  Howel  ap  Edwyn,  A.D.  1038,  with 
an  army  of  his  countrymen  and  strangers ;  gave  him  battle, 
overthrew  him,  took  his  wife  prisoner,  whom  he  had  brought  to 
see  the  defeat  of  Gruffydd.  But  Gruifydd  liked  her  so  well,  and 
she  him,  being  the  better  man,  that  he  kept  her  for  his  concu- 
bine. {Garadoc  in  Gr.  ap  Llewelyn.)  Henry  II  came  here  with 
a  great  army  against  Ehys,  but  had  no  battle  anno  Dom.  1163. 

Pencader,  in  Llanvihangel  Orarth,  Caermarthenshire.  See 
Cader. 

Pencaer,  one  of  the  three  commots  of  Cantref  Pebidiog  in 
Dyfed.     (Price^s  Bescr.) 

Pencarn  Eiver,  called  Nant  Pencam,  in  Monmouthshire, 
mentioned  by  Gir.  Cambrensis.  Here  Henry  II,  passing  the 
ford  of  Nant  Pencarn,  discouraged  the  Britons,  who,  relying  too 
much  on  their  oracle,  Merlinus  Sylvester,  who  had  said  that 
when  a  strong  Prince  with  a  freckled  face  should  pass  that  ford, 
the  British  forces  should  be  vanquished.  (Oamden  in  Mon- 
mouthshire.)    See  Gwasgargerdd  Vyrddin, 

Pencarreg. 

Pencoet,  nomen  loci,  qu.  South  Wales  ?  (Caradoe,)  Gwaith 
Pencoet,  where  a  battle  was  fought  between  the  Britons  and 
Saxons,  and  the  latter  defeated.     (Garadoc,  p.  14c,  a.d.  721.) 

Pencraig,  a  gentleman's  seat,  Anglesey. 

Penda  or  PEANDA,King  of  Mercia,brether-in-law  of  CadwaUon, 
and  his  general.     ( William  Mamsbr.) 

Pendaran  (n.  pr.  v.).  Pendaran  Djrfed  (TV.  30),  cotemporary 
with  Pryderi  mab  Pwyll  Amwyn.  Pen  y  Darren  in  Gelli  GS.r, 
Glamorgan. 


CELTIC  REMAINS.  349 

Pendew,    Edynowain  Bendew. 

Pendragon,  the  cognomen  of  Uthiir,  the  father  of  Arthur, 
who,  upon  the  Britons  tlirowing  oflf  the  Eoman  yoke,  exchanged 
the  Eoman  eagle  for  a  golden  dragon  in  his  standard.  (The 
Danes  and  Scythians  had  before  a  dragon  in  their  standards.) 
This  is  the  reason  Tyssilio  [gives]  for  the  name  of  Pendragon, 
and  which  is  highly  probable.  Others  have  had  the  appellation 
of  Pendragon. 

Penegoes,  church  and  parish  in  the  deanery  of  Cyfeiliog, 
Powys,  dedicated  to  Cadfarch  Sant. 

Penerchwys  (qu.  Nercwys  ?),  a  gentleman's  seat,  where  Lly- 
welyn  ap  lorwerth,  Prince  of  North  Wales,  was  brought  up. 

Handyth  vagwyd  pefr  ymhen  Brchw^s 
Yn  oreu  Cenau  Cynan  vegys. 

Llewelyn  Vardd,  i  Ln.  ap  lorwerth. 

Penmon  Mawr,  falsely  by  Mr.  Camden  for  Penmaen  Mawr. 

Penfras.     Madog  Benfras  ap  Gr.  ap  lerwerth. 

Penfro,  q.  d.  Pen  y  Fro,  swydd  Benfro  and  Sir  Benfro  (Engl. 
Penbrokeshire),  formerly  called  Dyfed  or  Penfro  Dyfed,  the  ex- 
treme end  of  the  country  of  Dyfed ;  and  in  Latin,  Demetia.  It 
contained  eight  cantrefs  and  twenty-three  commots.  The  town 
of  Penfro,  or  Penbroke,  hath  given  name  to  one  of  those  can- 
trefs, which  is  called  Cantref  Penfro,  which  also  is  divided  into 
three  commots, — Coed  yr  Haf,  Maenor  Byrr,  and  Penfro;  so 
that  there  is  Sir  Benfro  and  Cwmmwd  Penfro,  and  Tref  Benfro. 
(Price's  Descr.) 

The  town  of  Penfro  (Penbroke)  is  called  by  Giraldus  Cam- 
brensis  the  metropolis  of  Dimetia,  He  says  that  Amulpb  de 
Montgomery  built  this  castle,  in  the  time  of  Henry  I,  with 
stakes  and  green  turf,  and  afterwards  delivered  it  to  Girald  of 
Windsor,  his  lieutenant-general,  who  was  besieged  by  the  Welsh, 
but  to  no  eflTect.  Girald  of  Windsor  afterwards  married  Nest, 
sister  of  Pr